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Atlanta, Ga 

Confederate Publishing; Company 





CHAPTER I. Maryland in its Origin, Progress and Eventual 

Relations to the Confederate Movement 3 

CHAPTER II. Maryland s First Patriotic Movement in 1861 . . 15 

CHAPTER III. Maryland s Overthrow 29 

CHAPTER IV. Marylanders Enlist and Organize to Defend 

Virginia and the Confederacy 42 

CHAPTER V. Marylanders in the Campaigns of 1861 50 

CHAPTER VI. Marylanders in 1862 under Gens. Joseph E. 

Johnston and Stonewall Jackson 63 

CHAPTER VII. Marylanders in 1 862 under Gen. Robert E. Lee 83 

CHAPTER VIII. Maryland under Federal Military Power 92 

CHAPTER IX. Maryland Artillery Second Maryland Regi 
ment Infantry First Maryland Cavalry 101 

CHAPTER X. The Maryland Line 1 14 















MACKALL, W. W 168 

MARYLAND (Map) Between pages 152 and 153 








CHAPTER I. The Partition of Virginia The Dilemma of the 
Old Dominion in 1861 Preparations for War Organization 
of Troops in Western Virginia The Unionist Convention 
Organization of the State of West Virginia 3 

CHAPTER II. McClellan s Invasion The Affair at Philippi 
Rich Mountain and Laurel Hill Death of Garnett Opera 
tions about Romney Federal Occupation of the Kanawha 
Valley Fight at Scary Creek Loring at Cheat Mountain. . 14 

CHAPTER III. Operations under Gen. R. E. Lee Floyd 
and Wise in the Kanawha Valley Battle of Carnifix Ferry 
Lee s Cheat Mountain Campaign Sewell Mountain 
Camp Bartow Camp Alleghany Floyd s Cotton Hill Cam- 

CH APTER/iv. Operations in the Northeast Keliey s Cam 
paign against Romney Stonewall Jackson in Command 
in the Shenandoah Valley His Campaign to Bath and 
Romney 48 

CHAPTER V. Battle of McDowell The Princeton Campaign 
Loring s Advance Down the Kanawha Valley Battle of 
Fayetteville Occupation of Charleston Jenkins Enters 
Ohio Echols in Command Imboden s Operations 56 

CHAPTER VI. Operations of 1863 Jones and Imboden s 
Raid against the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Jenkins 
Raid to Point Pleasant Expeditions to Beverly and Wythe- 
ville Battles of White Sulphur Springs and Droop Mount 
ain Averell s Raid to Salem 72 

CHAPTER VII. Operations of 1864-65 Expeditions of Fitz- 
hugh Lee and Rosser Exploits of Gilmor and McNeill 
Organization of the Army of Western Virginia Battle ot 
Cloyd s Mountain New Market Lynchburg Retreat of 
Hunter through West Virginia Witcher s Raids Other 
Brilliant Exploits 90 

CHAPTER VIII. Miscellaneous Data Notes on the Contribu 
tions of Various Counties to the Confederate Service Rec 
ords of the Twenty-fifth and Thirty-first Regiments 105 

APPENDIX McNeill and His Rangers 116 







WEST VIRGINIA, PART OF (Map) Pages 20, 56 and 76 










WHEN the New World was disclosed to the Old, the 
belief of all civilized people was that the heathen 
had no rights which Christians ought to respect 
that he and his country belonged of right to the 
strongest taker; and it became a curious article of a 
more curious faith that murder and robbery were efficient 
means for propagating the faith of Christ and magnify 
ing the glory of God. 

The Pope made short work of the whole matter, for he 
divided the new world east and west by a degree of longi 
tude and made a present of one-half to the Spaniard 
and the other half to the Portuguese "Ad majoram glori- 
am Dei" to the greater glory of God. This process of 
simple division was not satisfactory to the fair-haired, 
blue-eyed race that dominated the island in the North Sea. 
Love of enterprise, commercial daring, politics, relig 
ious conditions all contributed to stimulate exploration 
and investigation. One Englishman spent his life search 
ing for El Dorado the land where gold abounded; a 
Spaniard spent his hunting the "Fons Vitse" the foun 
tain of perpetual youth, the waters of which renew for 
ever the waning forces of vitality. But while the Span 
iard ransacked two continents for silver and gold, found 
them and ruined his posterity, the French, actuated by no 
nobler ideals, made settlements in North America, the 
main inspiration of which was the desire to possess the 
great fisheries on the north-eastern coast. The English, 
in the main, had higher aims, and wider, larger aspira 
tions. Political conditions at home exasperated religious 



differences, and the only hope of liberty seemed to be to 
transplant the old institutions of Britain liberty of per 
son, security of property, freedom of thought to the 
wilderness, and there secure them forever by the ancient 
safeguards devised by the experience, the wisdom and the 
courage of their ancestors habeas corpus, trial by jury, 
representative self government. So, at the beginning of 
the seventeenth century, many gentlemen in England 
emigrated with their property and their servants to the 
forests of New England, then including the north conti 
nent from the lakes to the gulf. With them they carried 
the opinions of their time and generation. The posses 
sion of the heathen was lawful and laudable sport for 
Christian men, and they straightway put them to the 
sword, seized their lands, their wives and their children, 
and divided them and all prisoners taken in war as slaves 
of the conquerors. This was the universal rule among all 
the English except in Pennsylvania and in Maryland. In 
the first the influence of Penn, in the last that of the Jes 
uits, saved them from such crimes against humanity. 
But the necessities of the new society, the constant strug 
gle with nature, the forest, the flood, the fire, all made in 
voluntary and controlled labor exceedingly valuable, con 
venient, comfortable and necessary. And when to the cap 
tive Indians were added cargoes of savage, cannibal Afri 
cans, no man could deny that it was a Christian duty to 
civilize them and teach them to work. Therefore, invol 
untary servitude existed in all the English colonies from 
the very first, and it was not until the American revolu 
tion stirred up generalizings and theories about the rights 
of man, that the idea got abroad that slavery was wrong. 
In the New England States it had long ceased to be nec 
essary, for population had increased and roads been con 
structed, so that society was able to protect itself. It was 
troublesome, annoying, unprofitable. Slaves of different 
races Indian, white and negro confused the social or 
der, and it was best to get rid of them. But it was not as 


a moral question, but as an economical one, that it was 
dealt with. 

So when the Constitution of the United States and the 
Union by, through and under it were framed, formed 
and organized, it was silent on the subject of slavery by 
name, but provided for its protection by requiring that 
persons held to service, escaping from one State to another, 
should be delivered and returned to their masters on 
demand. Without this provision no constitution could 
have been adopted and no union formed 

But the cotton-gin was invented, by which the cultiva 
tion of cotton became extremely profitable and slaves be 
came valuable property. There was a great movement of 
capital and population to the cotton country, and the new 
States rapidly grew up and demanded admission into the 
Union. By the gradual abolition of slavery north of the 
Chesapeake the free States had been approaching control 
of the Senate of the United States, until the cotton-gin re 
versed the order, and it seemed as if the slave States would 
secure permanent control of the Union. 

Then began an agitation in the North, superficially mor 
al and religious, but really and substantially political ; 
professedly to do away with the great crime of slavery, in 
fact to check and destroy the aggrandizement of the 
Southern power. The first clear issue between the forces 
was on the application of Missouri to be admitted as a State 
of the Union. Missouri was a slave State and her admission 
would destroy the equilibrium between the two systems 
in the Senate of the United States. So Missouri was 
kept out until a free State could be hitched to her and 
thus the balance of power preserved. This was in 
1821. In divers ways the struggle between the powers 
exhibited itself. Congress for years had levied duties on 
imports, whereby Northern manufacturers were encour 
aged and protected. Northern manufacturers were en 
riched and the rest of the country taxed for their benefit. 
In 1831 a tariff law was passed which was resisted by 


South Carolina, and the issue of arms was only averted by 
the retreat of the Federal government, by concession and 
by compromise. 

The king of England at the beginning of the seventeenth 
century claimed the proprietorship of the North American 
continent, which claim was disputed by the Spaniard in 
the South and the French in the North. New England 
was hemmed and bounded by New Spain, New France, 
and the ambition and the courage and enterprise of Eng 
land were roused to the conquest of the new world. The 
spirit that had shattered the Grand Armada and won for 
commerce the freedom of the seas, was directed to new 
countries and new States to be founded in North America, 
where the institutions, the habits, the sentiment and the 
society of their ancestors were to be transplanted, cultivat 
ed and developed, as they had been a thousand years be 
fore from the forests of Germany to the shores of Britain. 
The leading nobility and gentry, sailors, soldiers, and 
merchants of England were aroused to this great enter 
prise. They formed the Virginia company and received 
a grant from the king of that part of North America un 
occupied by French or Spaniards. The enterprise of set 
tlement, transportation and support of colonies proved too 
much for the company, and its grant was taken away with 
its charter, and the crown resumed its rights. Then 
grants were made to individual proprietors. Noblemen 
and gentlemen about the court secured these great fav 
ors, which they hoped would be the foundation of fortune 
to their posterity, just as the grants of the Norman con 
queror had founded great houses and families which had 
controlled England for six centuries. Among them was 
Sir George Calvert, a Yorkshire knight of moderate for 
tune, but of an old family, whose ancestors had filled im 
portant offices in the Low Countries under the kings of 
Spain, and high positions at the court of France. He, 
in association with Sir Francis Arundel of Wardvin (whose 
daughter, Lady Anne Arundel, his son Coecilius married, 


applied for grants of land in the new country. Both died 
before the grant was prepared, and Coecilius Calvert then 
procured to be framed a charter or grant, which was the 
wisest and most liberal in its terms of any issued up to that 
time to an English subject. The charter granted to him 
and his heirs forever the territory on the north of the Poto 
mac, and extending from the Atlantic ocean to the first 
springs of the Potomac, and along the 4oth degree of north 
latitude from the Delaware river to the meridian of the 
first fountain of the Potomac river. Together with this 
great grant of land and water, about 13,000 square miles, 
the proprietary was vested with all the powers of the Bish 
op of Durham, who from the earliest times had exercised 
absolute dominion over the palatinate of Durham and such 
power of martial law as was necessary in tempestuous 
times to preserve society and protect the border. The 
charter provided for self-government by the freemen; it 
secured them all the rights of Englishmen, and laid the 
solid foundation of a happy, friendly, contented society. 
The proprietary, in his capacity of palatine, regulated 
social laws and behavior. The motto of the Calverts is 
"Fatti Maschii, Parole Foemine" Deeds are manly, words 
are womanly, or as it has always been rendered, "Cour 
age and Chivalry." The standard of the proprietary was 
borne in battle by a grand standard-bearer, who was an offi 
cer of great dignity and authority. One was killed at the 
battle of the Severn, between the Cavaliers and Round 
heads, in 1654, and his widow received a grant of land 
and was treated with great distinction by the proprietary. 
But the controlling force of the colony was the spirit of 
Baltimore, who in his instructions to his governors insist 
ed that there should be no broils about religion or politics. 
Every man should be secured in the right to his opinion. 
Free thought was guaranteed to every Man-lander, and 
free speech as well, except so far as free speech infringed 
on the rights of his neighbors, when it was strictly sup 
pressed. Therefore, in the very foundation of Maryland 


was deeply laid the idea of toleration of different opinions 
among neighbors, of consideration for their feelings, and, 
as a logical consequence, of readiness at all times to help 
them, to protect them, and to assist them in all the strug 
gles of life. There never was a more homogeneous, 
sentimental society than that planted on the Chesapeake. 
"One for all and all for one" was the animating spirit 
for generations. 

While the northern settlements were torn and blood- 
drenched and fire-blasted by intolerance, when the flames 
of burning witches lighted New England, and the air 
echoed with the lash of whipped Baptists, no man was ever 
molested for his opinions in Maryland while Marylanders 
controlled the palatinate. Several times during that 
stormy epoch, which cost a king his crown in England 
and the people their liberties, there had been struggles be 
tween the Cavalier and Roundhead parties in Maryland, 
in which the latter were successful as their friends and 
relatives in England had been. But in all that tension of 
feeling there was never but one issue of arms in which 
blood was spilled. Therefore Maryland grew and pros 
pered without those bitter memories which in New Eng 
land and in Virginia separated class from class and divided 
neighbor from neighbor. And whenever their neighbors 
on the south side of the Potomac were harassed by the sav 
ages on their borders, the Marylanders were prompt and 
generous in spending life, blood, and treasure in their 
defense. There never was an Indian war in Maryland. 
The policy of the palatine, so broad and generous and 
just, prevented quarrels with the natives, and they were 
always friendly with the Marylanders. There were bloody 
invasions from south of the great river, from the west 
and from the north, but no rising ever occurred of Mary 
land Indians. Generosity with justice was the funda 
mental rule of dealing with them, and this rule of right 
acts upon all who practice it, as well as upon those on 
whom it is practiced. Respect for the weak, regard for 


the truth, a willingness and a desire to help those who 
need help, become controlling principles of life, and sel 
fishness is eradicated as much as it is possible for human 
nature to be changed. 

Thus developed the Maryland character. Love of 
country and of friends, regard for truth and justice, toler 
ation of differences of opinion, for five generations had 
been the directing influence of their lives. So when in 
1774 news came that the people of Boston had been shot 
down in their streets by men in red coats, the people rose 
as one man. From Mills Creek, whence Braddock had 
marched twenty years before to disaster and death, to St. 
Mary s, where free thought had been proclaimed first in 
all the world, the men of Maryland mustered in companies 
and battalions, and in two weeks the province was organ 
ized for defense. It raised money and provisions which 
it sent to Boston, and, inasmuch as the port of Boston was 
closed to trade, formed an association pledging the people 
of Maryland, men, women and children, never to use any 
imported goods until justice was done to Boston, just as 
ten years before it had refused to recognize the Stamp 
Act. When the farmers of New England met and drove 
the British regulars at Breed s Hill, the prompt response 
of Maryland was a battalion of riflemen which marched 
from Frederick to Boston, 550 miles, to reinforce their 
brethren. Maryland had no interest in this fight. She 
enjoyed a just and liberal government. Her people made 
their own laws, levied their own taxes and expended 
them for their own benefit, and there was no friction be 
tween them and the government. Their governor, Sir 
Robert Eden, was one of the most popular gentlemen in 
the province. But when the word went out that Boston 
needed assistance, every country committee, every court, 
every provincial assembly proclaimed with one voice, 
"The cause of Boston is the cause of all," and from that 
hour to the signature of the definite treaty of peace, Mary 
land never faltered in her support of the cause of her 

Md 2 


friends and neighbors. She lavished her last man and 
her last dollar to sustain that cause. No British soldier 
ever trod the soil of Maryland except during the short 
march from the head of Elk to Brandywine. She was 
never invaded, she was never molested ; but she was true 
to her friends. There were no Tories in Maryland. A 
loyalist regiment was formed on the eastern shore, but its 
elements were so inefficient and incongruous that it was 
at once removed to Nova Scotia, where it perished from 
the memory of man and left hardly a trace behind. 

Such were the men who moulded, formed and developed 
the society which was to face the crisis and do the duty 
of the times of 1859-65. It is our duty to tell how they 
did it. 

In all discussions Maryland was on the side of the 
Union. She had given Colonel Washington, of Vir 
ginia, to the continental army as its commander-in chief, 
by and through her deputy in Congress in 1775, Thomas 
Johnson. She had made the first move for the Union in 
1785. She had supported Washington all through the 
war and in the subsequent struggles and differences about 
the articles of Confederation, the Constitution and the 
Union. When, therefore, a party arose in the North 
which inculcated hatred toward the South, Maryland ab 
horred the apostles of malice and ill-will and sympathized 
more closely with the minority and weaker party. * Fatti 
Maschii, Parole Foemine" was the controlling sentiment 
of the men whose ancestors had stood with Stirling at 
Long Island until they were destroyed and the American 
army saved; whose charge at Eutaw had saved Greene s 
army ; whose dash at Cowpens had driven the British line ; 
whose bayonets at Guilford had broken the solid front of 
the Grenadier Guards these men all believed in standing 
by their friends, reckless of risk, regardless of conse 
quences. "With my friend right or wrong with my 
friend" is the complement of the State motto, "Courage 
and Chivalry." 


So, as it became clearer in 1858-59-60 that the aggres 
sions and attacks of the North on Southern society were 
not to be confined to discussion and vituperation, but 
were to be directed by physical force, Maryland, though 
utterly and entirely opposed to secession, or disunion, as 
a remedy or relief, still began to prepare herself for an 
uncertain future. Her legislature in 1860 appropriated 
seventy thousand dollars to arm the militia of the State 
and entrusted the distribution of them to Thomas Holli- 
day Hicks, governor, and his adjutant-general. 

In 1859, the Democratic party, then struggling to rescue 
the State from the Know Nothings, whose governor 
Hicks was, selected Bradley T. Johnson as chairman of 
the State committee and the direction of the struggle was 
entrusted to his hands. In 1860 he was a delegate from 
Maryland to the Democratic national convention at 
Charleston and represented Maryland in the committee 
on resolutions. In that committee Maryland always voted 
with the Southern States. When that convention held 
its adjourned meeting in Baltimore, the majority of the 
Maryland delegation, with the chairman of its State com 
mittee, withdrew with the Southern States and united in 
nominating Brcckinridge and Lane, and Maryland voted 
for Breckinridge and Lane when Virginia was divided and 
other Southern States failed to support the movement. 
After November, 1860, it became clear to the younger 
men that war was imminent. In high excitement and 
peril young men see more clearly than old men. They 
have more energy, more clearness of vision, more prompt 
ness, more decision. They were all ardent sympathizers 
with the South. The old men the ex-governors, ex- 
United States senators, ex-judges all brought the weight 
of their characters to bear against connecting Maryland 
with the secession movement. And there was a profound 
disapprobation all through the State, with all classes, 
against any attempt to dismember the Union. But two per 
cent of her people were in favor of disunion. Some few of 


the young men, ardent, impetuous, devoted to ideas, be 
lieved that disunion was the only possible relief from the 
constant insults and aggressions of the North, its oppres 
sion and its selfish power. They were convinced that with 
the political power in the hands of a section and a party, the 
cardinal dogma of whose faith was, " He shall take who 
hath the power, and he shall keep who can ! " all the 
power of government would be directed toward the ag 
grandizement, the pecuniary aggrandizement, of those 
who wielded it, and that the minority in numbers and in 
wealth would become the serfs of the strongest, just as 
had been the case in all history. They thought that 
wealth would flow from the many to the few ; that capital 
would accumulate in sections and in classes, as it had 
done in the dead hands of religious corporations in Eng 
land before Henry VIII, and then dispersed and distrib 
uted by his revolutionary measures, and just as the feud 
al system all over Western Europe had built up in the 
middle ages concentrated power of the barons, who owned 
all the land, reduced the people to vassalage and produced 
the French Revolution and its horrors of blood and fire. 
They believed that Northern society, directed by the 
same principles, without conscience, without sense of 
right or justice, would evolve the same conditions with 
the same consequences, and that the only salvation for 
Southern society was absolute and entire separation under 
a different government ; that slavery furnished the only 
solution of self-government based on universal suffrage, 
and the only organization of labor and capital which had 
survived, or could survive the change of social conditions 
in ages of development and progress. They were dis- 
umomsts per se ; but they were few and scattered and ex 
erted no influence on the public opinion. Their enthusi 
asm, their earnest conviction, did impress themselves on 
the mass, and when the time came the fire of their ardor 
kindled the State from mountain to ocean. 


So the time went on. State after State of the South 
seceded from the Union. State after State of the North 
organized, armed and drilled her militia. In February, 
1 86 1, the Southern party of Maryland, led by the young 
men, called a conference convention to meet in Balti 
more to confer together and decide what the honor and 
the interests of Maryland required her to do in the crisis. 
Honor first interest last! That conference met and 
was such a demonstration of physical strength, of resolute 
purpose and of intelligent design, that it alarmed the 
conservative sentiment. But in February no action could 
be taken. Virginia had not moved, and it was uncertain 
how or when she would move, for the South or against it. 

The governor of Maryland, Thomas Holliday Hicks, 
professed to be an ardent Southern man. The young 
men did not believe him, put no confidence in him. The 
old men, Union to the core, oldJWhigs, conservative by 
education and by nature, did trust him and insisted that 
Maryland should do nothing without the action of her 
constituted authorities, her governor and her legislature. 
The party of action urged a call of the general assembly. 
The governor protested that he was then in correspond 
ence with the governors of the border States and that they 
would devise and execute means to save the Union and to 
preserve the peace. The conference adjourned until the 
middle of March, by which time Lincoln would be inaug 
urated and the Federal government pass from the hands 
of the State rights Democracy to the successors of the 
Federal party that Jefferson and the Democracy had ex 
pelled in John Adams time. 

In Lincoln s inaugural he avowed the determination of 
the party in power " to retake, reoccupy and repossess the 
forts, arsenals, dock-yards and other property of the 
United States which had been seized in the Southern 
States by State authority." This meant war! But still 
the conservatives of Maryland could not understand it. 
They clung to their idea that talk, palaver, negotiation 


would weather the storm, and that the tornado could be 
stilled by resolving and asserting that the wind was not 
blowing. As soon as the conference convention reas 
sembled on the 1 2th of March in Baltimore, the party of 
action asserted itself. Judge Chambers, ex-United States 
senator and ex-judge of the court of appeals, was made 
president, and a committee on resolutions appointed. 
The majority of the committee reported a set of resolu 
tions of generalities devotion to the Union, and opposi 
tion to disorder and disturbance of the public peace. 
The minority, through the chairman of the State commit 
tee, who was a member of the conference and of the com 
mittee, reported that any "attempt by the Federal gov 
ernment to retake, reoccupy or repossess the forts, arsen 
als and dock-yards now controlled by the Southern States, 
would be an act of war by the Federal government on the 
States, would operate ipso facto as a dissolution of the 
Union, and would remit to each State its original sov 
ereign right to provide for its own safety and welfare, in 
any manner it decided to pursue." These resolutions 
would have been passed, but they met such violent op 
position from the old men ( Judge Chambers declared he 
would leave the chair and the convention if they were 
passed) that their author left the conference in disgust 
and returned home, where he promptly organized a mil 
itary company for home defense and to resist invasion by 
foreign troops moving from the North to attack the South. 
The conference sent commissioners to Richmond to learn 
from the convention there in session what was the pros 
pect of Virginia s taking position. They could learn 
nothing, for Virginia herself did not know. 



ON April 12, 1861, South Carolina fired on Fort Sum- 
ter, and on April i5th President Lincoln issued his 
proclamation, calling on the States for 75,000 mil 
itia "to maintain the Union and to redress wrongs 
already too long endured. He did not specify the wrongs 
nor the period of endurance. With the proclamation 
went out from the secretary of war a requisition on the 
governors of each of the States for the State s quota of 
the 75,000 troops. Virginia promptly responded by 
passing her ordinance of secession on the iyth, not, how 
ever, to take effect until it had been ratified by a vote of 
the people, to be cast on the 24th of May; and the gov 
ernor of Virginia, John Letcher, moved Virginia troops 
to Harper s Ferry and "retook, reoccupied and repos 
sessed" that property of Virginia which she had ceded to 
the Union for the common welfare and mutual benefit of 
all the States, East and West, North and South. Now 
that it was being diverted to the injury of part and the 
exclusive use of one section, Virginia resumed the control 
of her ancient territory. Had she had the power, she 
would have had the right "to resume possession, con 
trol and sovereignty" of all the six States she had ceded 
to the Union, northwest of the Ohio river. But, alas, 
her own children, born of her blood and bred of her loins, 
were foremost in striking at the heart and life of their 
mother. The Northwest was the most ardent in "sup 
pressing the rebellion, "the forerunner of which had been 
independence from the British nation and the right of 
self-government for the English in America, and had 
breathed into their nostrils the breath of Statehood. 



With the defiance of old Virginia, went that of North 
Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky and Missouri, who 
spurned the demand of the government back of it for 
men and arms to make war on brethren, kinsmen and 
fellow citizens. Kentucky tried the impracticable role of 
neutrality, but she was soon overrun by Federal troops. 
Governor Hicks assured the people that no troops should 
be sent from Maryland, unless it was to defend the na 
tional capital. The mayor of Baltimore, George William 
Brown, also issued his proclamation, expressing his satis 
faction that no troops would be sent from Maryland to 
the soil of any other State. "If the counsels of the gov 
ernor," he said, " shall be heeded, we may rest secure in 
the confidence that the storm of civil war which now 
threatens the country will at least pass over our beloved 
State and leave it unharmed, but if they shall be disre 
garded a fearful and fratricidal strife may at once burst 
out in our midst." So the governor and the mayor. 
The first knew well that in the strife of the elements, 
which was about to burst, in which the foundations of 
the mountains would be broken up and the winds of the 
tempest would sweep the land, the cry of "Peace! 
Peace!" was but the whining of babes for Governor 
Hicks was no fool. He was a shrewd, sharp, positive 
man. He knew what he wanted and he took efficient 
means to procure it. He wanted to save Maryland 
to the Northern States. He believed the Union was 
gone. In the Southern Confederacy, Maryland must, in 
his opinion, play a subordinate part and he, himself, fall 
back into the political obscurity from which he had been 
recently raised. With the North, Maryland in possession 
of the national capital, protected by the Northern navy 
through her bay and great rivers, would be a conspicuous 
power, and he, as her governor, would fill a distinguished 
role. He knew that Maryland was as ardently Southern 
as Virginia. The Marylanders are the more excitable 
race. They are ardent, sympathetic and enthusiastic. 


And they were afire at the threat of invasion of Virginia. 
Had the governor hinted at his ulterior hopes and de 
signs at his purpose to keep Maryland quiet until she 
could be occupied by Northern troops and delivered, tied 
and manacled, to the Union authorities had he given 
open ground for suspicion of treachery, the State would 
have risen, he would have been expelled, his government 
eradicated, and a revolutionary government of action in 

Mayor Brown was a high-minded, just and honorable 
gentleman. But he was a lawyer and an old man. He 
was devoted to his State and to his city, and no purer 
patriot ever lived than George William Brown. But he 
believed in lazv ; he could conceive of nothing higher than 
law. Force to him meant riot, and in a great city riot 
always means arson, robbery, murder and license. The 
mayor believed that with the police and the fire depart 
ments he could control revolution and subdue the fires of 
insurrection. He faithfully did his duty as he saw it. 
He and his police commissioners tried to keep the peace, 
and in three months all were landed in Federal prisons, 
where they were incarcerated for fourteen months, beyond 
the reach of habeas corpus, without charge or indictment. 
Maryland thus suffered "the crucifixion of the soul," for 
her heart was with the Confederacy and her body bound 
and manacled to the Union. 

On April i8th a battery of United States artillery under 
Major Pemberton, accompanied by six companies of un 
armed Pennsylvania militia, arrived by the Northern 
Central railroad from Harrisburg at Baltimore and 
marched via Howard street to the Baltimore & Ohio rail 
road station at Camden street, whence they were promptly 
dispatched to Washington. They were escorted through 
the city by a howling mob, who displayed secession flags 
(the Palmetto flag of South Carolina being conspicuous), 
and who emphasized their feelings by cheers for "Jeff 
Davis and the Southern Confederacy." They were un- 



armed and as weak looking as a drove of cattle as the 
regulars escorted them through the streets. But the tele 
graph flamed out the news of the secession of Virginia, 
and at night the story of the capture of Harper s Ferry 
by the Virginia troops, with whom were Marylanders led 
by Bradley Johnson. The town was afire the night of 
the 1 8th. From all quarters came tidings of troops 
from the North and West, concentrating on Baltimore. 
The efficient militia of Massachusetts, under Maj.-Gen. 
Benjamin F. Butler, a man of ability, vigor and executive 
capacity, were on the march to protect the capital and to 
save the nation. 

The New York Seventh, the ideal soldiers of peace 
parades, but in reality a gallant and game set, was filling 
its ranks, its cartridge boxes and its haversacks, and 
standing at attention, waiting word of command and tap of 
drum. Pennsylvania was rallying to the call of her great 
governor. The Democracy of the West, roused by Doug 
las, was rising as one man to defend the flag, and one 
serried, unbroken line of steel stretched from the northeast 
corner of Maine to the Mississippi river, ready to march 
forward to invade, to crush and to conquer the South. 
There could be no misunderstanding as to the meaning 
of all this. It meant war nothing but war. War by one 
section on another. War urged on by hatred, by malice, 
by greed, by desire for conquest, to overthrow institu 
tions existing before the republic, to destroy a social 
order which had given the world soldiers, statesmen and 
philosophers, the peers of any who had ever lived. The 
common people of Maryland understood it. The plain 
people think with their hearts, and hearts on questions 
of right and wrong are more unerring than heads. They 
were all for the South, and they were all for arming and 
fighting fighting there on the spot the first man or 
men who should presume to attempt to cross Maryland 
to get at Virginia. But the upper class is always con 
servative. The ex-governors, the ex- senators, the ex- 


judges everywhere are always afraid. The have beens 
ever recur to the peaceful times when they directed 
affairs, and always will be abhorrent of noise, of tumult, 
of violence, of force and of change. They cannot be 
leaders in revolution. Maryland at this crisis of her his 
tory was cursed by just such "conservatism." It was 
caused by her geographical position. She could only 
follow. She can never lead in such a crisis. She lacked 
young leaders. Kentucky was in a worse situation, for 
her leaders led her into the quagmire of neutrality. 
Missouri was better off, for Jackson and Price on the one 
side and Frank Blair on the other were positive men, and 
promptly ranged the people of the State in arms, for their 
respective sides. Maryland had sons who were educated 
soldiers. Robert Milligan McLane came of soldier blood. 
His grandfather, Allan McLane, had been the comrade 
of Light Horse Harry in the campaign of Valley Forge 
and had led the Delaware Legion, as Lee had the Vir 
ginians. McLane graduated at West Point, served with 
distinction in the Florida campaign, but after that left 
the army and entered politics in Maryland. He had 
served in the State legislature, as representative in Con 
gress from Maryland, and occupied a conspicuous place 
in the confidence of the State rights Southern people of 
Maryland. George W. Hughes had served with distinc 
tion for many years in the army of the United States and 
had won the grade of colonel in Mexico. He was now 
living in affluence and retirement on his plantation in 
Anne Arundel county. The party of action, the young 
men, looked to these old soldiers for advice and leader 
ship. But they were too old soldiers to plunge into a 
fight without troops, arms, ammunition or a commissary 
department. Bradley Johnson and other young men 
were ready, but they had neither the experience nor the 
knowledge to qualify them for immediate leadership. 

So on the night of April 18, 1861, Maryland was stand 
ing alert, braced up, ready to charge at the word. Vir- 


ginia had seceded, the North was marching. Maryland 
was the outpost to receive the first attack. At that hour 
there was no division of opinion. The State rights clubs 
had been flying the secession flag, the stars and bars of 
the Confederacy, and the palmetto of South Carolina. 
The Union clubs had over their halls the stars and 
stripes; but during the afternoon of April i8th the Union 
flags were hauled down and the State flag of Maryland 
everywhere substituted. And the black and gold was 
everywhere saluted with cheers, with shouts, with 
tears. The telegraph gave hourly notice of the approach 
of the enemy. General Butler had left Boston ; he had 
passed New York; he had gone through Philadelphia; 
he was on the Susquehanna. What next? Maryland 
held her breath . Through New England their route had 
been an ovation. Down Broadway in New York the peo 
ple went wild, as they did through New Jersey and Phil 
adelphia. There were eleven companies of Massachusetts 
troops attached to the Sixth Massachusetts under com 
mand of Colonel Jones. At Philadelphia an unarmed 
and ununiformed mob of Pennsylvanians, called a regi 
ment, under Colonel Small, was added to Colonel Jones 
command. They came in a train of thirty-five cars and ar 
rived at the President street station at u a. m. Thence 
it was the custom of the railroad company to haul each 
car across the city, over a track laid in the street, to Cam- 
den station of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, a dis 
tance of a little over a mile. Nine cars with seven com 
panies got through to Camden station. But that was as 
much as human nature could bear. The mob of infuri 
ated men increased every minute and the excitement 
grew. The stones out of the street flew up and staved 
in the car windows. The drivers unhitched their teams, 
hitched to the rear of their cars and made all haste back 
to President Street station, where had been left the un 
armed Pennsylvanians and the rest of the Massachusetts 
regiment. These men were marched out of the station, 


formed in front of it, and then moved in a column of fours 
toward Camden station. In the meantime the railroad 
track had been torn up, the bridge on the south dis 
mantled and obstructed, and the march of the troops was 
necessarily laborious and very slow. The streets were 
packed with a dense mass of infuriated and excited men, 
encouraged by the apparent retreat of the troops and the 
success of the opposition to them. The foremost files had 
to force their way through this pack of humanity. George 
William Brown, mayor of the town, with a gallantry and 
chivalry beyond imagination, for he was a Southern man 
and certified his fidelity by fourteen months imprison 
ment in Union dungeons, placed himself by the side of 
the captain of the leading company and forced their way 
through the crowd. No man in Baltimore was more 
loved, respected and admired than Brown, and his escort 
of the " invader " was submitted to while he was present. 
But as soon as he had passed stones began to hail on the 
column. The officers became rattled. Instead of halt 
ing and confronting their enemy, they accelerated the 
step until the march became a half run. Then a pistol 
went off ; then a musket ; then two muskets, three muskets 
cracked, and citizens fell and died in their tracks. Then 
reason fled. The mob tore the muskets out of the hands 
of the soldiers and shot them down. One man jerked 
the sword out of the hand of an officer and ran him 
through with it. Frank Ward, a young lawyer, snatched 
the flag out of the hands of the color bearer and tore it 
from the lance, and while making off with it was shot 
through both thighs. He survived though, to serve gal 
lantly as adjutant of the First Maryland regiment, and is 
alive to-day. Marshal Kane had gone to the Camden sta 
tion to protect the troops there, when news came of this 
melee on Pratt street. He swung fifty policemen down 
the street in a double-quick, formed them across the street 
in the rear of the soldiers and ordered their pursuers to 
"halt." They halted, and then with the mayor of Balti- 


more in front, the chief of police in rear, the baited, har 
ried, breathless preservers of the Union reached Cam den 
station, where they were loaded on trains and dispatched, 
panic-stricken, to Washington. 

Outside the city limits, however, after the danger had 
passed, some heroic soul signalized his devotion to the 
flag by shooting in cold blood Robert W. Davis, a repu 
table and well-known citizen and merchant, whose 
crime was alleged to have been a cheer for Jeff Davis 
and the South. That evening, April ipth, Marshal Kane 
telegraphed to Bradley T. Johnson at Frederick: 
" Streets red with Maryland blood. Send expresses over 
the mountains of Maryland and Virginia for the riflemen 
to come, without delay. Fresh hordes will be down on 
us to-morrow. We will fight them and whip them or die. 

Johnson, since the failure of the conference convention 
of March to act, had been engaged in organizing com 
panies of minute men to resist invasion, by bushwhacking 
or any other practicable method. He had corresponded 
with the captains of many volunteer companies in the 
State, and all were moving toward concert of action. 
The receipt of Kane s telegram was the match to the mag 
azine. By seven o clock on the 2oth the Frederick com 
pany was assembled, took possession of the moving train 
on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad to Baltimore, and by 
eleven o clock marched down Baltimore street to Monu 
ment Square. Monument Square was the forum of Balti 
more, where the citizens always assembled in times of 
peril to consult and determine that the commonweal 
should receive no harm. They were the first reinforce 
ments to Baltimore. Next came two troops of cavalry 
from Baltimore county, and next the Patapsco Dragoons 
from Anne Arundel rode straight to the city hall and pre 
sented themselves to Mayor Brown to assist in the defense 
of the city. The afternoon papers of the ipth spread all 
over the State during the next day, and the State rose. 
Early on the morning of the 2oth the city council ap- 


propriated $500,000 for the defense of the city, to be used 
at the discretion of the mayor. The banks furnished the 
money in two hours. Capt. Wilson Carey Nicholas, 
with the Garrison Forest Rangers afterward Company 
G. , First Maryland regiment, seized the United States 
arsenal at Pikesville, where there was a deposit of anti 
quated arms and a considerable supply of gunpowder. 
All the city companies of militia were under arms in their 
armories. Col. Benjamin Huger, of South Carolina, who 
had been in command at Pikesville for some years, but 
who had just resigned from the army of the United States, 
was made colonel of the Fifty-third regiment, Maryland 
militia, composed of the Independent Grays and the six 
companies of the Maryland Guard. The command was ad 
mirably instructed, drilled and officered, and a majority of 
its officers and men afterward served in the army of the 
Confederate States. The mayor issued a notice calling 
on all citizens who had arms to deposit them with the 
commissioner of police, to be used in the defense of the 
city, and upon all who were willing to enroll themselves 
for military service. Under this call over fifteen thou 
sand volunteers were enrolled and partly organized on 
Saturday, the 2oth, and Col. Isaac R. Trimble was as 
signed to command them. The railroad stations and 
State tobacco warehouses were used for drill rooms. On 
Saturday night the bridges on the railroads leaving north 
from Baltimore were burnt or disabled by a detachment 
of police and of the Maryland Guard, acting under the 
orders of Governor Hicks. The governor was in Balti 
more during the attack on the troops and was carried off 
his feet and out of his head by the furor of the hour. He 
gave the order to burn the bridges. He afterward stren 
uously denied giving it, but he gave it. 

On Sunday morning, April 2ist, the Howard County 
Dragoons, Capt. George R. Earltree, came in, and by 
the boat two companies from Easton, and news came that 
the companies from Harford, Cecil, Carroll and Prince 


George s were on the march. Three batteries of light 
artillery were out on the streets, and the city was braced 
up in tense excitement. 

Just after the people had gone to church on that 
day, about half-past ten, two men rode down Charles 
Street, in a sweeping gallop, from beyond the bound 
ary to Lexington and down Lexington to the city hall. 
They shouted as they flashed by, " The Yankees are com 
ing, the Yankees are coming!" Twenty-four hundred of 
Pennsylvania troops, only half of them armed, had got as 
far as Cockeysville, twenty miles from Baltimore, where 
they had been stopped by the burnt bridges, and had 
gone into camp. These couriers of disaster brought the 
news of this fresh invasion and it flashed through the 
city like an electric shock. The churches dismissed their 
congregations, their bells rang, and in the twinkling of 
an eye the streets were packed with people men and 
women in the hysterics of excitement pressing guns, 
pistols, fowling pieces, swords, daggers, bowie knives, 
every variety of weapon, upon the men and beseeching 
them to drive back the hated invader. In an hour Mon 
ument Square was packed, crammed with such a mass of 
quivering humanity as has rarely been seen in human 

Early that morning the mayor had gone to Washington 
on a special train to see the President and General Scott 
at the invitation of the former to the governor and mayor 
to visit him for conference as to the best way to preserve 
the peace. They arrived at an understanding that no 
more troops were to be marched through Baltimore. They 
were to be brought from Harrisburg down to the Relay 
House on the Northern Central railroad, seven miles 
north-west of the city, and thence by rail to Washington. 
General Scott proposed this plan to the President, if the 
people of Maryland would permit it and would not molest the 
troops. But if they were attacked, the general of the 
army said, he would bring troops from Perryville by 


boat to Annapolis and thence by rail to Washington. 
The President and General Scott both seemed to take it 
for granted that the Potomac would be blockaded. Mayor 
Brown returned from Washington with the assurance 
that the detachment at Cockeysville would be ordered 
back, and that no troops should attempt to pass through 
Baltimore. The wires were all cut north of the city and 
all communication by rail or telegraph between the capital 
and the Northern States was absolutely closed for several 
days. The Eighth Massachusetts, with Brig. -Gen. 
B. F. Butler, arrived at Perryville on the 2oth, took the 
steamboat Maryland, and arrived at Annapolis on the 
2 1 st. On the 22d, the governor called an extra session 
of the general assembly to meet at Annapolis on the 26th. 
On the 24th the governor, "in consequence of the ex 
traordinary state of affairs, changed the place of meeting 
to Frederick. On its meeting there the Hon. James 
Murray Mason appeared before it, as a commissioner from 
the State of Virginia authorized to conclude a treaty of 
alliance, offensive and defensive, between the two States. 
The legislature had been elected in 1859 and was charged 
with no mandate for revolutionary times. Ten members 
from Baltimore were elected at a special election held in 
that city on the 24th, in the place of the delegation re 
turned as elected in 1859, but unseated on account of 
fraud and violence at the election. The new members 
were the leading men of the town merchants, lawyers, 
representatives of the great business of commerce and 
trade of a great city. They were John C. Brune, Ross 
Winans, Henry M. Warfield, J. Hanson Thomas, T. Parkin 
Scott, H. Mason Morfit, S. Teakle Wallis, Charles H. 
Pitts, William G. Harrison, and Lawrence Langston. 
It was evident in twenty-four hours that "conservatism" 
would rule the councils of the general assembly, as it had 
done those of the governor, and that all the influence of 
that body would be exerted against any action by the 



State looking toward taking part in the revolution, which 
it was clear, was upon the whole country. 

Captain Johnson had brought back his company from 
Baltimore, armed with Hall s carbines, an antiquated and 
rejected breechloader, and had got his men into some 
sort of shape. He remained in Frederick at the request 
of the State rights members of the legislature to guard 
and protect them from the Unionists of the town, who 
were loquacious and loud in their threats against " the 
Secesh." And the legislature was prompt to range itself 
on the side of peace and Union. It met on the 26th of 
April. On the 2yth it issued an address disclaiming all 
idea, intention or authority to pass any ordinance of se 
cession. It appointed Otho Scott, Robert M. McLane and 
William J. Ross commissioners to confer with the Presi 
dent of the United States and see what arrangements 
could be made to preserve the peace of the State. On 
May 6th these commissioners reported that they had had 
an interview with the President, and that he had assured 
them that the State of Maryland, so long as she did not 
array herself against the Federal government, would not 
be molested or interfered with, except so far as it was 
necessary for the preservation of the Union. But neither gov 
ernor, general assembly nor commissioners to the Presi 
dent had the faintest conception of the real state of things 
in Maryland. She was devoted to the Union. She was 
hostile to secession. She abhorred the men who precip 
itated the Gulf States into revolution. She had no sym 
pathy with slavery, for she had emancipated more than 
half her slaves and had established a negro State of Mary 
land in Africa, where she was training her emancipated 
servants to take control of their own destiny as free men, 
and this colony she supported by annual appropriations 
out of her public taxes. There was no involuntary ser 
vitude in Maryland, for as soon as a servant became dis 
contented he or she just walked over the line into Pennsylr 
vania, where they were safely harbored and concealed. 


Therefore there was no sympathy in Maryland for the 
proceedings convulsing the Southern States. But the 
proclamation of the President, calling for 75,000 men "to 
redress wrongs already too long endured, changed the 
whole situation in the twinkling of an eye. It was no 
longer union or disunion, secession or State rights. It 
was a question of invasion and self-defense. The Presi 
dent had declared war on her sister State. Was Maryland 
to support that war, or was she to stand by with hands 
folded and see her friends and kindred beyond the Poto 
mac put to the sword and the torch? War on a State was 
against the common right. The cause of each was the 
cause of all ; and precisely as Maryland had responded in 
1775 to the cry of Massachusetts for assistance, so now did 
the people of Maryland, over governor, over general as 
sembly, over peace commissioners, respond to the call of 
Virginia. The peace commissioners reported on May 6th. 
On the 8th Captain Johnson, having secured from Mason 
an engagement that all troops that would go from Mary 
land should be promptly received into the army of the Con 
federate States, and from Colonel Jackson, in command at 
Harper s Ferry, permission to rendezvous on the Virginia 
side, opposite Point of Rocks, marched out of Frederick 
to that place, crossed the Potomac and reported to Capt. 
Turner Ashby, then posted there with his troops of 
horse. Ashby was to feed the Marylanders until further 
orders. This pioneer company showed the way, and in 
a few days detachments of companies began to straggle 
in the debris of Trimble s fifteen thousand enrolled 
volunteers in Baltimore. Some marched with a sem 
blance of order from Baltimore to the Point of Rocks. 
Some straggled in by twos and threes. Some came in 
squads on the railroad. But the State was aflame and a 
steady stream of gallant youth poured into the rendez 
vous at Point of Rocks and Harper s Ferry. By May 
2ist there were the skeletons of eight companies 
collected at Point of Rocks: 


Co. A. Capt. Bradley T. Johnson. 

Co. B. Capt. C. C. Edelin, at Harper s Ferry. 

Co. C. Capt. Frank S. Price. 

Co. D. Capt. James R. Herbert. 

Co. E. Capt. Harry McCoy. 

Co. F. Capt. Thomas G. Holbrook. 

Co. G. Capt. Wilson Carey Nicholas. 

Co. H. Capt. Harry Welmore. 

They were mustered into the service of the Con 
federate States on May 2ist and 226. by Lieut. -Col. 
George Deas, inspector-general on the staff of Gen. 
Jos. E. Johnston, who in the meantime had superseded 
Colonel Jackson in command at Harper s Ferry. Captain 
Johnson, as senior captain, refused to recognize the Vir 
ginia authorities. Relying on the promise of Mr. Mason, 
he insisted that the Mary landers should be received into 
the army of the Confederate States, and not into the 
army of Virginia. On May 21, 1861, Virginia was 
not one of the Confederate States. He believed that 
Maryland ought to be represented in the army by 
men bearing arms and her flag. It was impossible for 
her to be represented in the political department of the 
government; therefore it was of vital importance that 
the flag of Maryland should always be upheld in the 
armies of the Confederate States. In these eight com 
panies there were about five hundred men. They effected 
a temporary organization among themselves under their 
senior captain, and sent up through the regular channels 
to President Davis their application to have their bat 
talion organized into the army of the Confederate States, 
with Charles S. Winder, late captain Ninth infantry, 
U. S. A., as colonel, and Bradley T. Johnson as lieu 



WHILE the city of Baltimore was in a frenzy of ex 
citement, on Sunday, the 2ist of May, at the ap 
proach of the Pennsylvanians from Cockeyville, 
Brig. -Gen. Benjamin F. Butler, with a Massachusetts regi 
ment, landed at Annapolis, whither he had proceeded by a 
steamer from Perryville on the Susquehanna. The next 
day, the 22nd, he was reinforced by the New York Eighth 
and pushed up the Annapolis & Elkridge railroad to its 
junction with the Washington branch of the Baltimore & 
Ohio Railroad. On May 5th he took possession of the Relay 
House, nine miles from Baltimore, where the main branch 
of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad leading to Harper s Ferry 
and the West unites with the Washington branch, which 
leads to Washington, thirty miles distant. His troops 
were the Eighth New York, the Sixth Massachusetts 
and Major Cook s battery of Boston light artillery. He 
promptly fortified the position with earthworks and 
artillery. All trains going west and south were searched, 
and scouts scoured the surrounding country. On the 8th 
of May communication between Washington and the 
North was further strengthened by a new route by water 
from Perryville to Locust Point, and thence by rail to 
Washington. On the night of May i3th General Butler, 
with the major part of his command, entered Baltimore, 
seized Federal Hill, which commands the city, fortified it 
with fifty heavy guns, and Baltimore was in his control. 
He acted with intelligence and promptness, and to him the 
Union side was greatly indebted for restoring communi 
cations between the capital city and the United States. 
The United States having control of the bay and the 



great rivers emptying into it the Patapsco, the Patuxent 
and the Potomac, all parts of the State were dominated 
by Federal guns. The Northern frontier was open, with 
the Baltimore & Ohio railroad from Wheeling and the 
West, the Northern Central railroad from Harrisburg 
and the central North, and the Baltimore, Wilmington 
& Philadelphia railroad from New York and New Eng 
land, and the North, West and East in arms to pour 
down over these great avenues of travel to subjugate 
Maryland and to protect the capital. It was too late for 
Maryland to act with the Confederacy. There never 
had been an hour when she could have struck a blow for 
independence. It was impossible to move before Vir 
ginia. Virginia did not move until May 24th, when 
Maryland was bound hand and foot to the Union by the 
overwhelming force of the army of occupation. 

The general assembly of the State acted with the 
dignity and courage of a Roman senate. On the loth 
of May, the State in the grip of the Federal army, the 
committee on Federal relations of the house of delegates, 
Severn Teakle Wallis, Esq., chairman, made a report 
that for exact statement, for force and for logic was ex 
celled by no paper of that epoch. They said : 

"Whereas, in the judgment of the General Assembly 
of Maryland, the war now waged by the government of 
the United States upon the people of the Confederate 
States is unconstitutional in its origin, purposes and con 
duct ; repugnant to civilization and sound policy ; subver 
sive of the free principles upon which the Federal Union 
was founded, and certain to result in the hopeless and 
bloody overthrow of our existing institutions ; and, 

6 Whereas, the people of Maryland, while recognizing 
the obligations of their State, as a member of the Union, 
to submit in good faith to the exercise of all the legal 
and constitutional powers of the general government, 
and to join as one man in fighting its authorized battles, 
do reverence, nevertheless, the great American principle 
of self-government, and sympathize deeply with their 
Southern brethren in their noble and manly determina 
tion to uphold and defend the same ; and, 


"Whereas, not merely on their own account, and to 
turn from their own soil the calamities of civil war, but 
for the blessed sake of humanity and to arrest the wanton 
shedding of fraternal blood in a miserable contest which 
can bring nothing with it but sorrow, shame and deso 
lation, the people of Maryland are enlisted with their 
whole hearts on the side of reconciliation and peace ; 

Now, therefore, it is hereby resolved by the General 
Assembly of Maryland, that the State of Maryland owes 
it to her own self-respect and her respect for the Consti 
tution, not less than her deepest and most honorable 
sympathies, to register this, her solemn protest, against 
the war which the Federal government has declared 
against the Confederate States of the South and our sister 
and neighbor, Virginia, and to announce her resolute 
determination to have no part or lot, directly or indirectly, 
in its prosecution. 

"Resolved, That the State of Maryland earnestly and 
anxiously desires the restoration of peace between the 
belligerent sections of the country; and the President, 
authorities and people of the Confederate States having 
over and over, officially and unofficially, declared that 
they seek only peace and self-defense, and to be let alone, 
and that they are willing to throw down the sword the 
instant the sword now drawn against them shall be 

"The senators and delegates of Maryland do beseech 
and implore the President of the United States to accept 
the olive branch which is thus held out to him, and in 
the name of God and humanity to cease this unholy and 
most wretched and unprofitable strife, at least until the 
assembling of the Congress at Washington shall have 
given time for the prevalence of cool and better counsels. 

" Resolved, That the State of Maryland desires the 
peaceful and immediate recognition of the independence 
of the Confederate States, and hereby gives her cordial 
consent thereto, as a member of the Union, entertaining 
the profound conviction that the willing return of the 
Southern people to their former Federal relations is a 
thing beyond hope, and that the attempt to coerce them 
will only add slaughter and hate to impossibility. 

" Resolved, That the present military occupation of 
Maryland being for purpose which in the opinion of the 
legislature are in flagrant violation of the Constitution, 


the General Assembly of the State in the name of her 
people does hereby protest against the same and against 
the arbitrary restrictions and illegalities with which it is 
attended, calling upon all good citizens at the same time, 
in the most earnest and authoritative manner, to abstain 
from all violent and unlawful interference of every sort 
with the troops in transit through our territory, or 
quartered among us, and patiently and peacefully leave 
to time and reason the ultimate and certain re-establish 
ment and vindication of the right. 

" Resolved: That under existing circumstances it is 
inexpedient to call a Sovereign Convention of the State 
at this time, or to take any measures for the immediate 
organization or arming of the militia. 

These resolutions passed the Senate, ayes n, nays 3; 
House, ayes 43, nays 12. General Butler replied to 
this defiance by seizing Baltimore the very night these 
resolutions passed. He acted, they resolved! An equally 
significant incident had occurred in Baltimore just the 
week before. Judge William F. Giles, judge of the 
district court of the United States for the district of 
Maryland, issued the writ of habeas corpus on May 4th 
to Major Morris, commanding at Fort McHenry, com 
manding him to produce before the court without delay 
the body of John George Mullen, an enlisted soldier, one 
of the garrison of the fort who sought his discharge on 
the ground of minority. Under the law of the United 
States it was unlawful to enlist a minor under eighteen 
years of age in the military or naval service without the 
consent of his parent or guardian. Mullen alleged in 
his petition that he was under the lawful age and had 
been enlisted illegally. Major Morris neither produced 
the man nor made any response to the mandate of the 
writ; but on May ;th he addressed a letter to. Judge 
Giles, kf which he peremptorily refused to obey the writ. 
In this first trial of strength between law and arms, law 
became silent, as usual. On May 25th John Merryman, 
one of the first citizens of Baltimore county, was arrested 
at his home by a squad of soldiers and locked up in Fort 


McHenry. The next day Roger Brooke Taney, chief 
justice of the Supreme court of the United States, 
assigned to the fourth circuit, of which Maryland formed 
a part, issued the writ of habeas corpus to General Cad- 
wallader, commanding at Fort McHenry, requiring him 
to produce the body of Merryman before the circuit court 
of the United States for the district of Maryland, at 
Baltimore, on Monday, May 27th. The chief justice 
issued the writ on Sunday ! On Monday Colonel Lee, aide- 
de-camp to General Cadwallader, appeared in the court 
and said that General Cadwallader s other engagements 
prevented his appearing in person, but had sent him to 
express the general s regrets and read the chief justice a 
letter, which the aide proceeded to do. The general said 
that Merryman had been arrested for open and avowed 
hostility to the United States, and that he had been 
authorized by tJie President of tJie United States to suspend the 
writ of habeas corpus in such cases, which he had done. 
The chief justice ordered an attachment to issue against 
General Cadwallader and sent the marshal of the court 
to arrest the general and bring him before the Court. 
Upon the marshal s proceeding to Fort McHenry with a 
few deputy marshals he sent in his card and official desig 
nation through the sentry at the gate to the command 
ing officer. After a reasonable time the messenger came 
back with the message that there was no answer to the 
marshal s card and that he would not be permitted to 
enter the fort. The marshal made return of these facts 
to the court, and the chief justice directed the clerk to 
make an entry on the record of the court that the writ of 
habeas corpus having been disobeyed by General Cad 
wallader, an attachment for contempt had issued against 
him, which he had resisted, having a superior force at 
his command to any which the court or its marshal could 
control, and he subsequently filed his opinion in the case, 
in which he demonstrated beyond a cavil that the Presi 
dent of the United States has and can have no authority at 

Aid 5 


any time, under any circumstances, to suspend the writ 
of habeas corpus, and directed the entire record to be 
certified to the President of the United States for his 
information and action. 

On the 1 4th of May the legislature adjourned, and Ross 
Winans, a member of the house of delegates from Balti 
more City the head of the firm of Ross Winans & Co. , 
the greatest manufacturers of locomotive engines and 
railroad cars in the world was arrested by General 
Butler at the Relay House on his way home. Ross 
Winans was not only a man of great wealth, one of the 
millionaires of the day, but he was a man whose moral 
character, whose genius, whose breadth of mind and 
greatness of heart, whose culture and whose courage 
would have made him distinguished in any country in 
the world. His arrest was intended to terrorize the 
State. It had the effect of rousing it like the long roll. 
The legislature, at its adjourned session of June 22d, 
declared that "The unconstitutional and arbitrary pro 
ceedings of the Federal executive have not been confined 
to the violation of the personal rights and liberties of 
the citizens of Maryland, but have been extended into 
every department of oppressive illegality, so that the 
property of no man is safe, the sanctity of no dwelling 
is respected, and the sacredness of private correspond 
ence no longer exists; and, 

"Whereas, the Senate and House of Delegates of Mary 
land, recognizing the obligations of the State, as far as in 
her lies, to protect and defend her people against usurped 
and arbitrary power, however difficult the fulfillment of 
that high obligation may be rendered by disastrous cir 
cumstances, feel it due to her dignity and independence 
that history should not record the overthrow of public 
freedom, for an instant, within her borders, without 
recording likewise the indignant expression of her 
resentment and remonstrance ; 

"Now, therefore, be it resolved, That the senate and 
house of delegates of Maryland, in the name and on 
behalf of the good people of the State, do accordingly 


register this their earnest and unqualified protest against 
the oppressive and tyrannical assertion and exercise of 
military jurisdiction within the limits of Maryland, over 
the persons and property of her citizens, by the govern 
ment of the United States, and do solemnly declare the 
same to be subversive of the most sacred guarantees of 
the Constitution and in flagrant violation of the funda 
mental and most cherished principles of American free 

The legislature of Maryland was composed of brave, 
high-minded and patriotic men, but it was dominated by 
the spirit of conservatism, which cannot understand how 
anything can be right which is unlawful, nor any process 
expedient or necessary which is illegal. The conserva 
tives never could, never did understand that they were in 
the midst of a revolution. They stood by constitutional 
rights. They held on to the claim of constitutional 
guarantees to habeas corpus to trial by jury to free 
speech to law until they and their constitutional guaran 
tees were landed in Fort Lafayette or the military prisons 
in New York and Boston. They stood by their faith then 
and never ceased to protest that they could not be im 
prisoned without warrant, nor held without bail. They 
were right in doctrine, but they were imprisoned and 

The minority party in the State, the party of action in 
the legislature, never hoped for the secession of the State 
after the delay of Virginia. After the 24th of May 
Maryland was a Federal garrison. But they did hope for 
action a league offensive and defensive with Virginia, 
with all that that implied. They introduced into the 
legislature a bill to provide for a committee of safety to 
be elected by the legislature, to which should be com 
mitted the duty of defending the State and her people 
and to exercise all the powers of government. The bill 
appropriated 5,000,000 to be applied by the committee 
of safety for the defense of the State. The banks in 
Baltimore had raised $500,000 for the defense of the city 


in three hours, and the banks of the State would have 
supplied $5,000,000 for the defense of the State in a 
week. The plan of the projectors of the committee of 
safety was to arm the militia. They expected to equip 
forty thousand men as promptly as the Northern States 
had armed and equipped their volunteers, and they knew 
that Maryland volunteers would take arms as quickly as 
those of Massachusetts and Ohio. They did not propose 
to carry the State out of the Union, but they intended to 
arm their young men and command the peace in the 
State. When that failed, as fail they knew it would, the 
State would be represented by forty thousand armed 
and equipped volunteers who would carry her flag- in 
the front line and would make her one of the Confeder 
ate States in fact, if not in name. 

These were the intentions of Captain Johnson and men 
of his age in the legislature and in the State, and they 
were constant and ardent in pressing them in the general 
assembly. The Conservatives, however, preferred the 
processes of the law, and could not understand how force 
could decide questions of right. It would be better to 
bring trespass quare clausum against Butler at the Relay 
for digging trenches and piling up earthworks, to sue 
out injunctions against illegal arrests and a mandamus to 
make Cadwallader respect Taney s writ of habeas 
corpus ! 

The committee on Federal relations agreed on their 
report May yth that it was inexpedient to take any steps 
toward the organization and arming of the militia, 
though it was not made until the loth. But on the 8th 
Johnson and his company marched to Virginia. At the 
Point of Rocks he arranged with Capt. James Ashby 
to ride into Frederick, seize the governor and carry him 
off to Virginia and thus break up the State government 
and throw it into the hands of the legislature, who 
would be obliged to take charge during the interregnum. 
A notice to this effect was sent to the leaders in the 


legislature and they promptly dispatched T. Parkin 
Scott, member from Baltimore City, to Johnson, then on 
the Maryland Heights with the Maryland battalion, de 
manding that he cease his enterprises and let them alone. 
He obeyed them and they went to prison ; while he went 
into the field. 

The battalion at Harper s Ferry was helpless. Com 
pany A was the only company that pretended to be 
armed, and it carried Hall s carbines, which had been 
procured in Baltimore by its captain. This arm was the 
original breechloader manufactured at Harper s Ferry 
for the United States army, and was so inefficient that 
it was promptly condemned and discarded. Hence it 
was sold cheap to innocent militiamen. But the others 
didn t have even these worthless carbines. They had 
rushed off from home, fired by the enthusiasm of those 
days in Baltimore, had stolen rides on the cars or had 
walked to Point of Rocks and to Harper s Ferry where 
they were fed. Provisions were plenty, but they had 
no clothes, blankets, tents, cooking utensils nothing 
that soldiers need and must have to be of any service. 
They had no government to appeal to for arms. In fact, 
they were outlaws from their own State government. 
They were too proud to go back home ; stay and fight 
they would and must. All around them were warm 
hearted comrades w r ho shared their blankets with them at 
night and their rations by day. Unless something could 
be done to keep them together, unless they could be 
armed, equipped and legally organized, they must inevit 
ably dissolve, be absorbed in surrounding commands, and 
thus Maryland lose her main hope and best chance to 
be represented by her own sons, bearing her flag in the 
army of the Confederate States. 

At this crisis Mrs. Bradley T. Johnson came forward 
and offered to go to North Carolina and apply there for 
arms and equipment. She was the daughter of the 
Hon. Romulus M. Saunders, for a generation a lead- 


ing and distinguished member of Congress from North 
Carolina, and by appointment of Polk, minister plenipo 
tentiary and envoy extraordinary to Spain, with a special 
mandate to purchase Cuba and pay one hundred millions 
for it. His young daughters were with him and were 
introduced to court and presented to the queen. There 
they became intimate with Eugenie de Monti jo, countess 
de Teba, who afterward became empress of the French. 
Mrs. Johnson was then in the prime of her youth, hand 
some, graceful, accomplished. She had left her com 
fortable home in Frederick with her little boy, a lad five 
years old, to follow her husband. She now volunteered 
to serve him. She was the only hope of Maryland. 
Captain Johnson applied to Colonel Jackson for advice in 
this emergency. Jackson ordered that Mrs. Johnson be 
furnished with escort and transportation and that she 
start at once. On May 24, 1861, she left the camp of 
Companies A and B at the Point of Rocks, escorted by 
Capt. Wilson Carey Nicholas, Company G, and Second- 
Lieut. G. M. E. Shearen, Company A, to go to 
Raleigh via Richmond. At Leesburg they found that 
Alexandria had that day been occupied by the Federals 
and thus communication southward cut. Returning, 
she and her staff went up to Harper s Ferry and thence 
by Winchester and Strasburg and Manassas Junction 
to Richmond and Raleigh, where she arrived on the 
night of the 27th. The next morning, accompanied 
by her father and her escort, she applied to Gov. 
Thomas H. Ellis and the council of state for arms for 
her husband and his men. There were on that council 
some plain countrymen, in their home spun, but they 
bore hearts of gold. It was a picturesque incident. 
Here this elegant, graceful, refined young lady, whose 
family was known to every man of them, and to some of 
whom she was personally known there the circle of 
grave, plain old men taking in every word she uttered, 
watching every movement. Her father, Judge Saun- 


ders, one of the most illustrious citizens of the State, as 
simple, direct, frank a gentleman as ever lived, had put 
his daughter forward to tell her plain story in the fewest 
and simplest words possible. She said: " Governor 
and gentlemen, I left my husband and his comrades in 
Virginia. They have left their homes in Maryland to 
fight for the South, but they have no arms, and I have 
come to my native State to beg my own people to help 
us. Give arms to my husband and his comrades, so that 
he can help you ! 

44 Madam," said one of the council, old, venerable and 
gray-haired, slapping his thigh with a resounding blow, 
" Madam, you shall have everything that this State 
can give." And the order was made then and there, on 
the spot, at the instant, that she should be supplied with 
five hundred Mississippi rifles and ten thousand car 
tridges, with necessary equipments. This at the time 
when, in the language of the day, every cartridge was 
worth a dollar. 

But her visit and her errand lighted the greatest enthu 
siasm among her fellow countrymen. The constitutional 
convention of North Carolina was then in session. It 
was the most illustrious body of Carolinians that ever 
assembled. The members of it called a meeting at 
night in the capitol, under the leadership of Hon. 
Weldon H. Edwards, president of the convention, Chief 
Justice Thomas Ruffin of the supreme court of the State, 
her father, Judge Saunders, and others. The meeting 
was held in the hall of the house of commons, was 
presided over by ex-Gov. Thomas S. Reid and was 
attended with great enthusiasm. The cause of the Mary- 
landers was espoused with ardor, the meeting making a 
liberal contribution of money on the spot. Hon. Ken 
neth Raynor, ex-member of Congress, addressing the 
meeting, said: 

If great events produce great men so in the scene 
before us we have proof that great events produce great 


women. It was one that partook more of the romance 
than of the realities of life. One of our own daughters, 
raised in the lap of luxury, blessed with the enjoyment of 
all the elements of elegance and ease, had quit her 
peaceful home, followed her husband to the camp, and 
leaving him in that camp, has come to the home of her 
childhood to seek aid for him and his comrades, not be 
cause he is her husband, but because he is fighting the 
battles of his country, against a tyrant. 

He paid a high tribute to the patriotism and love of 
liberty which eminently characterized the people of 
Maryland. " They were fighting our battles, " he said, 
" with halters round their necks. " 

On the 29th Mrs* Johnson left Raleigh with her escort 
and her arms, and her route was a continued ovation. 
At every town, at every station, the people had gathered 
to see the woman who was arming her husband s regi 
ment, and they overwhelmed her with enthusiasm and 
hearty sympathy. At Petersburg a substantial sum of 
money was handed to her, and stopping at Richmond 
she procured from John Letcher, governor of Virginia, 
a supply of camp-kettles, hatchets, axes, etc., and with 
the money in her hands, ordered forty-one wall tents made 
at once. On the 3ist of May she left Richmond with her 
arms, ammunition and supplies. At Manassas Beaure- 
gard gave her an order to take any train she might find 
necessary for transportation and to hold all trains sub 
ject to her orders. She rode in the freight car on her 
boxes of rifles. Companies A and B had during her 
absence been moved up to Harper s Ferry to unite -with 
the rest of the command, and on June 3, 1861. after an 
absence of ten days from camp, she returned and deliv 
ered to her husband the results of her energy, devotion 
and enthusiasm. The following receipt from the chief of 
ordnance of Stonewall Jackson s command has probably 
no parallel in the history of war : 


44 Received, Ordnance Department, Harper s Ferry, 
Va., June 3, i86i f of Mrs. Bradley T. Johnson, Five 
Hundred Mississippi rifles (cal. 54) Ten Thousand car 
tridges and Thirty-five Hundred caps. 

G. N. COCHRAXE, Master of Ordnance. 

Such an incident of courage, of heroism, of devotion 
and of enthusiasm thrilled that army through every rank 
and fiber. Colonel Jackson, then in command at Harper s 
Ferry, afterwards the world-famous " Stonewall," called 
on her, with his staff, and thanked her. The officers of 
the battalion in meeting : 

"Resolved That the thanks of the Maryland Line be 
tendered to Mrs. Captain Bradley T. Johnson for her 
earnest, patriotic and successful efforts in arming and 
equipping the Maryland Line. 

Resolved That we, the officers, pledge ourselves 
and for our men that the arms she has obtained shall at 
the close of the war be returned to the State of North 
Carolina, without stain or dishonor. 

"Resolved That these resolutions be signed by the 
officers of the meeting and presented to Mrs. Johnson. 
JAMES R. HERBERT, President. 
I. G. W. HARRIOTT, Secretary." 

She forthwith returned to Richmond for clothes and 
the tents. She secured cloth for uniforms, by permis 
sion of Governor Letcher, by purchasing it from the mills 
where it was manufacttired for the State of Virginia, and 
she paid for making it up into uniforms. Shoes, blankets 
and underclothes were supplied by Col. Larkin Smith, 
quartermaster-general ; and the tents had been ordered 
on her way back from North Carolina. On June 2pth she 
started back for camp with forty-one tents, and uniforms, 
underclothes and shoes for five hundred men. She had 
paid out ten thousand dollars, the contribution of enthu 
siastic North Carolinians and Virginians. 

Md i 



WHILE these events were occurring at Harper s 
Ferry, considerable numbers of Marylanders were 
rendezvousing at Richmond. The enrolled men 
commanded by Colonel Trimble, called out by the board 
of police commissioners, were drilled in a more or less 
efficient way in Baltimore, until the meeting of the leg 
islature at Frederick, when they were disbanded. John 
son s company, at the same time, having left Frederick 
and gone to the Point of Rocks, furnished the nucleus 
around which gathered the men thus dismissed by the 
police authorities. They formed the eight companies 
mustered into the service of the Confederate States by 
Lieutenant-Colonel George Deas. But the volunteer 
companies, the Baltimore City Guard, the Maryland 
Guard, the Independent Grays, were as well instructed, 
as well officered as any American volunteers ever are, 
and some of them had historical reputations to maintain, 
for their companies had fought at North Point. They, 
therefore, regarded themselves as superior to the un- 
drilled crowd that Captain Johnson was " licking into 
shape at Harper s Ferry," as they put it, and proceeded 
to Richmond, where they at once put themselves in 
accord with the Virginia authorities. Marylanders were 
to be embodied into three regiments, armed and 
mustered into the service of Virginia, who was to adopt 
them. In carrying out this plan Governor Letcher issued 
commissions to Francis Q. Thomas, ex-captain United 
States army, as colonel of the First ; to Bradley T. John 
son as lieutenant-colonel of the Second, and to Alden 



Weston, major of the Third. It was in the plan to con 
solidate these three into one if they failed to fill up into 
full regiments. Captain Johnson promptly declined the 
commission sent him by Governor Letcher, refusing- to 
enter the military service of Virginia on the distinct 
ground that Maryland must be represented by Maryland 
regiments, and for Marylanders to accept service under 
Virginia would be to sacrifice the rights of the State to 
the services of her own sons. It was their duty, he be 
lieved, to give their own State the benefit of their serv 
ice and of such reputation as they might be fortunate 
enough to win. Following this line of duty, he had 
caused the eight Harper s Ferry companies to be mus 
tered into the army of the Confederate States, and he 
urged by every means in his power the consolidation of 
all Marylanders into the Maryland Line. This proved to 
be utterly impracticable. They were all volunteers; 
away from home there was no State sentiment, no home 
opinion to direct or control their conduct, and they 
selected their associates and comrades from contiguity, 
from friendship and from relationship. Men of Mary 
land descent were scattered all over the Confederacy, and 
thousands of young men who got through the lines sought 
out their relations and kinsmen in nearly every regiment 
of the army. The Maryland Line was the ideal of 
Lieut. -Col. George H. Steuart and of Maj. Brad 
ley T. Johnson, and for two years they labored to collect 
the Marylanders. All influences from home were di 
rected to the same end. The flag, made in Baltimore and 
brought over by Hetty Carey, was inscribed " First Reg 
iment Maryland Line." But not until 1863 was any con 
siderable force embodied under that name. 

In the early summer of 1861 the way to Virginia was 
open and thousands of ardent youth left home and 
friends to fight for the South. In a few months, how 
ever, Maryland was hermetically sealed. Her bays were 
patrolled by gun boats, her rivers were picketed, and a 


barrier of bayonets sought to keep back the current of 
sympathy that day and night flowed to the South. All 
over the State, the women, irrepressible as ever in times 
of excitement, flaunted the Confederate red and white in 
the faces of the army of occupation. The babies wore red 
and white socks, the girls red and white ribbons with 
red and white bouquets at their girdles and on their hearts, 
the young lads red and white cravats. The larger boys 
were sent South by their mothers, sisters and sweethearts. 
Regular lines of communication were established, with 
stations and pass words and signs for the "underground," 
as it was called. They made their way by steamer down 
to the Patuxent on to the eastern shore. They bought, 
"borrowed" or "captured" small boats, sail or with oars, 
and they put out in the darkness over the waters to find 
the way to Dixie. The gun boats searched bay and inlet 
with their strong lights and their small boats. Some 
times they caught the emigres and more frequently they 
did not. When they did the Old Capitol and Point Look 
out military prisons were the swift doom of the unfortu 
nates, where they languished for months, half clad and 
nearly starved. This blockade running went on over the 
Potomac from the Chesapeake to the District of Columbia, 
right under the surveillance of the Federal authorities. 
When the watch became too vigilant and the pickets too 
close along the rivers, the Marylanders made their way 
tip through the western part of the State, where the 
sentiment was generally Union, and forded the river 
from Hancock up to the mountains. Working through 
the mountains of West Virginia, through the perils 
of the bushwhackers and Union men, ten thousand 
times worse than from Union pickets, they made their 
way, ragged, barefoot, starving, down to some camp in 
the valley of Virginia, where they were welcomed with 
warm hearts and open hands. During all that time the 
condition of the Southern people of Maryland was like 
that of the Cavaliers during the Puritan domination in 


England. They were tied to home by a thousand 
imperative duties, but their hearts were "over the water 
with Charlie. Every Southern family had a son over 
there. Every Southern woman, young or old, had her 
heart there with lover or brother or son. There were 
few husbands, for the enlisted Marylanders were gener 
ally youths unmarried. The field officers, Elzey, Steuart 
and Johnson, were the only married officers of the First 
Maryland regiment. 

Social life in Baltimore was almost obliterated. Spies, 
male and female, of all social ranks, permeated every 
thing. You could not tell whether the servant behind 
your chair at dinner, or the lady by your side, whom you 
had taken to the table, were not in the employ of the 
Federal provost-marshal. But force never compels 
ideas, and hearts are beyond the power of bayonets. 
During all that period, when nurses were arrested be 
cause the babies in their arms wore red and white socks, 
when young ladies were marched to the guard-house 
because they crossed the street rather than pass under 
the Union flag suspended over it as sign and proof of 
domination during all that red time communication 
with Richmond was incessant and reliable. Word 
would be passed by a nod on the street, by a motion of 
the hand, and time and place given in a breath. And in 
one of the parlors of one of the greatest houses of the 
town, blazing with every luxury that wealth and culture 
could buy, one or two score beautiful women would meet, 
doors and windows sealed, to see the messenger and to 
hear the news "from Dixie." Every story of a Mary 
land boy who had died in battle for the right, every ex 
ploit of a Marylander that had thrilled the army, every 
achievement of the First Regiment of the Line, was 
recited and repeated and gone over, until human nature 
could stand no more, and "In Dixie s land I ll take my 
stand, and live and die for Dixie" would burst from the 
throng and make indistinct vibrations on the outer air. At 


one of these mystic meetings of the faithful at the Winns 
house, on Monument street, the messenger produced 
James R. Randall s grand war song "My Maryland." 
It was read aloud and reread until sobs and inarticulate 
moans choked utterance. Hetty Carey was then in the 
prime of her first youth, with a perfect figure, exquisite 
complexion, the hair that Titian loved to paint, a 
brilliant intellect, grace personified, and a disposition 
the most charming she was the most beautiful woman 
of the day and perhaps the most beautiful that Maryland 
has ever produced. Her sister, Jenny Carey, was next to 
her in everything, but Hetty Carey had no peer. While 
this little coterie of beautiful women were throbbing over 
Randall s heroic lines, Hetty Carey said: "That must be 
sung. Jenny, get an air for it!" and Jenny at the piano 
struck the chorus of the college song, "Gaudeamus 
igitur," and the great war anthem, "Maryland, My 
Maryland," was born into the world. It went through 
the city like fire in the dry grass. The boys beat it on 
their toy drums, the children shrilled it at their play, and 
for a week all the power of the provost-marshal and the 
garrison and the detectives could not still the refrain 
"The despot s heel is on thy shore, 

His torch is at thy temple door, 

for it was in the hearts of the people and it was true ! 

The rendezvous of the drilled volunteers produced 
three crack companies under Capt. E. R. Dorsey, Balti 
more City Guards; Capt. Wm. H. Murray, Maryland 
Guards, and Capt. J. Lyle Clarke, Independent Grays. 
And soon after was organized another company under 
Capt. Michael Stone Robertson, of Charles county, whose 
company came from the counties of St. Mary s, Calvert 
and Charles. These Richmond companies were mus 
tered into the service of Virginia, May lyth and i8th and 
June i yth. Captain Clarke elected to take his company 


into the Twenty-first Virginia regiment. It served 
its year with great eclat and was the crack company of 
that part of the army. The other three were united to the 
battalion at Harper s Ferry. Virginia troops had by that 
time been taken en masse into the army of the Confed 
eracy. That battalion was reorganized into six com 
panies, so as to equalize them above the minimum re 
quired by the law of the Confederacy, and thus the First 
Maryland regiment was formed, with Capt. Arnold 
Elzey, late United States artillery, as colonel; Capt. 
George H. Steuart, late United States cavalry, as lieu 
tenant-colonel, and Bradley T. Johnson as major. It 
consisted of 500 men armed with Mrs. Johnson s rifles, 
calibre 54, and 220 men (the three Richmond compa 
nies) with Springfield muskets and bayonets. The drill 
and style of the Richmond companies set the standard 
for the rest, and during their whole service there never 
was anything but the most devoted comradeship and the 
most generous feeling. The only rivalry was ** Who 
shall get there first!" 

Soon afterward Capt. R. Snowden Andrews mustered 
into Confederate service his battery, which during the 
next four years won undying fame on a hundred 
fields as the First Maryland artillery. Next came 
the Baltimore light artillery, known later as the Second 
Maryland, Capt. John B. Brockenbrough. The Lat- 
robe artillery, Third Maryland, Capt. Henry B. 
Latrobe; and the Chesapeake, Fourth Maryland, Capt. 
William Brown, were organized and mustered into the 
service early in 1862 and served with distinction, the 
Third Maryland in the army of the Southwest with John 
ston and Kirby Smith, and the Fourth Maryland in the 
army of Northern Virginia. Capt. George R. Gaither 
brought to Virginia a part of the Howard Dragoons, a 
troop of which he had been captain in Howard county, 
with horses, arms and accoutrements, and mustered them 
into the First Virginia cavalry, Col. J. E. B. Stuart, as 


Company K of that elite corps. A troop of cavalry com 
posed of Marylanders was mustered into the Sixth Vir 
ginia under Capt. J. Sturgis Davis. Subsequently five 
troops of Marylanders were collected under Davis and 
were known as the Davis Battalion, of which he was 
commissioned major. Capt. Elijah V. White, of Mont 
gomery county, organized a dashing troop of Mary- 
landers as escort and headquarters guard for General 
Ewell, which was afterwards enlarged into the Thirty-fifth 
Virginia battalion, commanded by Lieut. -Col. " Lije " 
White. It was a Maryland command. Harry Gil- 
mor in the valley of Virginia in 1863-64 collected a 
number of Marylanders into troops and formed a bat 
talion known as the Second Maryland, or Gilmor s 
battalion, of which he was commissioned lieutenant-col 
onel. He and they operated in the valley of Virginia 
and rivaled Mosby by their daring exploits behind the 
enemy s lines and against his supply trains; and in the 
lower valley, operating against and breaking the Balti 
more & Ohio railroad, occupied and kept employed a 
large body of the enemy s infantry and cavalry from 
Harper s Ferry to the Ohio river. In December, 1860, 
South Carolina had sent a recruiting officer to Baltimore, 
and he enlisted there and sent to Charleston five hun 
dred men who were placed in the Lucas battalion of 
artillery and Rhett s First South Carolina artillery. 
They served with fidelity, gallantry and distinction in the 
defense of Fort Sumter, for a large part of the garrison of 
that fortress during its bombardment were Marylanders. 
During the autumn of 1862 seven troops of Mary- 
landers were collected under Lieut. -Col. Ridgely Brown, 
from Montgomery county, as the First Maryland cav 
alry. When the First regiment was mustered out of 
service August 12, 1862, on account of its depleted ranks, 
which had been worn threadbare by Jackson s Valley 
campaign and the Seven Days battles, the men who were 
mustered out were largely collected by Captains Her- 


bert, Murray and Goldsborough, who formed three new 
companies, which with others formed the Second Mary 
land infantry battalion, of which Herbert became lieu 
tenant-colonel commanding, and Goldsborough major. 
The Second Maryland was officered by trained and 
experienced soldiers. Almost every one of its captains 
had seen more than one year s service in the army of 
northern Virginia, and its field officers had been among 
the brightest captains in the " Old First, " as the First 
regiment was always designated in the hearts and words 
of its old members. The Second Maryland infantry and 
the First Maryland cavalry were in the valley of Vir 
ginia about Harrisonburg in the winter of 1862 and 1863. 
Co. F of the cavalry was recruited by three rich young 
Baltimoreans Augustus F. Schwartz, captain ; C. Irving 
Ditty, first lieutenant, and Fielder C. Slinghoff, second 
lieutenant. They furnished uniforms, horses, accoutre 
ments and arms for their company at an immense ex 
pense, for everything except horses had to be smuggled 
through the blockade from Baltimore. 

In January, 1862, Elzey and the field officers of the 
First having been promoted at First Manassas, July 21, 
1 86 1, Colonel Steuart, while on leave at Richmond, pro 
cured an order to be issued by the adjutant-general of the 
Confederate States, that all Marylanders on application to 
the adjutant-general would be transferred to the Mary 
land Line, then consisting of the First regiment, in the 
army of the Potomac under Joe Johnston at Manassas. 
This measure resulted in no practical, good result. The 
Marylanders were generally quick, bright, valuable young 
fellows, and commanding officers were not willing to part 
with them. Many were taken on the staff, commis 
sioned and non-commissioned, at division, brigade and 
regimental headquarters, and when one did apply in 
writing for a transfer, his paper was pigeon-holed and 
lost on its way up to the adjutant-general. The order 
added very few men to the Maryland Line. 




WHEN Virginia became one of the Confederate 
States by the vote of her people, May 24, 1861, the 
Confederate government, Mr. Jefferson Davis 
being President, removed to Richmond from Montgom 
ery, Ala., and assumed the charge of military oper 
ations all over the Confederacy. The fixed idea of 
President Davis was that the first necessity was to save 
the Confederate States from invasion; for invasion, he 
argued, would demoralize the negro population and make 
inefficient the labor of the South behind the armies, 
which must rely on slave labor for food and clothes. 
Therefore the Confederate government undertook to cov 
er the entire front, from the Chesapeake bay to the west 
ern frontier. In carrying out this strategy, armies were 
collected in Virginia at Norfolk ; at Aquia Creek on the 
Potomac; at Manassas Junction, thirty miles from Alex 
andria; at Harper s Ferry, the junction of the Shenan- 
doah and Potomac and the mouth or entrance of the 
valley of Virginia ; and at Grafton, west of the moun 
tains on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. At Harper s 
Ferry the Potomac and Shenandoah break through the 
Blue Ridge and form a gorge of surpassing grandeur and 
picturesqueness. Mr. Jefferson once said in his notes of 
Virginia that the view from Loudoun heights on the 
Virginia side was worth a voyage across the Atlantic to 
see. The Virginians never got over it. Harper s Ferry 
was Thermopylae and Mont Blanc combined. It was an 
impregnable fortress of nature. John Brown agreed 
with them about the only thing he did agree with them 
about and seized Harper s Ferry as the base of his 



proposed negro insurrection in 1859. So the very first 
step taken in Virginia, after secession was agreed to, 
was the seizure of Harper s Ferry. Governor Letcher 
ordered the volunteers of the valley there within five 
hours after the convention passed the ordinance of 
secession on April lyth, and about dusk on the i8th, 
the Second Virginia regiment, Colonel Allen, with sev 
eral detached companies and with James Ashby s and 
Welby Carter s troops of cavalry from Fauquier and Lou- 
doun, took possession of the place, with its workshops 
and machinery. The Union officer that was posted 
there as the regular guard with a detachment of half a 
hundred infantry, retired after having set fire to the 
armory, where a large number of muskets were stored, 
and to the storehouses and machine shops. The Vir 
ginians got in in time to save most of the buildings and 
the machinery, and a large lot of gunstocks was after 
wards shipped to Fayetteville, N. C., for the Confederate 
armory at that place. 

Col. Thomas J. Jackson, a professor of the Virginia 
military institute, was assigned to command the post, 
which the Virginia authorities considered the one of 
greatest importance, responsibility and danger; for it 
was to protect the valley of Virginia from the Potomac 
to the North Carolina and Tennessee line. Virginia 
troops were poured into the place. Captain Johnson, as 
we have seen, procured from Colonel Jackson permission 
to rendezvous the Marylanders there and at the Point of 
Rocks, and by June ist had collected about five hun 
dred men. As soon as Virginia had joined the Confed 
eracy, President Davis, equally impressed with the value 
and importance of this Thermopylae, assigned to com 
mand it Gen. Joseph Eggleston Johnston, the second in 
rank of the generals of the Confederate army. Johnston 
ranked next to Lee, but was his equal in experience 
in war. He was a Virginian by birth and blood, and 
knew all about the Virginia fetish about Harper s Ferry. 


While the President was pouring troops from Arkansas, 
from Mississippi, from Alabama, from South Carolina, 
into Harper s Ferry, Johnston knew that it was a trap, 
a deadfall, for the soldier who attempted to hold it. It 
was commanded on the east by the Maryland heights 
beyond the Potomac, and on the south by heights on the 
other side of the Shenandoah. 

The Confederate States government was then offer 
ing every inducement for Maryland to join it. It 
exempted Maryland from its declaration of war against 
the United States, and it was tender of her territory and 
her feelings. When, therefore, Johnston saw the abso 
lute necessity of holding Maryland heights, he saved the 
invasion of Maryland by sending Marylanders to occupy 
the position. He ordered Captain Johnson with his 
eight companies, and Col. Blanton Duncan with his First 
Kentucky regiment, to take the Maryland heights, for 
tify and hold them. They did so while Johnston strained 
every nerve to strip Harper s Ferry of everything that 
could be made of use to the Confederacy. By June isth 
he had cleared out the place, brought the Marylanders 
and the Kentuckians from the mountains and evacuated 
Harper s Ferry. A large Federal army had been col 
lected at Chambersburg, Pa., thirty miles to the 
north of Johnston, under command of Major-General 
Patterson. For several days Patterson had given signs 
of restlessness unmistakable to an old soldier of John 
ston s caliber, and the very day Johnston moved out of 
Harper s Ferry, Patterson marched south from Chambers- 
burg. The former moved to Charlestown, Va., the lat 
ter to Hagerstown, Md. On June lyth, Patterson 
crossed the Potomac at Williamsport and Johnston 
went into line of battle at Bunker Hill, a place halfway 
between Martinsburg and Winchester. The Confeder 
ates were delighted at the prospects of another battle of 
Bunker Hill on the i;th of June. But a large portion 
of Patterson s army were sixty-day men, and when their 


time expired they marched home, General Patterson and 
the remnant of his troops following in such temper as 
they might to the Maryland side. Patterson having re- 
crossed the Potomac, Johnston fell back to Winchester, 
where he proceeded to organize his incongruous troops 
into brigades and divisions. One brigade, the Fourth, 
was formed of the First Maryland, the Tenth and the 
Thirteenth Virginia and the Third Tennessee, and Col. 
Arnold Elzey of the First Maryland was assigned to com 
mand it. The Fourth and Third brigades constituted a 
division under the command of Brig. -Gen. E. Kirby 
Smith. The field officers of the First Maryland were 
commissioned to date from June 17, 1861. The first 
duty the regiment was set to perform under its new field 
officers was on the day after the arrival at Winchester. 
On June igth, Lieutenant-Colonel Steuart was directed to 
return to Harper s Ferry by railroad train and complete 
the destruction of the shops and Federal property left on 
the evacuation of the isth. This duty Colonel Steuart 
executed with great intelligence. Instead of burning up a 
great magazine of seasoned and shaped gunstocks, which 
he found abandoned, he loaded the whole outfit on a train 
of cars and hauled them back with his command to Win 
chester. The service was so valuable and so exceedingly 
sensible that the commanding general rewarded it with 
a special order of approbation. Steuart and the Mary- 
landers enjoyed the unique distinction of being probably 
the only command that was ever decorated by a special 
order for disobedience of orders. General Johnston had 
sent them on this detail with distinct and positive orders to 
burn everything burnable. They brought off a train- 
load of most valuable plunder, and the commanding gen 
eral honored them thus : 

"Headquarters, Winchester, June 22, 1861. 
Special Order. 

The commanding general thanks Lieutenant-Colonel 
Steuart and the Maryland regiment for the faithful and 


exact manner in which they carried out his orders of 
the i pth instant at Harper s Ferry. 

He is glad to learn that owing to their discipline, no 
private property was injured, and no unoffending citizen 
disturbed. The soldierly qualities of the Maryland regi 
ment will not be forgotten in the day of action. 

By order of Gen. JOSEPH E. JOHNSTON." 

The Confederate strategy in the early part of 1861 was 
to hold armies, or army corps, within supporting distance 
of each other along the exposed frontier of Virginia. 
If one army was attacked the corps to the right and left 
of it was to move promptly to its assistance. Patterson, 
after retiring beyond the Potomac, was heavily reinforced 
and recrossed the river, threatening Johnston at Win 
chester. Johnston, on the other hand, covered his front 
so thoroughly with cavalry patrols and pickets as to in 
terpose an impenetrable veil between Patterson and 

On July 1 8, 1861, General McDowell moved out of Alex 
andria on Beauregard at Fairfax Court House. Beaure- 
gard retired behind Bull Run. McDowell on the ipth 
made a heavy reconnoissance in force and found Beaure 
gard s position. The latter called on Johnston for help. 
He left Winchester in the morning of the i8th and 
marched to Piedmont, on the Manassas Gap railroad, 
whence his troops were hurried by rail to Manassas 
Junction. In the meantime McDowell had thrown his 
right around Beauregard s left, turned his position, and 
at daylight of the 2ist attacked him, driving everything 
before him as he marched down the right bank of Bull 
Run. By midday the Confederates were in retreat, 
their line broken and their position forced. About 
noon, the Fourth brigade, Colonel Elzey, arrived at the 
junction of the Manassas Gap and Orange & Alexandria 
railroads. The command was at once disembarked. 
McDowell s heavy guns were pounding away toward the 
east, the first hostile fire the men had ever heard. They 
were formed: First Maryland on the right, Third Ten- 


nessee, Tenth Virginia, Thirteenth Virginia. By the 
time they were ready to move, Kirby Smith rode up in a 
strain of tense excitement. He assumed charge of the bri 
gade. The other part of his division was not up "The 
watchword is Sumter, the signal is this," throwing his 
right hand to his forehead, palm outwards. " Go where 
the fire is hottest ; forward march ! 

The excitement of the first fight, the growing fire, the 
spreading volleys, braced up the men. At the order 
1 double-quick they struck out in a trot, down by the 
junction, past the cluster of huts and houses, thence 
straight as the crow flies toward "where the fire was 
hottest. After a run of a few miles the column was 
halted to breathe and load. Then on again. Wounded 
men coming back cried, " Go back. We are all cut to 
pieces. Go back. You ll all get killed! " But the 
Fourth brigade kept steadily on. As it passed a clump 
of pines on the right, a sharp volley from a squad of 
the Brooklyn Zouaves knocked General Smith over the 
neck of his horse and Elzey resumed command. By that 
time the day had advanced to three or four o clock. 
The field was dotted with retreating men, hurrying 
ambulances, flying wagons. Just to the right was a 
squad of cavalry. A shell burst over them and the cav 
alry scattered. Running over two lines lying in ranks on 
the ground, still Elzey pressed on to the left. Entering a 
wood, beyond which was heavy musketry firing, he formed 
line of battle. Smith at Manassas had detached A. P. Hill 
with the Thirteenth Virginia to hold one of the fords of 
Bull Run. With three regiments remaining Elzey pressed 
straight to the front. Getting nearly through the wood, he 
halted inside the edge of it. In front were a branch and 
a worm fence; beyond it an open field gently rising for 
four hundred yards into a considerable elevation. On 
the ridge stood a line of battle. Uniforms were no 
designation, as the line showed no colors. Cried Elzey to 
his aide-de-camp, Charles Couter, of Prince George s, 


Maryland: "Couter, give me a glass give me a glass, 
quick." Just at that instant the breeze blew out the 
flag on the hill. It was the stars and stripes. * Fire! " 
cried Elzey, and the whole line delivered its volley. 
44 Charge! " he shouted. The Marylanders had six com 
panies of Mississippi rifles and three companies of bay 
onets. But over the fence the whole line went with a 
yell up the hill through the Yankee line, or rather 
where it had been. It had gone, dissolved into mist. 
Elzey pressed right on. He was behind McDowell s 
right and he never stopped to draw breath. The whole 
Union line crumpled up, and First Manassas was won. 
As the Maryland colonel rode proudly down on the right of 
his line, Beauregard dashed up, filled with enthusiasm 
"Hail! Elzey, Blucher of the day! " and in a moment 
President Davis came up with General Johnston. 
" General Elzey, I congratulate you," said the man who 
made generals. Elzey was promoted brigadier-general, 
Steuart colonel, Johnson lieutenant-colonel, and E. R. 
Dorsey, captain Company C, major all to date from 
July 2ist, the day of the great victory. 

The First Maryland was pushed on in pursuit of the 
rout over the Stone bridge and along the turnpike until 
dark, and then hastily recalled to Blackburn s ford to 
meet an apprehended attack. Next, moving at daylight, 
it went out with the First Virginia cavalry under Col. 
J. E. B. Stuart to Fairfax Court House, when, for the first 
time, the extent of the disaster to the Union army was 
understood and appreciated. During the night of the 
aist no one had any idea of the ruin and rout that over 
whelmed the enemy. On the march of the 22nd, J. E. B. 
Stuart, an Indian fighter, could not believe his eyes, nor 
the reports his scouts brought him. The roads, the 
woods, the fields were filled with inconceivable de*bris 
overturned carriages, ambulances, artillery limbers, 
lunch baskets, champagne, even gold pieces were found, 
and Stuart suspected it was a ruse to lure him into an 


ambush. As the morning 1 wore on, however, the thing 
became too plain to doubt, and Fairfax Court House set 
tled it. The court house and yard were packed full of 
new tents, new overcoats, new uniforms. The infantry 
went into camp, and cavalry scouts pursued their way 
down to the suburbs of Alexandria, and by night Stuart 
reported to Johnston and Beauregard that there was no 
organized force south of the Potomac. 

This is no place to discuss the reasons why the Confed 
erates did not take Washington on the 23rd of July, 
1861. Two days march would have brought them to the 
Long Bridge, J. E. B. Stuart could have occupied it by 
noon of the 22nd, and the army could have marched 
comfortably over it. It is easy to see all this now. It 
was not so apparent on the 22nd of July. The Fourth 
brigade, Colonel Elzey, reached the Court House the 
afternoon of the 22nd, where the First Maryland had 
preceded them, and the command went into camp at 
Fairfax Station, a few miles distant. 

The whole army passed the rest of the summer in 
drills, in marches, in sudden alarms, in being instructed 
in the duties of a soldier first and most important of 
which is to know how to make bread. Bad cooking 
that summer killed more than Yankee bullets. But the 
Marylanders were full of spirit. They sang, they yelled, 
they shouted, they romped like a pack of schoolboys, 
and they were pets in the army. If a quick march was to 
be made, the Marylanders were sent on it. If a surprise 
was planned by J. E. B. Stuart and the cavalry, the Mary 
land regiment was ordered to support him, and to this 
day the survivors remember an eighteen-mile march 
through the rain and mud to catch a regiment of Yankee 
cavalry at Pohick Church, which had strayed that far 
into the woods and which Stuart proposed "to lose" with 
the help of the First Maryland. They mustered seven 
hundred and twenty rifles and muskets. Their uniform 

was a French kepi (a little gray cap), a natty gray round- 
aid 8 


about, collar and sleeves bound with black braid, and a 
similar stripe down the gray trousers. They were all boys 
The age of the First Maryland rank and file would not have 
averaged nineteen, nor their height over five feet eight, 
nor their weight above one hundred and thirty-five 
pounds. They were generally beardless boys, with the 
spirits, the enthusiasm, the devotion of boys. A large 
per cent were gentlemen by birth and culture. All were 
gentlemen at heart and principle. Exiles from home, 
volunteers to help a friend, staking life for love, they 
must of necessity have been impressed with an ardent 
sentimentality and a devotion beyond the ordinary stand 
ard of humanity. Around the camp-fires, on the lonely 
picket, on the march, what recollections of home did they 
not carry with them, the lengthening chain that time nor 
distance ever breaks. During the summer they became 
well drilled. They believed they were the best drilled 
corps in the army in either army in any army for that 
matter, for the Marylander never loses anything by diffi 
dence or self-depreciation. He always thinks as well of 
himself as any one ever thinks of him. Beauregard said 
they marched like Frenchmen. This set them up ; but 
more knowledge would have restrained their self-conceit, 
for no Frenchmen have ever marched or moved as brightly 
as they did. Beauregard s compliment was to his own 
people, not to ours. 

Joseph E. Johnston s wife was a Maryland woman, and 
he, tough old soldier as he was, had a tender spot in his 
heart for Marylanders, and whenever they passed him at 
review or on the march, he always had a pleasant word 
to say about them. It is due to the truth of history to 
say that during the summer and fall of 1861 the first 
Maryland regiment became as conceited a set of young 
blades as ever faced a battery or charged a line of battle. 

Variety is a virtue in a soldier. Beauregard wanted a 
line of Yankee posts along the Potomac overlooking Alex 
andria seized. It required dash, quickness, unfailing 


nerve. J. E. B. Stuart and some troops of cavalry and the 
First Maryland were sent to do it. Of course they did 
it, and for a month or two they watched the dome of the 
Capitol and the marchings up and down of McClellan, in 
front of Alexandria. Peaches were ripe. They liked 
peaches. The Yanks held a fine peach orchard in front, 
so they drove them out, and ate their peaches. The 
Yanks had some fine beef cattle. The Marylanders drove 
in their pickets, went inside their lines and got their 
cattle out and ate them. There was also an assortment of 
sows and little pigs over there. They went over and got 
them and had roast pig. In August and September roast 
ing ears are very fine, but require selection to get the 
tender kind. Just beyond Mason s hill, between the 
lines, was a cornfield of probably an hundred acres. The 
Federals held one side, the Marylanders the other, and 
every morning when the foragers started out to find chick 
ens, ducks, tomatoes, for their messes, the whole com 
mand would turn out, deploy themselves as skirmishers, 
sweep the cornfield, drive in the gentlemen in blue, and 
pick their roasting ears at their ease. The picket at 
Munson s and Mason s hills was a picnic, and when their 
tour of duty three days was out, they would petition 
to be allowed to take the place of their relief and serve 
double time. Such a curious request was always granted. 
But the service was good for them. It taught them alert 
ness, promptness, obedience and coolness, for their little 
skirmishes were not always bloodless and always were 
spliced with danger. On a dash on Munson s hill a 
mile from their post at Mason s they struck a more ob 
stinate antagonist than usual, who killed Fountain, of 
Company I, and wounded Hugh Mitchell, first lieutenant 
of the same company, like Achilles in the heel, and lamed 
him for life. But the Marylanders, like Colonel Wash 
ington at Fort Necessity, thought "there is something 
charming in the sound of a bullet, and they delighted 
in that daily music. 


After the seizure of Maryland by the Union troops, the 
process of manacling her went on with celerity and effi 
ciently. A Union regiment, the First Maryland, was re 
cruited with John R. Kenly as colonel. Colonel Kenly had 
been major of the Maryland-District of Columbia battalion 
in the Mexican war, and had served with honor to him 
self, his command and to his State. At Monterey, where 
Colonel Watson commanding was killed, Major Kenly 
brought out the shattered remnants of the battalion with 
great coolness and courage, and no man of his rank came 
out of that war with more reputation than Major Kenly. 
He had experience, he had gallantry, he had ability, and he 
was devoted to the Union. But with this devotion he was 
above narrow bigotry, which refuses to recognize sincerity, 
honesty, or unselfishness in his opponent. With a heart 
absolutely devoid of self-seeking, ignorant of dishonor, or 
dishonesty, Colonel Kenly furnished as pure a character 
and as high a type of patriotism as served on either side in 
that war. He believed it his duty to stand by the Union. 
He did so like a soldier, like a man of honor, like a pa 
triot, but no act of his ever stained his career, and he 
left no spot on his escutcheon. He was truly " without 
fear and without stain." But in pressing the policy 
initiated by Ben Butler toward Maryland, the Federal 
authorities promptly carried out the latter s ideas. The 
4 State of Maryland, where religious liberty and free 
thought were born in this world, was converted by a gen 
eral order from headquarters at Washington into " the 
Department of Annapolis and Gen. N. P. Banks was 
assigned to command it vice Cadwallader, relieved, with 
headquarters at Baltimore. Banks assumed command 
on June xoth. On the 2yth he arrested George P. Kane, 
marshal of police, and confined him in Fort McHenry. 

The police commissioners "protested" against this 
violation of law, and Banks arrested them and sent them 
to join Kane. They sent a memorial to Congress and 
Congress laid it on the table. They applied to the Presi- 


dent, and Banks put them on a steamer July 28th and 
sent them to Fort Lafayette in the harbor of New York. 
On August 6th Judge Garrison, of a State court in Brook 
lyn, issued his habeas corpus to Colonel Burke, then com 
mandant of the fort, to produce them in court. Colonel 
Burke defied the writ, under the orders of Lieutenant- 
General Scott. Attachment for contempt was then issued 
against him, and he snapped his ringers at that and 
booted the marshal out of his presence. Judge Garrison 
dismissed the proceedings, " submitting to inevitable 
necessity." So habeas corpus was suspended in the 
loyal State of New York as well as in the Department 
of Annapolis. General Banks appointed Col. John R. 
Kenly marshal of police, who promptly assumed com 
mand of the force in the city of Baltimore, the Union 
thus assuming control of a city police. The Congress 
subsequently appropriated money to pay their wages. 

On August yth the legislature passed more eloquent 
resolutions, protesting against the unconstitutional and 
illegal acts of President Lincoln, but they are not worth 
the room it would take to record them. The time for 
"protests" was past, if it ever had existed, and as the 
scolding of the Maryland legislature became annoying 
to the authorities, they determined to suppress the one 
and thus silence the other. On September 12, 1861, 
Major-General Dix, commanding in Baltimore, ordered 
the arrest of the members of the legislature from Balti 
more City and the mayor and other obnoxious persons 
who annoyed him with talk, to- wit: George William 
Brown, Coleman Yellott, Senator Stephen P. Dennis, 
Charles H. Pitts, Andrew A. Lynch, Lawrence Langston, 
H. M. Morfit, Ross Winans, J. Hanson Thomas, W. G. 
Harrison, John C. Brune, Robert M. Denison, Leonard 
D. Quinlan, Thomas W. Renshaw, Henry May, member 
of Congress from the Fourth congressional district, 
Frank Key Howard, editor of the "Baltimore Ex 
change," and Thomas W. Hall, editor of the "South." 
The arrests were made with great secrecy, and it was 


intended to send them to the Dry Tortugas, but there 
being no steamer fit for the voyage in Hampton Roads, 
they were dispatched to Fort Warren in Boston harbor. 
Liberty of the press as well as free speech had gone after 
the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus. 

On the nth of September Simon Cameron, secretary 
of war, had issued an order to General Banks that the 
passage of an ordinance of secession by the legislature, 
which was to assemble at Frederick on September i7th, 
must be prevented, even if the arrest of the legislature 
was necessary to accomplish this end. Maj.-Gen. 
George B. McClellan, then commanding the army of the 
Potomac, issued his order to General Banks to have 
everything prepared to arrest the whole party when they 
assembled. General Banks sent his aide, R. Morris 
Copeland, to attend to this business, and he accomplished 
it very successfully, " greatly assisted by several citizens 
of the place, says the chronicler. Both houses were 
called to order on the lyth, at i p. m., but no quorum 
appearing, they adjourned until the next day. The 
climate of Frederick was disagreeable to many of the 
protesters at that particular season. But Major Copeland 
was equal to the emergency. He closely picketed the 
town and held everybody in who was in, and took every 
body in who wanted to go out. On the i8th he arrested 
Milton Y. Kidd, the chief clerk of the house, and his 
assistant, Thomas H. Moore ; William Kilgour, secretary 
of the senate, and his assistant, L. P. Carmark, and John 
M. Brewer, reading clerk of the senate, and William E. 
Salmon, Elbridge G. Kilbourne, Thomas J. Claggett, 
Philip F. Raisin, Andrew Kessler, Josiah H. Gordon, 
James W. Maxwell, R. C. McCubbin, George W. Land 
ing, Dr. Bernard Mills, William R. Miller, Clark J. 
Durant, John I. Heckart and J. Lawrence Jones, mem 
bers of the house; E. Riley, printer of the house and 
editor of the " Annapolis Republican," and a number of 
citizens of Frederick pointed out by the " citizens of the 
place who were greatly assisting. 



IN November, 1861, Gen. Joseph E. Johnston, then in 
command of the Confederate army of the Potomac, 
withdrew from the posts of Mason s and Munson s 
Hills, established by Beauregard, having information that 
McClellan was about to sweep them in. Beauregard had 
established a capital secret service, and his spies in Wash 
ington, in the departments and in McClellan s headquar 
ters, kept his headquarters perfectly advised of the inten 
tions of General McClellan. They had reported in time 
McDowell s projected movement on Bull Run, which 
resulted in the first battle of Manassas. In November 
Johnston withdrew from the line of Fairfax Court House 
to Centreville, in front of Bull Run, and in a month fell 
back to Bull Run, where he put his troops in camp for 
the winter. He made his men cover themselves in log 
huts, which were comfortable, but too warm and ill-venti 
lated for troops in the field. 

During all this period the Marylanders furnished a sin 
gular exception to the rest of the army. The soldiers in 
the Southern regiments were suffering from mumps, 
measles and whooping cough, which became epidemic 
with them ; the Thirteenth North Carolina, for instance, 
which came up after the battle of Manassas thirteen hun 
dred rank and file for duty, became so reduced by these 
diseases that it could not parade enough men for camp 
guard, and was sent to the mountains to recruit its sick. 
But the First Maryland had none of these diseases. It 
lost a few men, not ten in all, by typhoid fever, but it 
was exempt from the numerous complaints that afflicted 



the troops from further south. Its camp was established 
on Bull Run just above Union Mills, and it served during 
the winter with the other regiments of the Fourth 
brigade, the Tenth and Thirteenth Virginia and the Third 
Tennessee, picketing the front from Wolf Run Shoals 
by Burke s Station up toward Fairfax Court House. It 
was hard service. The men were taken out of warm 
huts and sent on tours of three days duty in the open 
fields or in the woods without shelter Their huts had 
been occupied during their absence and they never saw 
them again. Sleeping on the wet ground in sleet, snow 
and hail of necessity produced pneumonia and rheuma 
tism. Nevertheless they never lost their gay spirit. 
Their march to picket and their return were always 
marked by shouts and yells and songs. 

The song of " Maryland " was too solemn for these 
spirited boys. Its movement was too slow. It was 
more like a dirge. It had been introduced to them in the 
most picturesque way. During the summer at Fairfax 
Station, Hetty, Jenny and Constance Carey, who had run 
the blockade from Baltimore, came up to visit the regi 
ment. It was full of their brothers, their cousins and 
their beaux, and these beautiful young women in camp 
produced an effect on the mercurial Marylanders that can 
only be imagined, not described. The boys and the 
officers were on their heads. The young ladies were 
quartered in the field officers tents, where they held 
court for several days. One night the glee club of the 
regiment was serenading them, when the fly of Colonel 
Steuart s tent was thrown open and all three appeared, 
Jenny Carey in the center and her sister Hetty on one 
side and cousin Constance on the other. Their pure 
voices rang through the summer night with the words 
and air of " My Maryland," and no such audience ever 
inspired songsters before or since. The boys were car 
ried away. Silence, then cheers, then silence, then sup 
pressed and not unmanly sobs attested the power of the 


sentiment of love for home. But " Maryland " touched 
too deeply the feeling of the heart to do for camp or 
march. " Gay and Happy " was the air that thrilled 
souls, and it rang like the drum-beat of the assembly or 
the bugle sound to the charge. So the march of the 
Marylanders was announced by the ringing song of 
4< Gay and Happy. " 

Johnston understood perfectly that as soon as the 
spring sun dried up the roads and the fields of Virginia, 
McClellan must move on him. The latter had two hun 
dred thousand men, Johnston forty thousand, so for more 
than a month he was clearing out his camp and sending 
impedimenta to the rear. Early in March, 1862, he re 
ceived notice from his spies in Washington that McClellan 
was about to strike. On the 8th he began his retrograde 
to the line of the Rappahannock, still keeping his pickets 
out on their usual posts, to present the appearance of 
being in the same position and to prevent intelligence 
leaking through to the Union commander. Early on the 
morning of the Qth the first battalion of the First Mary 
land, four companies, under Lieutenant-Colonel John 
son moved out to Burke s Station to relieve the 
Thirteenth Virginia, whose term of picket had expired. 
They reached Burke s before noon and Johnson reported 
to Walker of the Thirteenth that he was ready to relieve 
him. The two officers rode along the line, posting the 
reliefs and sending the Virginians back to their camp, 
when all at once on the opposite line of hills appeared a 
line of skirmishers, and simultaneously a squadron of 
cavalry rattled down the road. Company F, First Lieut 
William D. Hough in command, had been posted on a 
hill, just below the road, in front of a wood and a fence. 
As soon as Hough saw the cavalry coming, he very prop 
erly made for the fence, for he had no bayonets. But 
the horsemen, a squadron of the Eighth Illinois, were on 
him before he got there. He turned and made a gallant 
fight. Second Lieut. Joseph H. Stewart jerked a rifle 

Md 9 


from one of his men, shot the leader of the charge, a 
captain or lieutenant, knocked the horse s front legs from 
under him with his clubbed rifle and was cut down by the 
sabre. Nine men, including Stewart, were captured. 
Company H, under the gallant captain, Wm. H. Mur 
ray, came running up as soon as they heard the firing. 
The remnant of Company F got behind the fence 
and gave the charging party a volley, and Murray from 
the nearest hill gave them another, and they went back 
faster than they came. But the advancing line of skir 
mishers were sweeping the front as far as the eye could 
reach on each side, and it was clear that an advance in 
force was present. Colonel Johnson, therefore, drew in 
his command. Walker had formed and waited for him a 
mile to the rear. They joined forces and marched com 
fortably back to Union Mills, where they arrived after 
dark. The bridge was on fire, the army had gone and Col 
onel Nicholls, of the Louisiana regiment, since Governor 
Nicholls, was holding the place for them until they got 
through. Crossing Bull Run they marched on the rear 
guard of the army and the next day reached the Rappa- 
hannock. Maj.-Gen. Richard S. Ewell, who was in com 
mand of the division, was posted there by Johnston to 
hold the enemy back while Johnston got his trains out of 
the way. He held the position for several weeks, until 
during the last of April he moved to Gordonsville, thence 
to Somerset and thence by Swift Run Gap and across the 
Blue Ridge to Conrad s store in the valley of Virginia. 

After First Manassas George B. McClellan was put in 
command of all the Union armies when Winfield Scott re 
signed, superannuated. General McClellan had come 
out of the Mexican war with a first-rate reputation, and 
in 1 86 1 made a brilliant campaign in West Virginia, the 
American Switzerland, against Wise, Floyd and Robert 
E. Lee. He was, therefore, with reason regarded as the 
first soldier on his side. During the winter of 1861-62 he 
prepared a plan of a grand campaign, of which Rich- 


mond was to be the objective, and which was to be carried 
but by the army of the Potomac under his personal 
direction, in conjunction with an army in West Virginia 
under General Milroy, and another in the valley of Vir 
ginia under General Banks. While McClellan trans 
ported his great army of the Potomac by water to York 
river, whence he could move on the flank of Richmond, 
Milroy was to march down west of the Alleghanies, and 
Banks was to move directly up the valley, the latter two 
uniting at Staunton to march on Lynchburg, where they 
would cut the communication between Richmond and 
the southwestern States of the Confederacy. Maj.-Gen. 
Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall) was in the valley with 
3,ooo men to observe and check this concentration. 
Ewell was on the Rappahannock with 7,000 to watch Mc 
Clellan s move by that route, while Johnston had taken 
the main part of his army to the peninsula between the 
York and James rivers, to confront McClellan, whose 
move in that direction had become fully developed. 

Jackson required more men. Banks in front had more 
than four times his number, and his force could not cover 
the ground. The story at the time was that he applied 
to Richmond for " more men and fewer orders. " Ewell 
was ordered to report to him and reached Conrad s Store 
on the first days of May. To his astonishment and per 
plexity he found the embers of Jackson s camp fires and 
no orders. Jackson had vanished in a night, without a 
word, without a trace. So Ewell impatiently waited a 
week for directions and at length came the telegram from 
4 Stone wall" "McDowell, May 9th: God has given 
us a victory at McDowell to-day." That was all, but it 
was sufficient. 

Without stopping to take breath, Jackson sped back to 
Staunton, moved swiftly on Banks, who had got to Stras- 
burg, and ordered Ewell to meet him at New Market. 
Thence they recrossed the Massanutten range and raced 
swiftly down the Luray valley. This march was like the 


tiger s approach, stealthy, silent until within striking dis 
tance, then one leap on his prey. The army of the Val 
ley marched ten to twelve miles a day, then twenty, then 
thirty, and it was on Banks before he knew Jackson had 
left McDowell. 

Colonel Steuart had been promoted brigadier-general 
on March 28th; Lieutenant-Colonel Johnson colonel, 
and Major Dorsey, lieutenant-colonel. General Steuart 
was ordered to organize the Maryland Line, consisting of 
the First Maryland and the Baltimore Light artillery as 
a nucleus, but was temporarily assigned to command a 
brigade of cavalry, being an old cavalry soldier. Col 
onel Johnson was thus left in command of the Maryland 
Line. They marched to the quarters of General Elzey, 
between whom and themselves there had always existed 
the tenderest affection, though Elzey had never been in 
command of the regiment, having been assigned to a 
brigade as soon as he joined. But they loved him. His 
brusque, prompt manner, his gallant bearing, his gen 
erous heart, made him dear to them. In battle Elzey s 
look was like the blast of a bugle ; in camp he was care 
ful of his men, though he scolded them from start to fin 
ish and they always deserved it. The parting, therefore, 
was more than usually touching. 

In the First Maryland, matters at this time were in a 
very unsatisfactory condition. The Richmond companies 
had been mustered into the army of Virginia for twelve 
months, that being the term of enlistment in that service. 
The Harper s Ferry companies had been mustered by 
Lieutenant- Colon el Deas into the army of the Confederate 
States for the war. But during the year they had got it 
into their hearts that they, too, ought to have been mus 
tered for only twelve months, and that if their muster 
rolls showed differently, they had been deceived. There 
was not the slightest doubt that they were mistaken, but 
this idea naturally breeded great discontent. Companies 
A and B had been mustered at the Point of Rocks for 


twelve months, as their muster rolls showed. On May 
1 8th Company C s time expired and they were mus 
tered out by Colonel Johnson, who expostulated with 
them to no effect. They wanted their rights, they 
wanted to go into the cavalry, they were tired of trudg 
ing. So off they went. They had no idea of going 
home, or abandoning the fight. The rest, except Com 
panies A and B, being absent on detached service, were 
nearly in a state of mutiny as they neared the enemy. 
At length, on May 22d, when twelve months from the 
muster at Harper s Ferry expired, the large majority of 
them stacked their arms and refused to do duty. This 
was mutiny, and the colonel promptly had tfce arms 
packed in the wagons and the men put under a guard 
with loaded guns. He sent for Color-Sergeant Doyle, as 
good a soldier as ever bore musket, and showed him how 
impossible it was to have any discussion in the presence 
of the enemy, and directed him to find out how many 
men were willing to go on and defer the decision of their 
claims and complaints until after the campaign. Doyle 
reported that about half the command were willing to 
stand by the colors in any event. The army was then 
within an easy march of Front Royal, where Banks had 
stationed a force to protect his flank. The next morn 
ing, the 23d, the march was begun, the First Maryland in 
the worst possible condition one-half under arrest for 
mutiny, the rest disgusted with the service, and the col 
onel disgusted with them. A halt was made for rest 
about five miles from Front Royal, and during it an aide 
brought this order: "Colonel Johnson will move the 
First Maryland to the front and attack the enemy at 
Front Royal. The army will halt until you pass. JACK 
SON." The colonel turned on his regiment: ** You have 
heard this personal order from General Jackson and you 
are in a pretty condition to obey it. You are the sole 
hope of Maryland. You carry with you her honor and 
her pride. Shame on you shame on you. I shall re- 


turn this order to General Jackson with the endorsement, 
4 The First Maryland refuses to face the enemy, for I 
will not trust the honor of the glorious old State to dis 
contented, dissatisfied men. I won t lead men who have 
no heart. Every man who is discontented must fall out 
of ranks step to the rear and march with the guard. If 
I can get ten good men, I ll take the Maryland colors 
with them and will stand for home and honor ; but never 
again call yourselves Mary landers ! No Marylander ever 
threw down his arms and deserted his colors in the pres 
ence of the enemy and those arms and those colors 
given you by a woman ! Go ! " This appeal settled it. 
The men in ranks cheered and yelled, 4 Forward, we ll 
show you ! The men under guard pleaded with tears 
to be allowed to return to duty, ran back miles to the 
wagons, got their guns and rejoined their regiment by 
the time it attacked at Front Royal. The Marylanders 
marched forward, rejuvenated, reinvigorated, restored! 
The army halted. As they went by they could hear time 
and again, " There they go. Look at the game 
cocks. The Louisiana brigade, Gen. Dick Taylor, 
came to a front and presented arms. The Marylanders 
trod on air, for no men are so susceptible to praise or 
enjoy flattery more. 

Clear of the column, they debouched from the wooded 
road into the open, where there was a long stretch of 
fields between them and the village of Front Royal. A 
squad of cavalry charged down the road. Captain Nich 
olas and Company G were deployed as skirmishers on each 
side of it. A mile distant, by the side of a fence was a 
blanket stretched from two fence rails as a shelter. A 
man got up, looked at the strange sight coming out of the 
woods, sheltered his eyes from the sun, then made a 
grab for his musket, but before he could fire, the cavalry 
was on him, and that picket was gobbled up. There 
were three men on post, but they did not have time 
to give the alarm. A cavalry man, with cocked carbine, 


trotted them to the rear. General Ewell, General 
Steuart and Colonel Johnson were riding at the head of 
the column. "What regiment do you belong to? " was 
the colonel s eager inquiry. " First Maryland," was the 
response of the Dutchman. " There s the First Mary 
land, " cried the Confederate, pointing behind. Great 
Heavens! was such good fortune ever given to a soldier? 
The Federal First Maryland had been recruited under 
the gallant Kenly, but it was largely composed of for 
eigners, and the Marylanders had always refused to rec 
ognize it as representing their State. They were the 
only simon-pure, genuine Marylanders, and if ever they 
got a chance they would show them! Here was the 
chance. As the news flew back through the ranks, 
shoulders were straightened, chests thrown out, and 
every man thanked God he was a Marylander and was 
there ! 

As they approached the town, a hot musketry fire 
broke out from the doors and windows of a large build 
ing to the left, probably four or five hundred yards dis 
tant. " Colonel, can you take that building? " said Gen 
eral Ewell. "Yes, sir, in five minutes." "Men, you 
see that house? You are to take it. Forward, double 
quick charge! " And the Marylanders went at it like a 
charge of canister. "Excuse me, Colonel, " said Adju 
tant Frank Ward, touching his cap as he dashed by on 
his pony. Capt. Billy Murray and Lieut. George Thomas 
broke from their proper places and ran in front, and the 
building was taken in half the time promised. Gather 
ing the command together it was rushed into the town 
with Wheat s battalion on the left, then through the 
town, where the enemy was discovered on the crest of 
some hills with a battery in position at his center, and a 
force of cavalry, probably a squadron, on his right. 
Wheat with the Louisianians took the left, the Marylanders 
the front and center and moved across the open to attack. 
A shell exploded in the ground under the color guard, 


and the colors fell; but Lieut. Dick Gilmor had them 
before they touched the ground. The Louisianians 
worked their way from cover to cover, until they nearly 
enveloped Kenly s right. But the Marylanders could 
make no further progress. They were in the open with 
no cover. Lines of stone fences running parallel to 
Kenly s front gave secure protection to his skirmishers, 
so that when, after hours work, one line was dislodged 
and forced back on its reserves, another was promptly 
formed and reinforced by Kenly, who handled his com 
mand with gallant skill and coolness. He had 800 in 
fantry, a battery, and probably eighty cavalry. The 
First Maryland paraded that day 375 rifles and Wheat had 
200, and Kenly could see every man of his antagonists. 
Jackson, adhering to his persistent strategy of mys 
tery, kept his army concealed in the woods several miles 
off, and left the Louisianians and Marylanders to fight 
their fight out, without assistance. Company F, Capt. J. 
Louis Smith, was sent by his colonel into a skirt of 
woods on the right to work his way up to Kenly s left, 
which he succeeded in doing during the afternoon, and 
began firing down Kenly s line. At length Kenly be 
gan to move. His cavalry came down the hill and de 
ployed in the field and came forward in a trot to charge 
the Marylanders and cover Kenly s withdrawal. The 
fire of his battery also became very active, but the Bal 
timore light artillery quieted that in a few minutes. 
Kenly had discovered from his elevated position two reg 
iments of Virginia cavalry moving round his left to get in 
his rear, though unknown to the Louisianians and Mary- 
landers. As soon as Kenly s move was understood, the 
whole line was moved forward. The skirmishers under 
Lieutenant- Colonel Dorsey advanced into a charge as 
soon as they got within reach. This expedited Kenly s 
retreat, so that he was unable to burn the bridge over 
the Shenandoah. He set it on fire, but the Louisianians 
and Marylanders put it out before any harm was done, 


and the Sixth Virginia cavalry pressed over it in single 
file in hot pursuit. Jackson, Ewell and Steuart joined 
the leading squadron as soon as the enemy was well 
started and the cavalry on them. Jackson and Ewell 
then returned to their proper places with the infantry and 
Steuart pushed on all night, picking up nearly every man 
of Kenly s command. It was a fight between First Mary 
land and First Maryland, creating great amusement in 
the army, for among the prisoners were many brothers, 
cousins, uncles, and some fathers of the Confederates. 
Such a scene was never witnessed before in war as the 
meeting between the two regiments after the Union Mary- 
landers were brought in as prisoners by the cavalry. It 
was amusing and even jovial, for one side was glad to 
see somebody from home, and the other that it had 
fallen into the hands of relatives and kindred, although 
technically they were enemies. Kenly fought his men 
with indomitable gallantry, intelligence and good sense. 
He made all out of it that was possible, and he might 
have held his position had it not been for the flanking 
movement of the cavalry. He was wounded by saber 
cut and pistol ball. His adjutant, Tarr, was also badly 

The next morning Colonel Johnson and staff called on 
Colonel Kenly and staff and tendered any courtesies that 
it was proper for the one to receive or the other to offer. 
But Kenly was sore in body and spirit and refused any 
favors of any kind at the hands of his conqueror. The 
ill humor of the gallant soldier was condoned on account 
of his misfortune, and no one thought the worse of him 
for his bitterness. Kenly performed an inestimable serv 
ice to Banks. He held Jackson back for twelve hours, 
and thus gave Banks opportunity to fall back from Stras- 
burg to Winchester. 

On the 24th Ewell moved up within reach of Winches 
ter, Jackson marching by Strasburg and the valley pike. 
By daylight they were in line of battle, Jackson s right 

Md 10 


almost touching E well s left, both together forming a 
semi-circle round the town. Before day the line moved 
forward, First Maryland on E well s left with orders to 
watch out for Jackson in the pike, and get in touch of 
him as soon as possible. Skirmishers were out; but 
nothing could be seen, for a dense fog enveloped every 
thing. Feeling their way slowly and carefully forward, 
at last the skirmishers were withdrawn and Colonel 
Johnson made a dash forward at a stone wall, which could 
be dimly discerned ahead. To their surprise they went 
over it without a shot and were halted in an apple 
orchard, some distance inside the wall. It appeared that 
they had penetrated Banks center, between his right and 
left wing, and were behind his line. It was uncertain 
whether they were prisoners in a big army, or had 
achieved a grand tactical movement and exploit. The 
colonel sent back Adjutant Ward to report the situation 
to General Ewell with the suggestion that as soon as 
Ewell attacked in front, the First Maryland would charge 
down behind the Union lines and sweep them away from 
the front attack. The fog was thick and dark. Ward 
was gone, and the Marylanders waited for the fire from 
the front. The Union bugles sounded * cease firing ! 
The fog rolled up like the curtain at the theater and the 
Federal line was disclosed, wheeling by companies into 
column and marching to the left. On the extreme 
Union right, Dick Taylor s Louisiana brigade swept up 
the hill,, like a steel- tipped wave over the earth-works, 
over the guns, over the line of battle, and the fields were 
filled with Banks fugitives. The Maryland colonel 
brought his men to attention, wheeled into column and 
said, * Men, this regiment is to be first at the Taylor 
House!" They cheered and started with quickened 
pace to the center of Winchester. They went down the 
main street just as the sun of that May morning was gild 
ing the steeples and housetops. Doors and windows 
flew open. Women in dishabille, in nightdress, filled 


the windows and the streets, crying and screaming in 
ecstasy, and the Marylanders were the first at the Tay 
lor House. They had policed the town, seized the ware- 
houses and magazines of supplies and put guards over 
them before others got up, so that when E well s commis 
sary came up, an immense quantity of everything useful 
to an army was turned over to him intact, except of 
course some things retained by the Marylanders, who were 
entitled to salvage and took it ! Lieut. -Col. Edwin R. 
Dorsey was wounded as he charged singly and alone a 
squad of Union soldiers in a side street. He was the 
only man of the command hit during the day. 

The Marylanders went into camp four miles north of 
the town on the valley pike, and next day, the 26th, 
marched into Martinsburg. There they were engaged 
for two or three days collecting stores left by Banks, and 
then rejoined the main army near Charlestown. While 
there General Steuart with the First Maryland and two 
batteries drove the enemy from Bolivar Heights, which 
he occupied, but evacuated after a few hours and went 
into camp at Halltown. The next morning at daylight 
the army took the retrograde. Gen. Charles S. Winder, 
the Marylander, had been sent to the other side of the 
Shenandoah to take Loudoun Heights and demonstrate 
from there on Harper s Ferry, w r hich he did. Every 
thing was done to make the enemy understand that the 
Confederates proposed crossing the Potomac at Harper s 
Ferry, and moving down in the rear to take Washington. 
When Winder recrossed to join the army, then in retreat, 
he found the First Maryland alone just moving out of 
camp, having received no order of march. It had no 
brigade. Winder at once directed Colonel Johnson to 
report to him and gave him the position of honor, the rear 
guard, and thus they moved up the valley the Stonewall 
brigade the rear guard of the army, the First Maryland 
the rear guard of the Stonewall brigade. 


Jackson s movement had accomplished Lee s object in 
ordering it. It deranged and temporarily broke up Mc- 
Clellan s campaign on Richmond. It was plain that no 
grand strategy could be carried out with such an erratic, 
eccentric, unaccountable, uncontrollable character as 
Stonewall interfering, intercepting, and meddling all 
the time. 

While Jackson was at Charlestown, Harry Gilmor, the 
most daring of scouts, operating in Hardy county west 
of the Alleghanies, reported to him that Fremont with a 
large army was moving rapidly south, with the evident 
intention of cutting him off at Strasburg. Scouts from 
east of the Blue Ridge kept him fully advised of the 
movements of Shields, who was hurrying by forced 
marches to Front Royal. Front Royal is about twelve 
miles from Strasburg. Through this gap between Fre 
mont and Shields, Jackson was to make his escape. He 
had five thousand prisoners and three thousand captured 
wagons, making a column ten miles long. He pushed 
his spoils ahead, and when he reached Strasburg Fremont 
was three miles to his right and Shields twelve miles to 
his left at Front Royal. In fact, Shields cavalry was on 
the road parallel to the pike and only three miles dis 
tant. Jackson hurried Charles Winder and the Stonewall 
brigade up to meet Fremont. Winder sent orders to 
Colonel Johnson that if charged by cavalry he must take 
to the fences on the sides of the pike. The Maryland 
rear guard covered that critical movement and were the 
last to cross the burning bridges. Clear of his flanking 
enemies, with all of them behind him, Jackson stretched 
himself up the valley in a seventy-mile race, Fremont 
closing in behind, and Shields pushing up the Luray, or 
Page valley on the east, parallel to Jackson s line of 
march. If the two Federal armies could out-march Jack 
son and throw themselves across the Confederate retreat, 
Jackson must be ground up between Fremont with forty 
thousand men and Shields with eight thousand. Fre- 


mont was a dashing and imprudent soldier and Shields a 
headlong Irishman. Fremont s cavalry was commanded 
by Sir Percy Wyndham, an Englishman, a soldier of for 
tune, who had served under Garibaldi with Maj. Robi- 
deau Wheat of Wheat s battalion. 

Fremont mounted a considerable force of infantry in 
wagons, and with them supporting his cavalry pushed 
and harassed Jackson day and night. The Union cav 
alry became very bold. They rode over the Confederate 
guns and over Confederate cavalry when it pleased them. 
Ashby and Steuart were in command of the cavalry, and 
they determined to give Sir Percy a lesson. On the 5th 
of June, Jackson turned from the main turnpike, south to 
Stan ton, toward Port Republic, east of the Shenandoah 
and west of the Blue Ridge, where he could head off both 
Fremont and Shields, and if necessary, dodge through a 
gap in the mountains and hold the gap against their com 
bined force. During the next day, the 6th, Sir Percy 
pressed on the Confederate cavalry rear, but Ashby, as 
crafty as an Indian, drew him into an ambuscade, and 
captured him and his leading squadron, dispersing the 
rest. This taught the Union general some caution, and 
he began to perceive that Jackson s retreat was not a 
flight, but was strategy. 

Late in the afternoon Ashby in person reported to Gen 
eral Ewell that the wagon brigade had pushed far ahead 
of the infantry, and if the general would give him a few 
regiments, he would capture the whole gang of this four- 
wheeled cavalry. Ewell gave him the First Maryland, 
the Forty-fourth and Fifty-eighth Virginia. The First 
Maryland was, as usual, in the rear, and, therefore, when 
the command was faced about, was entitled to the right of 

the line. "Always next the enemy, " they claimed 

"in front going toward him, behind going from him." 
When, therefore, by countermarching they were thrown 
in the rear, they lost their post of honor. Colonel John 
son that morning had dressed himself in a new uniform, 
little worn, glittering with gold lace and the three stars of 


his rank and had ridden ahead to talk to General Jackson 
about the condition of his command and apply for some 
detached service, where he could rest and receive recruits 
from the Marylanders then flocking to Virginia. He 
was reduced to seven companies and two hundred and 
seventy- five rifles. The time of two companies had ex- 
pired and that of a third, Company C, would expire on 
June 1 7th. Jackson heard all this and assented to it 
cordially, and then said, "Colonel, I can t let you go on 
detached service at this time. Go and select a good 
camp, drill your men three times a day, and you ll draw 
recruits as soon as they know where to find you. All 
this was incontrovertible, but Jackson s drill did not 
tend to replenish depleted ranks. He drilled that regi 
ment in three battles in the next three days and in ten in 
the next thirty! Colonel Johnson, however, galloped 
back to his command as fast as he could, and on his 
arrival found it moving rearward, First Maryland far 
thest from the enemy, in the rear. 

It was about sundown, and as they moved across an 
open field, he broke from his place in column and pushed 
on to get parallel to the Fifty-eighth Virginia, the leading 
regiment, the Forty-fourth Virginia next. Ewell and 
Ashby were riding at the head of the Fifty-eighth, Ashby s 
dark face afire with enthusiasm. His hair and head 
were as black as a crow and his beard grew close up to 
his black eyes, until he looked like a Bedouin chief. He 
was pointing out the positions and topography, swinging 
his arm right and left. " Look at Ashby enjoying him 
self, said the Maryland colonel to Adjutant Ward riding 
by his side. They pushed across the open field and en 
tered the wood. The evening sun was shooting its hori 
zontal arrows through the June foliage. The wood was 
open, with little undergrowth and the timber well grown 
and large. Ewell sent over to the First Maryland for 
skirmishers. Company G, Captain Nicholas, and Com 
pany D, Captain Herbert, were sent to him. They were 


deployed in front of the two columns, Virginians on the 
right, Marylanders on the left, and the whole pressed on 
into the darkening wood. Soon the dropping fire of the 
skirmishers on the right showed that they had found the 
enemy, and Ashby moved the Virginians in line straight 
to the firing. Ewell remained with the Marylanders and 
threw them into line and marched them straight forward, 
Ewell and Johnson riding on the right. All at once the 
skirmish fire deepened, a volley roared out, and in a sec 
ond the Virginians on the right were thrown into confu 
sion. The dusk, the surprise, the sudden death to so 
many shocked them into momentary panic. They were 
as brave men as were in that army and proved their valor 
on every battlefield of the army of Northern Virginia 
but the shock had unnerved them for a moment. Col 
onel Johnson, springing in front of his regiment, ordered, 
Halt ! Steady battalion ! Stand fast, First Maryland ! 
and swinging his saber in a circle round his head, 
"Rally, Virginians! Rally! Form behind that wall !" 
pointing to the staunch ranks of the First Maryland. 
This recalled every one to his duty, and when Ewell 
gave the order to charge, the men moved forward as if in 
review. They reached the edge of the wood and found on 
the farther side of a field a six-gun battery and a 
regiment, apparently of cavalry. 

At this time the fire on the right, where Ashby was, 
had become hot and growing every second. Ewell 
dashed up "Charge, colonel!" he cried. "Attention 
battalion," was the order, "by the right flank, march." 
The regiment moved by the flank towards the fire. As 
soon as it arrived at the top of the hill, the head of the 
column was turned to the right, and when the colors came 
in "by the left flank, charge! " was the order. The right 
battalion swung into line and charged in a run. The left 
battalion jumped into place and went along. There is 
no such movement or order in any tactics, but it was 
sufficient. The enemy, thirty yards off, was lying be- 


hind a worm fence and, as the Marylanders came into line, 
a volley from the fence swept down Colonel Johnson, 
Captain Robertson, Lieutenant Snowden, Sergeant 
Doyle, and twenty of the men in ranks. The colonel s 
new uniform procured him especial attention. Three 
bullets, tearing off the pommel of his saddle and cutting 
down his horse, dismounted him, but he was on his feet 
in a moment and with his regiment at the fence. Their 
opponents, the Pennsylvania Bucktails, broke, and as 
they ran across the open field, the Marylanders pelted 
them with great comfort and satisfaction. Few escaped, 
the Bucktails were nearly annihilated, and Colonel Kane 
captured. The Maryland colors went down time and 
again but never touched the ground. All the color guard 
were killed or wounded. 

From this place Jackson moved to Cross Keys, on the 
Shenandoah, where, with Shields and the river in his 
rear, he offered battle to Fremont against odds of three 
to one. Fremont attacked early on the 8th, and as the 
Marylanders were moving up to their place in line, Ewell 
said to Colonel Johnson, ** Colonel, you must carry a 
bucktail in your colors as your trophy, for you won it on 
Friday. Many of the men were wearing bucktails in 
their caps, which had attracted E well s attention. Com 
pany D was passing at the moment, and Colonel Johnson 
called out to William H. Ryan, a tall, long-legged boy, 
who had one, "Here, Ryan, give me that bucktail." 
Ryan brought it. " Now you tie it to the head of the 
colors yourself and your trophy shall be the trophy of the 
regiment." That is the way the bucktail got to be the 
cognizance of the First Maryland regiment. 

The Marylanders held Ewell s right from sunrise until 
four o clock, when their rifles having become so hot and 
so foul they could no longer be loaded or fired, they were 
withdrawn to a branch in rear to clean their guns. 

The Baltimore light artillery held the center of the 
line, which was commanded by Elzey. The right was 


commanded by Trimble and the left by Steuart, and 
Elzey selected the line on which the battle was to be 
fought. The Marylanders, therefore, always claimed 
Cross Keys as a Maryland battle and a Maryland triumph. 

But while Fremont s guns were thundering at Cross 
Keys, Shields was plunging up the other side of the 
river to strike Jackson s rear and drive him back on 
Fremont. He got there twelve hours too late. Jack 
son s troops slept in line on the night of the 8th, but next 
morning before the sun was up they were over the river 
in Shields front, and made right at his throat. The 
Marylanders, after their hand-to-hand fight on the even 
ing of the 6th, had not had half rations during the next 
day, for they had to bury their dead at Cross Keys 
church. On the 8th they had not a mouthful, for their 
wagons had been sent off. On crossing the river by 
sunrise of the pth Colonel Johnson gained Ewell s per 
mission to stop and get something to eat. The fire of 
the Louisianians at Port Republic, two miles off, abbre 
viated their breakfast and they pushed on to the fight. 
They got there only in time to act as reserve to their old 
comrades, the Stonewall brigade, but enjoyed none of the 
joys of the charge, as the Louisianians had done, and 
none of the glory which the gallant soldiers of Dick Tay 
lor and their general had gathered in such abundance. 

Ewell decorated the First Maryland by a general order 
and honored them in his report, as follows : 

" Headquarters, Third Division. 
General Order No. 30. 

In commemoration of the gallant conduct of the First 
Maryland regiment, on the 6th of June, when, led by 
Col. Bradley T. Johnson, they drove back with loss the 
Pennsylvania Bucktail rifles in the engagement near 
Harrisonburg, Rockingham Co., Va. , authority is 
given to have one of the captured Bucktails, the insignia 
of the Federal regiment, appended to the color staff of 
the First Maryland regiment. 

By order of Major-General Ewell: 




From General E well s report of the Valley campaign: 

" The history of the First Maryland regiment, gal 
lantly commanded by Col. Bradley T. Johnson during 
the campaign of the Valley, would be the history of 
every action from Front Royal to Cross Keys. On the 
6th, near Harrisonburg, the Fifty-eighth Virginia regi 
ment was engaged with the Pennsylvania Bucktails, the 
righting being close and bloody. Colonel Johnson came 
up with his regiment in the hottest period, and by a 
dashing charge in flank, drove the enemy off with heavy 
loss, capturing Lieutenant-Colonel Kane commanding. In 
commemoration of this gallant conduct, I ordered one of 
the captured Bucktails to be appended as a trophy to their 
flag. This action is worthy of acknowledgment from a 
higher source, more particularly as they avenged the death 
of the gallant General Ashby, who fell at the same time. 
Four color bearers were shot down in succession, but 
each time the colors were caught before reaching the 
ground and were finally borne by Corporal Daniel Shanks 
to the close of the action. 

"On the 8th inst. at Cross Keys they were opposed to 
three of the enemy s regiments in succession." 

General Jackson in his report says: 

** Apprehending that the Federals would make a more 
serious attack, Ashby called for an infantry support. 
The brigade of Gen. Geo. H. Steuart was accordingly 
ordered forward. In a short time the Fifty-eighth Vir 
ginia became engaged with a Pennsylvania regiment 
called the Bucktails, when Colonel Johnson of the First 
Maryland regiment, coming up in the hottest period of 
fire, charged gallantly into its flank and drove the enemy 
with heavy loss from the field, capturing Lieutenant- 
Colonel Kane commanding. In this skirmish, our in 
fantry loss was seventeen killed, fifty wounded and three 
missing. In this affair Gen. Turner Ashby was killed. 

It is a curious commentary on official reports and his 
torical records that both these reports from the highest 
authorities state that the Marylanders charged in flank, 
while in fact they charged full in front of the enemy, 
and received his fire from the front of his line of battle. 



AFTER Cross Keys and Port Republic, when Fre 
mont and Shields were sent whirling- down the 
valley, Jackson made a feint of pursuit, and 
pushed his cavalry some marches after them. He or 
dered the First Maryland to Staunton to recruit, where, 
during the next ten days, Company I was mustered out 
on June iyth, its time having expired. These men left 
the regiment with the respect of the whole command 
and the love of their colonel. Their captain, Michael 
Stone Robertson, belonged to an historic family in 
Charles county and was a descendant of Col. John H. 
Stone, colonel of the First regiment of the Maryland 
Line of the Revolution. His words as he fell were, 
44 Go on, boys, don t mind me," and he died at his next 
breath. Lieut. Nicholas Snowden, of Company D, who 
died at the same time, had been captain of a cavalry 
company in Prince George s in 1 860-61, and had joined 
Captain Herbert, his cousin, at Harper s Ferry, early in 
May, 1 86 1. He was as honest, gallant and high-minded a 
gentleman as ever lived. The blood that Maryland 
poured out on that evening of June 6th was as precious 
and as glorious as any she has ever given in all her his 
tory, at Long Island, at Monterey, or in the army of 
Northern Virginia. 

At Staunton the regiment was reinforced with a new 
company under Capt. John H. Barry, which was desig 
nated Company G. About June 24th Jackson made a 
sudden disappearance from the front of Fremont, and 
reappeared on Lee s left on the Chickahominy. He 
picked up the First Maryland at Staunton, and moved by 



train. On the 25th he reached Ashland on the Rich 
mond, Fredericksburg and Potomac railroad, fifteen 
miles north of Richmond, and at daylight of the 26th 
moved east toward Lee s left. By three o clock he got in 
touch with the enemy s pickets at Pole Green church in 
Hanover county, and the First Maryland was ordered 
forward (they held the right of Jackson s column) to 
drive them in. This was done, and they forced them 
back to Beaver Dam creek, on the farther side of which 
they made a stand, and the Marylanders could not move 
them. General Jackson, riding up, asked Johnson, 
"Colonel, what have you stopped for? " "I can t get 
those fellows there out of the woods ! " * * Give them 
some shell ! and the colonel ordered up the Baltimore 
light artillery, which soon quieted the fire on the other 
side. It was then dark and the command lay down in 
line of battle. At daylight they moved forward toward 
Old Cold Harbor, and by noon were ordered to support 
artillery. They remained in this position until nearly 
sundown. The battle had been raging for hours on the 
Tight. The roll of musketry surged on like the surf of 
the ocean until it breaks and then recedes. The battle 
on the right made no progress. 

All the infantry had been sent in until the Maryland 
regiment was left alone with the batteries. General 
Jackson, riding by, said, " Colonel, take your command 
in." "What shall I do with the batteries?" "The 
cavalry must take care of them." " General, when I 
park them, which way shall I move? " " That way! " 
said Jackson, swinging his right arm to the right. Col 
onel Johnson immediately obeyed the order and moved 
forward by the right flank, until bursting shell and 
whizzing balls and wounded, limping men showed that 
they were approaching the point at issue. Just at the 
edge of a ditch they were halted, fronted and dressed 
carefully. The ground was impassable and the horses of 
the field officers and staff were sent back. The colonel 


said, 4< Men, we alone represent Maryland here. We are 
few in number, and for that reason our duty to our State 
is greater. We must do her honor. The command 
moved as quickly as a deep morass and heavy under 
growth would permit, and, emerging on open ground, 
reformed and lay down until every man got over. They 
were just then near the crest of a hill, on the side of a 
wide field, with no obstruction* in front for nearly half a 
mile. The farther side was covered with a thick curtain 
of smoke, rolling backward and forward, in which only 
incessant, lurid flashes could be seen. Occasionally a 
small group would emerge, bearing a wounded man, or a 
frightened soldier would run back. Some distance to the 
left a large battery was sweeping the plateau. From 
the front came an incessant rain of bullets. Directly to 
the left the most tremendous roar of small arms an 
nounced a desperate struggle. "Up, men!" was the 
order. " Shoulder arms, right-shoulder-shift arms. 
Forward march ! The regiment moved forward as it 
never moved on drill, as steady and straight as a line. 
On it went, over that dreadful plain, strewed with dead 
and dying, every officer in place; the hospital detail, 
with the surgeons, Drs. Johnson and Latimer, thirty 
paces in rear. Shot and shell tore through the ranks. 
Not a man fell out. The wounded men were picked up 
by the hospital detail and attended to on the spot by our 
gallant medical officers, who in every action were as close 
to us as the line of field officers. Wishing to change 
direction, the order was given, " Battalion right wheel! " 
and it swung round like an arm. Coming to a small rise 
which would shelter the men, they were halted, brought 
to a " shoulder, " then an "order," then "lie down." 
Colonel Johnson went forward to reconnoiter, and re 
turning quickly commanded, " Up, men, and forward! " 
Just then Capt. McHenry Howard of General Winder s 
staff rode up and said, " General Winder thinks you are 
not strong enough to take those batteries. He directs 


that you wait until he can bring up the Stonewall brigade 
to your support!" In a minute the Stonewall brigade 
was found on the right, and General Winder directed 
Colonel Johnson to take direction of the line and charge. 
As they rose the crest, the batteries became visible near 
the McGee house, the orchard and sunken road between 
us and the McGee house being filled with Yankees, who 
were covered by the road and a breastwork of knapsacks. 
Just then a disorderly crowd, composed of parts of some 
regiments broken in this desperate charge, recoiled past 
the Stonewall brigade and Marylanders. " Steady, men! 
Steady! " were the words with which the line was held 
firm. Then while the canister screamed above them, 
they were reformed and put through the manual of arms 
by Colonel Johnson as deliberately as if on dress parade. 
His object was to distract the attention of the men from 
the terrible fire and death around them, and make them 
look alone toward their commanding officer. 

The charge was now made with the old-time cheer. 
Over everything they went, pell-mell into the road, over 
the fence, through the orchard, by the house. But the 
batteries were gone. They found two guns in the road 
that night. No further stand was made by the enemy, 
and the battle of Cold Harbor was won. It is proper to 
put on record a contemporaneous account of the manual 
of arms, written that night by Orderly- Sergeant Robert 
Gushing, of the First Maryland regiment. He was killed 
at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. 

44 Friday, June 27th (1862), battle of Cold Harbor. 
Our regiment on reserve marched and countermarched 
all day; about half -past five moved forward, got under 
enemy s fire before six. Shells flew thick and fast got 
where the minie-balls occasionally would reach. Colonel 
Johnson got blood up, said, 4 Men, I have offered to lead 
forward the line that never yet broke never can be 
broken. Forward, quick march, guide center! The 
old regiment marched proudly forward. * Halt, order 
arms ! and the lines were dressed, and guns ordered like 


on dress parade. Other regiments were brought forward, 
and formed on us at last. Forward march, and on the 
line of battle moved until with a yell, we charged, and 
took the field, sleeping on it. Our regiment has reason 
to be proud of its action and of its colonel. " 

The next morning Ewell moved rapidly to Dispatch 
Station on the York River railroad in McClellan s rear, 
the First Maryland on the right. It was sent forward to 
drive off the picket at the Station, and McClellan was 
cut off from his base on York river at West Point. For 
a day or two Ewell s division remained at Dispatch 
Station until on McClellan s retiring toward James river 
it rejoined the army and pressed on in pursuit. It was 
not engaged until Malvern Hill, where the First Mary 
land lay all the afternoon under the fire of McClellan s 
seventy guns on his right and his gun boats on his left. 
After dark, the Maryland regiment joined General Win 
der, who had the fragment of the Stonewall brigade, 
which had been badly cut up. Winder ordered Colonel 
Johnson forward to cover and hold as much of the field 
as possible until daylight while he supported him. This 
was done satisfactorily, and the next morning Lee fol 
lowed McClellan to Westover, where he left him, satisfied 
that any forward movement by the beaten Federal 
commander was improbable. 

After Westover the Marylanders were sent to Char- 
lottesville to recruit, where they remained a month, and 
were then ordered to Gordonsville to guard the depot of 
supplies and the railroad junction there. They were in 
camp while Jackson moved swiftly by and on August 
9th sprang on Pope at Cedar Mountain in Culpeper. 

On August 1 6th a special order from the adjutant-gen 
eral of the Confederate States to the colonel of the First 
Maryland was received by him, ordering him to muster 
the regiment out of service without delay. The regi 
ment could not parade more than two hundred and fifty 
rifles for duty, but its officers were as efficient, gallant, 


well-instructed a set of young soldiers as were in either 
army. They were in this summary manner dismissed 
from the service, without charges, without notice and 
without a hearing. This extraordinary proceeding was 
heard of with regret by the army and with acute anger by 
the regiment itself. Colonel Johnson mustered them out 
on the 1 7th, the men presented their flag and their 
bucktail to Mrs. Johnson and then dispersed, grieved 
and offended. Generals Jackson and Ewell sent Colonel 
Johnson letters of regard and sympathy and also recom 
mendations to the President of the Confederate States, 
that he be made brigadier-general. Colonel Johnson 
declined to go to Richmond, or become an applicant for 
a place he had won by hard service, and Jackson assigned 
him to command the Second brigade, Jackson s division, 
Second corps Jackson s own. 

A new regiment was soon brought together, of which 
James R. Herbert became lieutenant-colonel, and William 
W. Goldsborough, major. But the disbanding of the 
gallant First regiment, although another was so soon 
formed, was attended by some unfortunate results. 

It will be noted that when the army crossed the Poto 
mac in September, 1862, after the second battle of 
Manassas, it carried with it no Maryland regiment bear 
ing the Maryland flag, and thus there was no nucleus on 
which recruits could rally. The First Maryland artillery, 
under the gallant Dement, and the Baltimore light artil 
lery, with Griffin, were there, but detached batteries oper 
ating in different commands gave no points of rendezvous 
for raw recruits seeking an association in an army. Gen 
eral Lee and the Confederacy were much disappointed at 
the failure of Maryland to rise, but this disappointment 
was without adequate reason. Lee crossed the Potomac 
on September 5th and the next day, the 6th, camped 
around Frederick. The population of that section of 
Maryland was strongly Union, fully one-half of it being 
adherents of that side. On September loth Lee moved 


from Frederick to Hagerstown and the next week was 
taken tip in operations which culminated in the battle of 
Sharpsburg on September i yth. McClellan moved from 
Washington on the 6th, his columns covering the whole 
country between Lee s army and southern Maryland, 
where the chief strength of the Confederates lay. So 
Lee was only stationary four days, and at no time was 
the country open for Confederate sympathizers to join 
him. He issued this proclamation : 

" Headquarters Army N. Va. 
Near Fredericktown, September 8, 1862. 
To the People of Maryland : 

It is right that you should know the purpose that has 
brought the army under my command within the limits 
of your State, so far as that purpose concerns yourselves. 

The people of the Confederate States have long 
watched with the deepest sympathy the wrongs and out 
rages that have been inflicted upon the citizens of a com 
monwealth, allied to the States of the South by the 
strongest social, political and commercial ties. They 
have seen with profound indignation their sister State 
deprived of every right, and reduced to the position of a 
conquered province. Under the pretense of supporting 
the Constitution, but in violation of its most valuable 
provisions, your citizens have been arrested and impris 
oned upon no charge and contrary to all forms of law. 
The faithful and manly protest against this outrage 
made by the venerable and illustrious Marylander, to 
whom in better days no citizen appealed for right in vain, 
was treated with scorn and contempt. The government 
of your chief city has been usurped by armed strangers : 
your legislature has been dissolved by the unlawful 
arrest of its members: freedom of the press and of 
speech has been suppressed : words have been declared 
offenses by an arbitrary decree of the Federal executive, 
and citizens ordered to be tried by a military commission 
for what they may dare to speak. 

Believing that the people of Maryland possessed a spirit 
too lofty to submit to such a government, the people of 
the South have long wished to aid you in throwing off 
the foreign yoke, to enable you again to enjoy the inalien 
able rights of freemen and restore independence and sov 
ereignty to your State. 

Md 12 


In obedience to this wish, our army has come among 
you, and is prepared to assist you with the power of its 
arms, in regaining the rights, of which you have been 

This, citizens of Maryland, is our mission so far as you 
are concerned : no restraint on your free will is intended : 
no intimidation will be allowed. Within the limits of 
this army at least, Marylanders shall once more enjoy 
their ancient freedom of thought and speech. We know 
no enemies among you and will protect all, of every 
opinion. It is for you to decide your destiny, freely and 
without constraint. This army will respect your choice, 
whatever it may be, and while the Southern people will 
rejoice to welcome you to your natural position among 
them, they will only welcome you when you come of 
your own free will. 

R. E. LEE, General Commanding." 

Colonel Johnson, whose Second brigade was camped 
at the barracks on the suburbs of the town, and who had 
policed the town with Capt. Lewis N. Randolph, of the 
Irish battalion, as provost marshal, sent out the following 
appeal : 

"To the People of Maryland: 

After sixteen months of oppression more galling than 
the Austrian tyranny, the victorious army of the South 
brings freedom to your doors. Its standards now wave 
from the Potomac to Mason and Dixon s line. The 
men of Maryland, who during the last long months have 
been crushed under the heel of this terrible despotism, 
now have [the opportunity for working out their own 
redemption, for which they have so long waited and 
suffered and hoped. The government of the Confed 
erate States is pledged by the unanimous vote of its 
Congress, by the distinct declaration of its President, the 
soldier and statesman Davis, never to cease this war until 
Maryland has the opportunity to decide for herself, her 
own fate, untrammeled and free from Federal bayonets. 
The people of the South, with unanimity unparalleled, 
have given their hearts to our native State, and hundreds 
of thousands of her sons have sworn with arms in their 
hands that you shall be free. 

You must now do your part. We have the arms here 
for you. I am authorized immediately to muster in for 


the war, companies and regiments, the companies of one 
hundred men each, and the regiments of ten companies. 
Come, all who wish to strike for their liberties and homes ! 
Let each man provide himself with a stout pair of shoes, 
a good blanket and a tin cup. Jackson s men have no 

Officers are in Frederick to receive recruits, and all 
companies formed will be armed as soon as mustered in. 
Rise at once. Remember the cells of Fort McHenry! 
Remember the dungeons of Fort Lafayette and Fort 
Warren ! the insults to your wives and daughters ! the 
arrest ! the midnight searches of your houses ! Remem 
ber these wrongs ! and rise at once in arms, and strike 
for liberty and right. 

BRADLEY T. JOHNSON, Colonel C. S. A." 

Frederick, September 8, 1862. 

A few companies reported to Colonel Johnson under 
this call. Just at the time, Gen. J. R. Jones, who had 
been wounded in battle before Richmond, came up and 
reported for duty and resumed command of the Second 
brigade, and Johnson had no location in the army. He 
rode with Jackson s staff, but it was impossible to care 
for green volunteers in the rapid evolutions of the army 
of Northern Virginia from September 10 to 18, 1862. 
The new recruits merely followed along after the army 
and dispersed after the battle of Sharpsburg. It is prob 
able that if a strong regiment of Marylanders under the 
Maryland flag had marched with Lee at that time it 
might have been made the rallying point of a new 



GOVERNOR HICKS did not respond to the first 
call of the President of the United States for 
troops until he had delivered the State over to the 
Federal authorities, securely tied, handcuffed and gagged, 
and when habeas corpus was defied, freedom of speech 
made a crime, liberty of the press suppressed, trial by 
jury abolished, Butler holding down Baltimore under the 
prisons of Federal Hill and throttling the State govern 
ment at Annapolis. Governor Hicks, who, at the meet 
ing in Monument Square in the afternoon of April loth, 
prayed his God to wither his right arm if ever he raised 
it against a sister Southern State, against Virginia and 
the South, had not complied with President Lincoln s first 
call for troops, but Butler s guns and the Federal con 
trol of the city recovered him from the panic into which 
he had been precipitated by the paving stones of Pratt St., 
and on the i4th of May, the day of Ross Winans arrest, 
he issued a proclamation calling for four regiments of 
volunteers to serve for three months, * * within the limits 
of Maryland, or for the defense of the capital of the 
United States, and not to serve beyond the limits afore 
said. " In consequence of the delay, the short term of 
service and the ridiculous terms proposed for enlistment, 
the government refused to accept the home guards, 
guaranteed never to leave the State except in case of 

On the 2d of May President Lincoln had called for 
forty-two thousand and thirty-four regulars to serve for 
three years, and a large number of men who had volun 
teered under the first call enlisted under the second. 



James Cooper, Esq. , who was a native of Carroll county, 
Maryland, but had lived all his life in Pennsylvania and 
had served that State in the Senate of the United States 
with honor to himself and distinction to his State, was 
commissioned brigadier-general by the Federal authority, 
and assigned to the duty of raising and organizing the 
militia of the State of Maryland for Federal service. The 
governor and State authority were thus superseded by 
the Federal government, as the legislature was shortly 
afterward dispersed, imprisoned and disbanded, the 
judges ignored and the courts trampled under foot. The 
Constitution of the United States as well as that of Mary 
land was thus suspended and another instance given, as 
has been done since history began, that " inter anna 
silent leges" in time of war paper guarantees and 
written agreements have no force. It was freely 
asserted by the great legal authorities, by learned law 
yers and great judges, supporting the Union side, that 
44 constitutions are not made for war times! " 

Patterson s army, after retiring from Virginia, on the 
expiration of the time of its ninety-day men, was camped 
at Williamsport, where during the summer it was rein 
forced by new recruits. Maj.-Gen. N. P. Banks was 
assigned to command this army and picketed the Poto 
mac from Georgetown to Harper s Ferry. Maj.-Gen. 
Joseph Hooker with a division was posted in southern 
Maryland, and picketed the Potomac from Washington to 
its mouth. Forty thousand men were thus occupied in 
guarding Maryland along the line of the Potomac alone. 

Another division was posted in Baltimore with garri 
sons at every county town in the State. The November 
election of 1861 was considered of great consequence to 
the Union side in that State. Governor Hicks, in his 
zeal not to raise his arm against a sister Southern State, 
applied to General Banks to work into the Maryland 
election so that 4 a killing majority shall be rolled up 
against secessionism. General McClellan issued an order 


to General Banks, calling his attention to the alleged 
44 apprehension among Union citizens in many parts of 
Maryland, of an attempt at interference with their rights 
of suffrage by disunion citizens." The wolves clearly 
perceived the intention of the lambs below them to 
muddy the stream. He directed Banks to garrison the 
polls, and see * that no disunionists are allowed to intim 
idate them, or in any way interfere with their rights." 
Also to arrest all persons who have recently returned 
from Virginia and who show themselves at the polls. 
General Dix, governing in Baltimore, directed the United 
States marshal and the provost marshal to arrest all 
disloyal persons and to hold them securely. Col. John 
W. Geary, of the Twenty-eighth Pennsylvania regiment, 
reported from Point of Rocks, Maryland, November 8, 
1 86 1, to Capt. R. Morris Copeland, assistant adjutant- 
general on Banks staff: 

" Previous to the election a number of enemies to the 
Union in this State preliminated schemes for disturbing 
the peace of the various precincts. I had several of the 
most prominent actors in this, among whom was a candi 
date for senator, arrested before election and held until 
to-day. I had detailments from various companies of my 
regiment, with proper officers, stationed in Sandy Hook, 
Petersville, Jefferson, Urbana, New Market, Buckeye- 
town, Frederick City and other places where the polls 
were held. Owing to the presence of the troops every 
thing progressed quietly and I am happy to report a 
Union victory in every place in my jurisdiction." 

These arbitrary arrests caused Lord Lyons, the English 
minister at Washington, to remonstrate with Mr. Lin 
coln. On November 4th he wrote Earl Russell that he 
had told Mr. Seward that * while the English people did 
not enter far into abstract questions of national dignity, 
they felt very strongly on the subject of the treatment 
of their fellow citizens abroad: nothing inspired them 
with so strong or lasting a resentment as injuries or in 
dignities inflicted by foreign governments on her maj- 


esty s subjects." Mr. Seward replied that " the recent 
arrests had all been made in view of the Maryland 
elections, that those elections would be over in a week s 
time, and that he hoped then to be able to set at liberty 
all the British subjects now under military arrest. " In 
another dispatch of September 16, 1861, Lord Lyons says: 
"A war has been made at Baltimore upon particular 
articles of dress, particular colors, portraits of Southern 
leaders and other supposed symptoms of supposed dis 
affection. The violent measures which have been re 
sorted to have gone far to establish the fact that Mary 
land is retained in the Union only by military force. 
They have undoubtedly increased the dislike of the people 
to their Northern ruler." 

Augustus W. Bradford was the candidate of the Union 
party, Benjamin C. Howard, of the Democratic party. 
The Union soldiers voted everywhere " freely without 
hindrance, and fully without denial, and speedily without 
delay, as much and as often as they chose. Bradford 
was declared elected by a majority of over 30,000. He 
could just as well have had a recorded majority of 300,000. 

The marshal of police, George P. Kane, the police 
commissioners, and the mayor of Baltimore had been 
arrested in July and imprisoned at Fort Lafayette. 
Thus, at the beginning of the year 1862, the Federal 
army of occupation was commanded by Major-General 
Dix in Baltimore ; Hooker in Charles county, and along 
the Potomac, south of Washington, Generals McClellan, 
Keyes and Casey ; in and around Washington, General 
Stone at Poolesville, and Banks at Darnestown, up to 
Williamsport, General Kelly at Cumberland, where he 
was relieved early in January by General Lander. It 
had elected Augustus W. Bradford governor, and a 
subservient legislature in November, 1861. The judi 
ciary was deposed and dragged from the bench. Judge 
Robert B. Carmichael, illustrious for a long life of pri 
vate virtue and public service, was seized on the bench in 


his court house at Easton in Talbot county, knocked 
senseless with a revolver on the very seat of justice, 
incarcerated in the negro jail in Baltimore, and thence 
sent to Fort Lafayette and there held. Hon. James L. 
Bartol, of the court of appeals, was imprisoned in Fort 
McHenry. As General Lee said in his proclamation to 
the people of Maryland: "Words have been declared 
offenses, by an arbitrary decree of the Federal executive, 
and citizens ordered to be tried by a military commis 
sion for what they may dare to speak. Lord Lyons, 
therefore, well said, "that the violent measures which 
have been resorted to have gone far to establish the fact 
that Maryland is retained in the Union only by military 

The legislature was convened by Hicks on December 
3, 1861, and promptly passed resolutions of thanks to Col. 
John R. Kenly, of the First Maryland regiment, "for his 
early, prompt and distinguished services in the cause of 
his country. 

But the lot of the Maryland Unionists was not a happy 
one. They had harnessed themselves to the car of the 
radical revolution, and they began to see, when too late, 
whither they were being driven. In March, 1862, the 
legislature passed a resolution that "The general 
assembly of Maryland have seen with concern, certain 
indications at the seat of the general government, of an 
interference with the institution of slavery in the slave- 
holding States and cannot hesitate to express their sen 
timents, and those of the people they represent, in regard 
to a policy so unwise and mischievous. This war is 
prosecuted by the nation with one object, that, namely, of 
a restoration of the Union, just as it was before the 
rebellion broke out. The rebellious States are to be 
brought back to their places in the Union without change 
or diminution of their constitutional rights, etc. , etc. 

They further resolved frequently and copiously against 
the secessionists and in favor of the Union. Neverthe- 


less and notwithstanding this outcry, in April, 1862, 
Congress passed a law for the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia. The legislature of Maryland 
passed a " treason law," which denounced the penalty of 
death against any one convicted of levying war against 
this State, or who shall adhere to the enemies thereof, 
whether foreign or domestic, giving them aid or comfort 
within this State or elsewhere. Punishments were also 
denounced for breaking railroads or canals ; for belong 
ing to any secret club intended to encourage the secession 
of the State from the Union; for displaying secession 
flags, encouraging any minor to go South and join in the 
rebellion, or furnishing any minor or any other person 
with money, clothes, provisions or conveyance to aid in 
such an object. It also appropriated $7,000 for the 
relief of the families of those soldiers of the Sixth Massa 
chusetts regiment who were killed in the riot of April 19, 
1 86 1. It made no provision for the families of those 
citizens of Maryland who were killed by the soldiers. 
Loyalty could not further go. 

When President Lincoln, on the i4th of April, 1861, 
called for seventy-five thousand volunteers to suppress 
the rebellion, he required Maryland to furnish four reg 
iments of four hundred and eighty men each as her quota. 
But on the aoth, the day after the Baltimore attack on 
the Massachusetts troops, Governor Hicks wrote him 
that " he thought it prudent (for the present) to decline 
responding affirmatively to the requisition." About the 
last of April, as has been noted, the Federal government 
commissioned Hon. James Cooper of Frederick to raise a 
brigade. Recruiting was at once begun in Baltimore 
by J. C. McConnell, and other companies were raised in 
different parts of the State, and before the first of June, 
1 86 1, the First regiment Maryland volunteers was 
mustered into the service of the United States, and John 
R. Kenly commissioned colonel, and Nathan T. Dushane 
lieutenant-colonel. The Second regiment was mustered 



in about the middle of September under Colonel Sum 
mers and Lieutenant-Colonel Duryea. The Third Mary 
land was recruited by foreigners in Baltimore City and 
western Maryland and was commanded by Colonel 
DeWitt. The Fourth regiment, commanded by Colonel 
Sudburgh, was composed of Germans. The First and 
Second Maryland artillery companies were commanded 
by Captains Hampton and Thomson, and the First Mary 
land cavalry by Lieutenant- Colonel Miller. 

These first forces raised for the Union in Maryland 
were, with the exception of the First regiment, mainly 
composed of foreigners, aliens by birth and aliens to the 
institutions, ideals and motives that for nine generations 
had formed the character of Marylanders. They were 
good men, but they were not Marylanders. They were 
devoted to the Union, but they had no conception of the 
force and duty of 4 courage and chivalry." The First 
Maryland under Kenly was the only Maryland regiment 
on the Union side. The Confederate Marylanders, on 
the other hand, embodied the faith and pride of the 
State. Not a historic family of Maryland but was repre 
sented in the Maryland Line. Five grandsons of John 
Eager Howard, of the Cowpens, carried sword or musket 
in the First Maryland regiment. A grandson of Charles 
Carroll of Carrollton rode as a private in Company K, 
First Virginia cavalry. Colonel Johnson, of the Mary 
land Line, rode at the head of seventy-two kinsmen, 
descendants of soldiers of the Revolution, his own flesh 
and blood ! 

In the summer of 1862 the First and Second Eastern 
Shore regiments were raised under Colonels Wallace and 
Wilkins ; the First and Second regiments Potomac home 
brigade under Colonels Maulsby and Johns; and the 
Purnell Legion of one regiment infantry, Col. William 
Louis Schley, one company of artillery and two troops of 
cavalry ; the First Maryland artillery, Captain Alexander, 
and the Fourth, Sixth, Seventh and Eighth regiments of 


infantry. There was also a battalion of artillery, Maj. 
E. R. Petherbridge, Battery A, Capt. I. W. Wolcott, 
with eight three-inch rifle ro-pounders, and Battery B, 
Capt. A. Snow, with six of the same as Battery A. 

Colonel Kenly was promoted brigadier-general on the 
226. of August, 1862, " for gallant conduct at the battle 
of Front Royal. " On September 8th he was assigned to 
command a brigade to consist of the First, Fourth, 
Sixth, Seventh and Eighth regiments of Maryland vol 
unteers with Alexander s battery of light artillery. The 
First regiment, as we have seen, served with distinction 
in the valley under Banks in 1862. The Second was 
with Burnside at New Bern, N. C. There they received 
the following decoration from their commanding general : 

44 Headquarters Department of North Carolina. 

New Bern, May 22, 1862. 
Lieut. -Col. Eugene Duryea, 

Commanding Second regiment Maryland Volunteers : 
Sir : The commanding general desires me to express 
his gratification at the skillful and soldierly manner in 
which your movement on Pollocksville was executed on 
the 1 4th and iyth instant, and high appreciation of the 
fortitude and perseverance with which the obstacles 
presented by the elements were borne and overcome by 
yourself and your command. 
I have the honor to be, colonel, 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 


The move on Pollocksville consisted of a march of 
sixty miles in seventy-two hours in the face of an active 
enemy, through deep mud and in a drenching rain, main 
taining their position for two days against heavy odds, 
repelling repeated assaults and performing their work 
effectually, and then safely returning to the army not 
withstanding a vigorous pursuit ! 

The Second Maryland returned with Burnside to Vir 
ginia, where it joined Pope and did good service at Sec 
ond Manassas. Maryland is not entitled to merit for this 
gallant command. Its colonel, Duryea, was not con- 


nected by blood or in any way with the State, and most 
of the enlisted men were foreigners. 

The Third regiment, under Colonel DeWitt, was hotly 
engaged at Cedar Run, and lost heavily. Major 
Kennedy and over one hundred men were killed and 
wounded. They also lost over thirty-three per cent of 
the command at Sharpsburg, killed and wounded. 

The First regiment of cavalry, Lieutenant- Colonel 
Miller and Maj. James M. Deems, served under Generals 
Buford and Sigel in the army of the Potomac, in 1862. 

The Potomac home brigade, Col. William P, Maulsby, 
and the Purnell Legion, were enlisted and organized as 
home guards for home service and never to leave the 
State. Colonel Maulsby, of the First regiment, and com 
manding the Potomac home brigade, was as high spirited 
and as chivalric a knight as ever set lance in rest for the 
rescue of the Holy Sepulcher, for he was a Marylander 
by descent, by tradition and in every fiber of his being. 
Therefore, when the army of the Potomac moved to 
ward its enemy, Maulsby s Potomac home brigade moved 
with it, on its own ardent demand. Its muskets would 
have marched had there been no men to carry them, for 
the spirit of the commander permeates and electrifies all 
under him, and the fire of the head and heart heats all 
the members. 

The Maryland artillery battalion, under Maj. Edward 
R. Petherbridge, was before Richmond in the artillery 
reserve under Colonel Hunt. At the New Bridge over 
the Chickahominy, Battery B once had an artillery duel 
with the First Maryland artillery, Confederate, in which 
it fired over six hundred shots, doing considerable 



THE First Maryland artillery was organized at 
Richmond, Va., in July, 1861, with Richard 
Snowden Andrews as captain, William F. Dement 
first-lieutenant, and Charles Snowden Couter second- 
lieutenant. The captain, Andrews, was the son of Col 
onel Andrews of the United States army and had peculiar 
qualifications for the profession of arms. He had been 
born and reared in the military and impressed with the 
traditions of the 4 Old Army, " which for deep convic 
tions of duty, devotion to ideals of high chivalry, purity 
of motive, entire unselfishness, patriotism, valor and 
genius for war has never been excelled by any army 
that ever marched under any flag. Snowden Andrews 
was the ideal of a young gentleman formed by such in 
fluences intellectual, well-informed on army matters, 
firm, persistent, indefatigable. No man went into serv 
ice better equipped on either side. Believing himself 
better qualified for the scientific service of the artillery, 
he left his home and young wife in Bath, with the delib 
erate purpose of creating a battery, of which he intended 
to be commander. He procured from the department of 
war in Washington drawings of the most approved models 
of guns for the army. At Richmond he recruited his 
battery with indomitable energy. He selected his assist 
ants, his lieutenants, with unerring judgment, for no 
better or braver men ever directed a gun than Dement 
and Couter. He submitted his drawings to the Confed 
erate war department, secured its official endorsement, 
and by authority had the ordnance manufactured at the 



Tredegar works in Richmond, as far as the resources of 
that establishment could go. So that when the First 
Maryland artillery took the field, it might have been said 
that the whole of it, men and guns, harness and wheels, 
was the creation of the head and heart, the mind and 
will of its captain. It occupied a position on the ex 
treme right of the Confederate line, at Shipping Point on 
the Potomac, where its fire effectually blockaded that 
river until March, 1862, when Johnston withdrew from 
Manassas and the line of the Potomac. In the Seven 
Days battles it was attached to the division of Maj.-Gen. 
A. P. Hill. When Lee began his movement around 
McClellan s right on June 26, 1862, the First Maryland 
artillery fired the first shots at Mechanicsville, just as the 
First Maryland regiment had fired the first shots against 
McClellan s pickets at Hundley s Corner an hour before. 
It was attached to Pender s North Carolina brigade, and 
Captain Andrews was slightly wounded. General Pen- 
der in his report says: ** The section of Andrews battery 
was under Lieutenant Dement, who did fine service. 
Captain Andrews as usual was present, chafing for a 

After that campaign he was promoted major ** for 
gallant and meritorious conduct displayed in the battles 
before Richmond," and a battalion was formed for him 
consisting of the First Maryland; the Chesapeake, Cap 
tain William D. Brown afterward known in the Mary 
land Line as the Third Maryland ; and several Virginia 

In the movement on Pope in August, 1862, Major 
Andrews commanded the artillery of Winder s division, 
originally Jackson s. On the gth of August Pope moved 
from Culpeper Court House on Jackson at Slaughter s 
Mountain, half a march distant. Charles Winder, 
though too sick for duty, insisted on commanding his 
division in action. His place was the left of Jackson s 
line and with him was Andrews battalion of artillery. 


The Federals struck Winder on his exposed flank, 
doubled up his two left brigades, the First and Second, 
and sent them back behind the right of the division. 
Just at that minute a Federal line of battle was marching 
straight across the open fields against Winder s right 
and, with the broken brigades and Federals in the rear 
and the attack in front, they would have been crushed 
and Jackson ruined. Andrews, without waiting for 
orders, took his old battery, the First Maryland, across 
the front of the two brigades in a sweeping gallop, 
whirled them into battery on a hillock five hundred yards 
from the charging line of battle and opened on it with 
grape and canister with such bitterness, vigor and intens 
ity, that human nature could not stand it, and in three 
minutes the charge became a rout and the field was 
filled with fugitives. It is the only case on record of a 
line of battle being charged by a battery of artillery. 
But though the service was the most brilliant and val 
uable done that day, it was more than paid for. As Win 
der was attempting to rally his broken brigades, a shell 
knocked him from his horse dead, and as Andrews rode at 
the head of his battery, he was nearly cut in two by a 
shell which laid open the anterior covering of his abdo 
men. It was useless to harass a dying man, it was 
thought by the surgeons ; so he was left on the field with 
his devoted friend and faithful surgeon, Grafton Tyler 
of the First Maryland. 

Maryland lost one of her most distinguished sons when 
Charles Winder fell, and nearly lost another as good a 
man when Snowden Andrews was so badly wounded. 
He ought to have died by all the rules of anatomy and ex 
perience of surgery, but he was of fiber too tough to be 
killed merely by one Yankee shell. His indomitable will 
and his unflinching courage pulled him through, and he 
lives to-day, vigorous in mind and body, just as obsti 
nate as ever, and as faithful to friends as in the days 
when he was left lying on the field of Culpeper, with his 


head on Graf ton Tyler s lap, insisting that he wouldn t 
die when everybody said he must die. He was promoted 
lieutenant-colonel for this. Col. A. R. Courtney, chief 
of artillery of the Third division, in his report said, 
* The officers and men of Captain Dement s First Mary 
land battery, the only one which had been in action 
before, showed more coolness and deliberation. " Colonel 
Crutchfield, chief of artillery of the Second corps, in his 
report said: " These two batteries were capitally handled 
and evidently damaged the enemy severely. " He also 
" calls special attention to the gallantry displayed by 
Maj. R. S. Andrews in this action." General Jackson 
said, " Special credit is due Major Andrews for the suc 
cess and gallantry with which his guns were directed, 
until he was severely wounded and taken from the field. 
After the battle of Slaughter s Mountain the First Mary 
land was foremost in every skirmish and affair in which 
the army of Northern Virginia was engaged in its transfer 
from the front of McClellan on the James to the rear of 
Pope at Manassas. On the 22d of August Early s 
brigade of E well s division crossed the Rappahannock at 
the White Sulphur Springs by the ford, the bridge hav 
ing been broken. Early had with him the Thirteenth 
Georgia and the two Maryland batteries. Pope believed 
that this was Lee s advance over the river and forthwith 
concentrated a large force (Early says, "his whole 
force ") to attack it. During the night a tremendous 
rain fell and the river rose six feet and the bridge was 
impassable This little force, therefore, was cut off on 
the northern side of the river. During the entire day 
Early made a great show by marching and counter 
marching his regiments, and that stood off the Federals 
until dark. Then they made a move in heavy force to 
crush the small body in front of them and they charged 
with cheers, but Dement opened on them with canister 
at very short range, repulsed them and saved the com 
mand. When Jackson moved around Pope s flank and 


got in his rear at Bristoe Station on the 26th of August, 
1862, E well s division was left at Bristoe, while Hill and 
Taliaferro (who had succeeded Charles Winder in com 
mand of the First division) were sent to Manassas Junc 
tion. In the afternoon Pope s advance came up in heavy 
force, but Dement s guns stopped them until Ewell got 
out comfortably to Manassas. At Manassas in the battle 
of August 28, 29, 30, 1862, the three Maryland batteries 
the First, Captain Dement; the Second, Baltimore 
light, Captain Brockenbrough ; the Third, Chesapeake, 
Captain Brown, performed distinguished services. On 
the last day the First Maryland having exhausted all its 
long range projectiles of shot and shell, was moved up 
closer so as to shorten the range and increase the 
efficiency of canister. 

Upon the investment of Harper s Ferry, during the 
night of September i4th, Colonel Crutchfield, Jackson s 
chief of artillery, took two guns each from the batteries 
of Dement, Brown, Latimer and Garber, and moved them 
across the Shenandoah, so as to flank and enfilade the 
Federal lines. This was the key of the position. 
Crutchfield was ordered to open at daylight, but the 
work of cutting a road along the mountain delayed him. 
At dawn the Confederate batteries of Pegram, Mcln- 
tosh, Davidson and Braxton of A. P. Hill s division 
opened on the Federal right. General Miles, the Fed 
eral commander, began to form to charge them, when 
Crutchfield broke out in a tremendous fire which 
silenced the Federal battery on the left and drove the 
Federal infantry from their entrenchments. As the 
circle of fire from mountain to mountain closed around 
General Miles, he put up the white flag and surrendered. 
At Sharpsburg the Maryland batteries were on the Con 
federate left operating with Maj.-Gen. J. E. B. Stuart 
and his cavalry. At Fredericksburg, the Chesapeake 
artillery, under Lieutenant Plater, at Hamilton s Cross 
ing did excellent service, said Early. At the battle of 


Chancellorsville, the First Maryland and the Chesapeake 
artillery defended an important position in Early s line 
against Sedgwick on the 2d, and on the 3d was on Marye s 
Hill. Both batteries lost heavily in these engagements 
and received distinctive notice from General Early in his 

The Second Maryland infantry* was organized at Win 
chester, Va., in the fall of 1862, of companies recruited 
in Richmond by officers of the First Maryland and 
some Marylanders who had come to Virginia after the 
battle of Sharpsburg. Those most active and influential 
in recruiting new companies were Captains Herbert, 
Goldsborough, Lieutenant George Thomas, Corporal 
Clapham Murray, Private W. P. Zollinger, late of the First 
Maryland, and Captains J. Parran Crane, Ferdinand C. 
Duvall, Jos. L. McAleer, John W. Torsch, Gwynn and 
Stewart, who were generally new men, except Torsch, 
who had commanded a company in a Virginia regiment 
for the preceding year. The regiment was organized as 
follows : 

Lieutenant- Colonel, James R. Herbert. 

Major, William W. Goldsborough, 

Adjutant, J. Winder Laird. 

Acting Adjutant, Lieut. George Thomas. 

Quartermaster, Maj. Charles W. Harding. 

Commissary of Subsistence, Capt. John Eager Howard. 

Surgeon, Richard P. Johnson. 

Assistant Surgeon, De Wilton Snowden. 

Sergeant Major, William R. McCullough. 

Quartermaster Sergeant, Edwin James. 

Ordnance Sergeant, Francis L. Higdon. 

Chief Musician, Michael A. Quinn. 

Company A: Captain, William H. Murray. Lieuten 
ants, Geo. Thomas, Clapham Murray, William P. Zol 

*Major W. W. Goldsborough, of the Second Maryland, has a 
graphic account of the regiment in his Maryland Line, C. S. A., " 
which has been freely drawn on in this chapter. 


Company B : Captain, J. Parran Crane. Lieutenants, 
J. H. Stone, Chas. B. Wise, James H. Wilson. 

Company C : Captain, Ferdinand C. Duvall. Lieuten 
ants, Charles W. Hodges, Joseph W. Barber, Thomas H. 

Company D : Captain, Joseph L. McAleer. Lieuten 
ants, James S. Franklin, J. T. Bussey, S. T. McCullough. 

Company E : Captain, John W. Torsch. Lieutenants, 
William J. Broadfoot, Wm. R. Byus, Joseph P. Quinn. 

Company F: Captain, A. J. Gwynn. Lieutenants, 
John W. Polk, David C. Forrest, John G. Hyland. 

Company G: Captain, Thomas R. Stewart. Lieuten 
ants, G. G. Guillette, George Brighthaupt, William C. 

Company H: Captain, J. Thomas Bussey. 

Col. Bradley T. Johnson had first been unanimously 
elected by the officers of the battalion to be lieutenant- 
colonel. Colonel Johnson was at that time on the mili 
tary court at Richmond and had not contributed to the 
organization of the new command. He declined the 
proffered commission on the ground that it was due to 
Herbert as the senior officer of those who had got 
together, armed, equipped, drilled and instructed the 
Second Maryland. They had done the work and should 
have the honors. So Captain Herbert was elected lieu 
tenant-colonel and Captain Goldsborough major. 

The Second Maryland was employed during the winter 
and spring of 1863 at New Market, Harrisonburg and 
various other points along the Valley pike, sometimes on 
picket, sometimes in scouting. They several times ac 
companied Gen. Wm. E. Jones, who was in command of 
the valley, with his brigade of Virginia cavalry, the Sec 
ond Maryland infantry and the Baltimore light artillery, 
on raids and long and arduous marches over the moun 
tains of West Virginia, to disable the Baltimore & Ohio 
railroad by tearing up its track and burning its bridges. 

In June, i863> when General Lee commenced his move 


on Pennsylvania by pushing E well s corps from Cul- 
peper over the mountains to attack Milroy at Winchester, 
Jones command was moved down the valley to make a 
junction with Ewell. At Kernstown, a few miles from 
Winchester, three companies of the Second Maryland, 
under Major Goldsborough, were out as skirmishers. 
They soon struck the enemy and drove him steadily back 
into the town of Winchester. They passed the night half 
a mile from the town and before sunrise next morning 
the Marylanders charged into the town, but were with 
drawn by order of Gen. John B. Gordon, who had his 
brigade near them. The next day was occupied in 
Ewell s preparations to assault the fortifications around 
the town, into which Milroy had collected his army, but 
at daylight next morning the Maryland skirmishers 
entered the town and found everything had been evac 
uated during the night and Milroy had marched out to 
ward Harper s Ferry. Ewell, however, had prepared for 
that movement and captured almost his entire command, 
though Milroy himself escaped. The loss of the Second 
Maryland in this affair was nine wounded and one cap 
tured. * 

The curious part of this affair was that the Confed 
erate Marylanders for the two days were fighting their 
own friends and kinsmen, the Fifth Maryland Federal, 
in which Major Goldsborough s brother was surgeon. 
The major captured his own brother. The regiment, 
the morning after the battle of Winchester, was attached 
to the brigade of Gen. George H. Steuart, former colonel 
of the First Maryland. It was composed of Virginia and 
North Carolina regiments, in Maj.-Gen. Edward John 
son s division of Ewell s corps. 

From Winchester they marched with the army to 
Gettysburg. On the evening of the first of July, 1863, 
Johnson s division being on the left of Ewell s corps, 

*See appendix A, for losses of the regiment in this and subsequent 


which was the left of the army, moved about nightfall to 
attack Gulp s Hill. After a bitter struggle they took the 
position with a loss of three hundred in Steuart s brigade, 
including one hundred in the Second Maryland. In this 
attack Lieutenant-Colonel Herbert was severely wounded 
by three balls, it was believed mortally. They held 
their place all night, and at daylight next morning Steu 
art s brigade was formed at right angles to the works 
they had taken the night before, and charged down them 
at a line held by the enemy two hundred yards in front, 
with an open field between. As the brigade emerged 
into the open, it was swept by the fire in front and a ten 
fold more destructive one from the left, where a large 
force of the enemy had been concentrated during the 
night. Major Goldsborough was shot down and Captain 
Murray killed, and the Second Maryland annihilated. It 
had carried five hundred men into battle the night before. 
Two hundred reported the morning after. Almost all 
the remainder were killed and wounded, fc % none were 
captured except five men tending wounded or dying com 
rades. After Gettysburg the Second Maryland marched 
with the army to Orange Court House in Virginia, where 
in November it was detached from Steuart s brigade and 
ordered to report to Col. Bradley T. Johnson, command 
ing the Maryland Line at Hanover Junction. 

On June 2, 1864, the Second Maryland was held in re 
serve to Echols brigade of Virginians, who occupied 
a line of works in front of McGehee s house at Cold Har 
bor, on the same ground over which the battle of Cold 
Harbor had been fought June 27, 1862. At daylight of 
June 3d Hancock s corps made a sudden rush at the 
works, ran over them, and the first thing the Maryland- 
ers knew the Union flag was right over them and the 
Union troops ramming canister in the captured guns in 
the fortification, to open them on their late owners. 
Without waiting for orders, officers and men rushed 
straight at the enemy with the naked bayonet, and in the 


twinkling of an eye hurled them back the way they had 
come and turned the guns they had shotted on the routed 
mass. It was a most brilliant exploit, for it saved 
Lee s line and probably a serious disaster, for Grant had 
massed troops to pour them through the opening made 
by Hancock. Their loss was severe. 

From that date the Second Maryland was engaged in 
every combat of E well s corps. They were first assigned 
to Walker s brigade and then to Archer s brigade of 
Heth s division. On the i3th of June they had a severe 
fight at White Oak Swamp and continual skirmishes fol 
lowed up to August 25th. On August i8th General Ma- 
hone made an attack on Ream s Station on the Peters 
burg and Weldon railroad, south of Petersburg, 
Archer s brigade being part of his force. The fighting here 
was extremely bloody and the loss heavy on both sides. 
At Pegram s Farm, September 30, 1864, Heth s division 
had another severe fight. The Second Maryland lost out 
of one hundred and forty-nine men who went into the 
fight, fifty-three killed and wounded. At that time there 
were only six commissioned officers left with the regiment. 
All the rest had been killed or wounded. On October 
ist they had another bloody fight on the Squirrel Level 
road and lost heavily. 

From that day they were constantly fighting in the 
trenches until April 2, 1865, when they made their last 
gallant stand in the lines of Petersburg. General Archer 
having been wounded, the brigade command devolved 
on Brigadier-General McComb, of Tennessee. General 
McComb held his place on the line until nearly sur 
rounded, and then fell back to Hatcher s Run. From 
there they marched with the army to Appomattox Court 
House, where they were inscribed on the roll of honor of 
those who were paroled with Lee.* 

The First Maryland cavalry was organized at Win- 

*Appendix G. 


Chester, Va., on the 25111 of November, 1862, with 

Major, Ridgely Brown. 

Adjutant, George W. Booth. 

Assistant Quartermaster, Capt. Ignatius Dorsey. 

Surgeon, Wilbur R. McKnew. 

Sergeant-Major, Edward Johnson. 

Quartermaster Sergeant, Charles I. Tregner. 

Company A: Captain, Frank A. Bond. First-Lieu 
tenant, Thomas Griffith. Second-Lieutenant, J. A. V. 
Pue, Edward Beatty. 

Company B : Captain, George M. Emack. Lieuten 
ants, Mason E. McKnew, Adolphus Cook, Henry C. 

Company C : Captain, Robert C. Smith. Lieutenants, 
George Howard, J. Jeff. Smith, Groeme Turnbull. 

Company D: Captain, Warner G. Welsh. Lieuten 
ants, William H. H. Dorsey, Stephen D. Lawrence, Mil 
ton Welsh. 

Subsequently the battalion was joined by 

Company E: Captain, William J. Raisin. Lieuten 
ants, John B. Burroughs, Nathaniel Chapman, Joseph K. 

Company F : Captain, Augustus F. Schwartz. Lieu 
tenants, C. Irving Ditty, Fielder C. Slinghoff , Samuel G. 

Thereupon Major Brown was promoted lieutenant- 
colonel, and Capt. Robert Carter Smith major. 

In July, 1864, Capt. Gustavus W. Dorsey joined the 
battalion with Company K of the First Virginia cavalry as 
Company H : Captain, Gustavus W. Dorsey. Lieuten 
ants, N. C. Hobbs, Edward Pugh. Second Lieutenant, 
Mr. Quinn. (Rudolphus Cecil had been killed in battle.) 

The battalion served in the valley of Virginia in the 
brigade of Wm. E. Jones, as a constituent part of the 
Maryland Line, consisting of the First Maryland infantry, 
the First Maryland cavalry and the Second Maryland or 
Baltimore light artillery. 


The winter of 1862-63 was employed in picketing and 
scouting General Jones front and accompanying the 
command on various raids on the Baltimore & Ohio rail 
road and to collect provisions and horses. In the latter 
part of April, 1863, General Jones went through Moore- 
field and western Maryland, having numerous skirmishes 
at the villages of that region and collecting much spoil. 
On their way to Oakland in Maryland, at Greenland 
Gap, a pass in the mountain range, necessary to go 
through in order to reach their destination, they en 
countered a strong blockhouse of logs, garrisoned with 
one hundred and fifty infantry, which commanded the 
way. The Seventh Virginia, Col. Richard H. Dulany, 
was first ordered in, but was repulsed, its colonel badly 
and supposed mortally wounded. The First Maryland 
was then sent forward. The position was almost impreg 
nable. The strong log house was crenelated and the gar 
rison poured through its crevices a constant and devouring 
fire. Its only approach was by a path, along which only 
two could charge abreast. Brown took charge and with 
his adjutant, Booth, led the forlorn hope. With a small 
number of men they got up to the side of the house, and 
by sticking close to the wall and firing through the crev 
ices with their revolvers, managed for some moments to 
live. Brown was shouting for fire, when both he and 
Booth were shot through the leg from muskets poked 
through the cracks at them. But the fire was got up 
and the house set in flames and then the garrison sur 
rendered. Maj. Robert Carter Smith and Lieutenants Pue 
and Beatty of Company A were severely wounded. The 
First Maryland lost several in its rank and file. All the 
field and staff were wounded. After a few days Colonel 
Brown s, Major Smith s and Captain Booth s wounds 
became so bad that they had to be sent to the rear, when 
Capt. Frank A. Bond was assigned to the command. 

In the movement on Pennsylvania in June, 1863, the 
First Maryland was assigned to the command of Brig. - 


Gen. Albert G. Jenkins, who had been ordered to the 
valley with his cavalry brigade. With Jenkins brigade 
the First Maryland made the Gettysburg campaign and 
participated in all the raids, foragings and skirmishes of 
that command, General Jenkins being in the advance in 
Lee s forward movement. When Lee withdrew from 
Gettysburg, Jenkins was sent with his brigade to protect 
the trains which were forwarded ahead of the infantry. 
Meade detached Kilpatrick s division down through 
Maryland to strike Lee s trains in the mountains, and at 
midnight it attacked them at Monterey, on the dividing 
line between Maryland and Pennsylvania Mason and 
Dixon s line. Emack s and Welsh s squadrons were at 
the point of attack. They were thrown behind the stone 
fences, part held mounted, and as Kilpatrick s advance 
charged in the pitch dark, the Marylanders sent them 
whirling back, and charged them mounted. These two 
squadrons held back Kilpatrick s division from midnight 
until dawn, when Jenkins got up, it having been impos 
sible to pass the wagon train in the dark. They saved 
Ewell s train, his ammunition and his ambulances with 
his wounded. Passing on down the mountain, they again 
met the enemy s cavalry at Hagerstown, where a desper 
ate hand-to-hand melee took place in the streets, and Maj. 
Ulric Dahlgren lost his leg. Captain Bond also received a 
wound which lamed him for life. 

After the army returned to Virginia the First cavalry 
served in Jenkins brigade, and then in the brigades of 
Gens. Fitz Lee and Lomax until November, 1863, 
when it was ordered to report to Col. Bradley T. Johnson, 
commanding the Maryland Line. 

Md 15 



AFTER the First regiment was mustered out of 
service August, 1862 , and the army of Northern 
Virginia returned from Sharpsburg, the hope of 
Maryland seemed dead. The Second regiment and the 
First cavalry in the valley were ordered to report to 
Brig. -Gen. William E. Jones, commanding the Valley 
district. Steuart was brigadier, Elzey was major-gen 
eral, and Johnson was colonel on a military court organ 
ized under an act of the Confederate Congress to sit as 
permanent general court-martial for each corps in the 
army. The Marylanders were more dispersed than ever. 
When the campaign of 1863 opened, the Second Mary 
land led Swell s advance on Winchester, and established 
its reputation for drill, for gallantry and for esprit, in 
the army. From Winchester Lee crossed the Potomac 
and moved into Pennsylvania. Johnson, chafing at being 
in the rear when the army was advancing, convinced 
Hon. James A. Seddon, secretary of war, that it was 
legal to constitute a regiment by consolidating the in 
fantry and cavalry battalions, and he was commissioned 
colonel of the First regiment, Maryland Line. He was 
ordered to take command of all the Maryland battalions 
and companies in the army of Northern Virginia, and 
authorized to organize regiments and appoint officers for 
them and report to Maj.-Gen. Isaac R. Trimble. He 
left Richmond, took horse at Charlottesville, and rode 
rapidly through the country to Gettysburg, where he 
arrived on the evening of July 2d. He reported his 
orders to Trimble, who reported them to Ewell. Ewell 
had succeeded Jackson in command of the Second corps, 



and knew Johnson well. He said in his crisp, brusque 
way, "This is no time to be swapping horses." The 
battle was then raging in his front. The next day, the 
$d, Ewell assigned Johnson to the command of his old 
brigade, and he remained in command of the Second 
brigade until November, 1863, when at last the order 
assigning him to the Maryland Line was executed. Gen 
eral Lee ordered him to take the Second infantry, the 
First cavalry and the Baltimore light artillery (the Sec 
ond Maryland) to Hanover Junction, where the Rich 
mond, Fredericksburg & Potomac railroad crossed the 
Virginia Central and where five long, high bridges over the 
North Anna, the South Anna and the Middle river made 
the safety of the position essential to the transportation 
of Lee s army. Here then at last, after more than two 
years effort and struggle, was the Maryland Line organ 
ized. During the winter it was reinforced by Maryland 
commands and Marylanders, until there were assembled 
more than fifteen hundred Marylanders under the Mary 
land flag, the largest number that was ever collected in 
war: more than Lord Sterling commanded at Long 
Island, or under DeKalb fell and died in front of Camden, 
or under Otho Williams swept the field at Eutaw, or by 
Howard s order charged at Cowpens, or broke the Grena 
dier Guards at Guilford. 

It was composed of the elite of the State, young men 
charged with devotion to duty, honor, country, liberty, 
justice and right. Their gallantry in battle became an 
ideal of the army of Northern Virginia all through their 

The commands assembled were : First Maryland cav 
alry, Lieut. -Col. Ridgely Brown; Maj. Robert Couter 
Smith ; Adjutants George W. Booth, Tom Eager How 
ard Post. 

Second Maryland infantry: Captain J. Parran Crane 
commanding; Lieut. -Col. Jos. R. Herbert and Maj. W. W. 
Goldsborough, both absent, wounded at Gettysburg. 


First Maryland artillery, Capt. Wm. F. Dement. 

Second Maryland artillery, Baltimore light, Capt. Wm. 
H. Griffin. 

Fourth Maryland artillery, Chesapeake, Capt. Walter 
S. Chew. 

The organizations of the batteries were as follows : 

First Maryland: Captain, William F. Dement. Lieu 
tenants, Charles S. Couter, John Gayle, Wm. J. Hill. 

Second Maryland, Baltimore light artillery: Captain, 
William H. Griffin. Lieutenants, William B. Bean, John 
McNulty, J. W. Goodman. 

Fourth Maryland, Chesapeake artillery : Captain, Wal 
ter S. Chew. Lieutenants, John E. Plater, Benjamin G. 

The field and staff consisted of: Bradley T. Johnson, 
colonel commanding; George W. Booth, captain and A. 
A. G. ; Wilson Carey Nicholas, captain and A. I. G. ; 
George H. Kyle, major and C. S. ; Charles W. Harding, 
major and Q. M. ; Richard P. Johnson, surgeon and med 
ical director; Thos. S. Latimer, assistant surgeon ; Rev. 
Thomas Duncan, chaplain- Andrew C. Trippe, lieuten 
ant and ordnance officer. 

During the winter General Lee conceived the plan of 
sending the Maryland Line, the cavalry minus their 
horses and the artillery minus their guns, across the 
Potomac in open boats to attack Point Lookout, where 
there were 15,000 Confederate prisoners with a strong 
guard of infantry and artillery. This forlorn hope was 
broken up by Federal movements around Hanover Junc 
tion, which rendered the Maryland Line more essential 
there than in any desperate forays against gunboats or 
fortified places and heavy artillery to rescue prisoners of 
war. About the ist of March, 1864, Colonel Johnson 
was informed by telegram from army headquarters that 
a heavy force of cavalry had passed by the right flank of 
the Confederate army and was making its way for Han 
over Junction, presumably to burn the bridges, and 
he was directed to protect them at every cost. He 


at once dispatched most of his cavalry in an expand 
ing circle of scouts north and northeast, until after mid 
night he located the enemy moving by Frederick s Hall 
toward Ground Squirrel Bridge over the South Anna, 
five miles east of the railroad bridges. Posting all his 
infantry at the bridges, Colonel Johnson with the rem 
nant of the First cavalry and the Baltimore light artillery 
pushed out toward the enemy. A mile from camp he 
struck a Federal picket approaching the bridges. A 
couple of shells and a rattling charge sent the raiders 
whirling whence they came. Johnson then moved along 
a parallel road to get between them and Richmond if 
possible. He had sixty sabers and four guns. At Ash 
land a party charged into the village, but were driven 
back, and the Marylanders pushed on to Yellow Tav 
ern, where the road they were on ran into and joined 
the road by which the Federal Cavalry were pushing 
on to Richmond. Arriving at the point after his enemy, 
Johnson concealed his force behind a barn on the 
roadside and posted a picket on the Brooktown pike, 
just in front, along which the Federal cavalry were 
advancing. The advance of the Federals were thunder 
ing away with their artillery at the outside fortifica 
tions of Richmond. In a few minutes five horsemen 
in blue dashed up to the pickets, who were clad in 
Federal uniforms captured that morning. Two were 
killed and three captured. Among the captured was a 
lieutenant, staff officer of Colonel Dahlgren. From the 
prisoners was extracted with difficulty and by force the 
information that the enemy in front, attacking, was 
under Maj.-Gen. Judson Kilpatrick, with 3,000 sabers, and 
that Colonel Dahlgren with 500 more was on the river road 
and that this dispatch was to inform Kilpatrick of his 
whereabouts, and that he intended to charge into the city 
at dusk and expected General Kilpatrick to assist by 
charging at the same time. Thus, knowing his enemy s 
hand Colonel Johnson promptly trumped it. He picked up 
his sixty sabers and hurled them against Kilpatrick s rear 
guard on the Brook pike. He ran them in on Kilpatrick, 


who was shelling the Richmond defenses. That officer, 
seeing he was between the upper and the nether mill 
stone, took horse and got out toward the Chickahominy, 
which he crossed, and went into camp at the Meadow 
Bridges, the Marylanders being on the side nearest 
Richmond. During the night Hampton came down on 
him with the First and Second North Carolina cavalry 
and ran him out of his camp. He stood not on the order 
of his going, but went at once, and at daylight Johnson 
and the Marylanders struck his trail. During the whole 
day they incessantly charged his rear guard and delayed 
and hindered his march. The ferry boats on the 
Pamunkey had all been sunk by Colonel Johnson s order 
as soon as he was notified of the movement of the enemy s 
cavalry by General Lee, the river was nowhere fordable, 
and Kilpatrick s only escape was by the peninsula to 
Fortress Monroe, or to a force sent thence to relieve and 
rescue him. At Old Church he was obliged to turn and 
fight. He put his 3,000 men and six guns in line of 
battle and sent one regiment out to charge his pursuers. 
He hadn t an idea of who or what they were. They 
might be Hampton with the whole of the Confederate 
cavalry pushing to gobble him up. The Federal charge 
drove the Marylanders back a mile with a loss of two 
men killed and one prisoner. As they were reforming 
to renew their attacks on Kilpatrick s rear guard, a 
courier reported that a heavy column was moving rapidly 
up on Colonel Johnson s rear and was then less than 
half a mile distant. Johnson had just time to dismount 
his men and rush them into the woods on each side of 
the road, but had not time to get his led horses out of 
the way when the Federals charged. They went through 
and the remnant rejoined Kilpatrick a mile distant, but 
the Marylanders killed, wounded and captured over a 
hundred men. This last detachment was a part of 
Dahlgren s command. Colonel Dahlgren, his communi 
cation with Kilpatrick having been cut off by the capture 


of his dispatch at Yellow Tavern, had taken one hundred 
men and gone off to find him. He had crossed the 
Pamunkey at Dabney s Ferry by swimming his horses 
and carrying his men and ammunition over in the 
sunken ferry boat, which he had found and raised, and 
was making his way back to the Union lines when he 
was killed in King and Queen county, the very night 
after the day the other part of his command cut its way 
through the Marylanders and escaped to Kilpatrick. 

After this little episode the Marylanders stuck to Kil 
patrick until he reached the railroad at Tunstall s Sta 
tion, where he was received by an escort sent up for him 
by Major-General Butler from Fortress Monroe. Gen 
eral Hampton reported that the exploits of the Maryland 
Line had saved Richmond, for, he said, Kilpatrick would 
certainly have ridden into Richmond if Colonel Johnson s 
attack in his rear had not paralyzed and delayed him so 
much that an infantry division could be brought up from 
the lines and set out to confront him. He complimented 
Colonel Johnson by presenting him with a saber, the 
only other patterns of which were borne by Lieutenant- 
General Hampton and President Jefferson Davis. Major- 
General Elzey, commanding the district of Richmond, 
reported that Colonel Johnson and his command, the 
Maryland Line, had saved the city of Richmond, and 
issued a general order complimenting him and them. 

On the pth of May, 1864, Maj.-Gen. Phil. Sheridan 
passed by the right flank of the army of Northern Vir 
ginia. Colonel Johnson was absent from the headquar 
ters of the Maryland Line at the Junction, on a scout down 
the peninsula, leaving Colonel Brown in command. In 
the afternoon Colonel Brown had information of the Fed 
eral movement and proceeded promptly to put himself in 
front of it, and before Richmond, with one hundred and 
fifty sabers. He came in contact with the enemy at 
about eleven o clock that night about a mile from Beaver 
Dam Station on the Virginia Central railroad, now the 


Chesapeake & Ohio railroad. The enemy was tearing 
up and destroying the railroad ties. Colonel Brown dis 
mounted his command, about ninety men, the rest left 
as horse holders and as reserve. He himself got up 
close to them and saw their position. Returning to his 
command, he attacked and moved forward, driving in 
pickets and skirmishers sent out to stop him. He pressed 
them back on the line of Sheridan s command formed to 
receive him. Thirteen thousand to one hundred and fifty 
was odds. The Marylander was obliged to decline and 
Brown withdrew. The next morning, in obedience to a 
dispatch from Gen. J. E. B. Stuart to attack and delay 
them until he could get up, he stood against this over 
whelming force all the morning, constantly forcing them 
to form line of battle and move forward in order. Stuart 
was thus able to get to Yellow Tavern just after Sheri 
dan had passed that point and was about to attack Rich 
mond. The Maryland Line paid dearly for the honor 
won that day. Capt. Schwartz, Company F, and Lieut. 
J. A. Ventris Pue, Company A, were badly wounded, 
and died on being carried off by the Federals to Wash 
ington. They did not die from wounds, but from mal 
treatment in being borne over bad roads in a rough 
ambulance. The ride killed them, not the bullets. 

In the latter part of May Lee s army fell back to the 
line of the North Anna, and Grant as usual moved by 
his right and crossed the Pamunkey at Dabney s Ferry. 
Colonel Johnson and the cavalry of the Line happened to 
be near there watching for such a movement. Colonel 
Baker of North Carolina was there with Gordon s North 
Carolina brigade, and he attacked the party which had 
crossed the river and driven off the Confederate pickets. 
Gen. Fitzhugh Lee, to whom Colonel Johnson was 
temporarily reporting, directed him to go to the assist 
ance of Baker. After a conference Johnson agreed that 
if Baker could hold the Federals while he, Johnson, 
could get around them, they two would capture the 


whole party. So Baker kept up a brisk skirmish, and 
Johnson moved up a side road to the right. He had not 
gone a mile when he met Baker s pickets coming back 
with the Federals at their heels, pressing so close that 
Johnson hardly had time to leave the narrow road and 
deploy in an open field before the enemy was on him. 
They killed Colonel Johnson s horse and shot his saber 
clean from his side. By the time he got out into the 
field a column of blue cavalry was going by his left flank 
and into his rear. So he attempted to withdraw decently 
and in order. But this was impossible. The Mary- 
landers made repeated charges to get relief, to be as fre 
quently driven back, until at last the only order of going 
was " sauve qui.peut." Out of two hundred and fifty men 
carried in they left seventy killed, wounded or missing. 
There was a larger percentage of killed than is usual in 
battle, for the fighting, as Jackson said about the Buck- 
tail fight, "was close and bloody." Some of the finest 
young men of the Maryland Line lost their lives that day. 
Alexander Young, private in Company D, son of a former 
comptroller of the treasury of the United States under 
Buchanan s administration, was a model of manly 
beauty, of chivalry and grace, of courage and accom 
plishment. Beautiful as he was brave, refined as highly 
educated ; intellectually, physically and morally he was a 
pattern gentleman. He died in his tracks, dismounted 
on the skirmish line, holding his place against a charge 
of mounted cavalry. This was known in the traditions 
of the Maryland Line as the fight at Pollard s Farm on 
May 27, 1864. 

On the ist of June following a force of Federal 
cavalry drove the First Maryland out of Hanover Court 
House over the Richmond & Fredericksburg railroad at 
Wickham s Crossing, back to the Virginia Central rail 
road not far north of Ashland. The bridges of the first 
road had ceased to be important, for Lee had fallen back 
between them and Richmond, but the Virginia Central 

Md 16 


bridges were very valuable, for they gave the only way 
by rail to the valley of Virginia. Colonel Johnson with 
his forces fought the enemy from hill- top to hill- top all 
the way from Wickham s back to the Virginia Central 
bridges, in hopes that reinforcements would be sent and 
thus the bridges saved, for he kept General Lee advised 
of his movements all day and he knew the conditions 
accurately. But no reinforcements came. At the very 
last effort, a desperate charge, Ridgely Brown was shot 
through the middle of the forehead and died without 
speaking a word. He was the bravest, the purest, the 
gentlest man from Maryland who died for liberty in that 
four years war. His commanding officer recorded the 
estimation in which he was held by officers and men in 
these appropriate terms: 

* Headquarters Maryland Line, June 6, 1864. 
General Order No. 26. 

Lieut. -Col. Ridgely Brown, commanding First Maryland 
cavalry, fell in battle on the ist instant near the South 
Anna. He died as a soldier prefers to die, leading a victo 
rious charge. 

As an officer, kind and careful; as a soldier, brave and 
true ; as a gentleman, chivalrous ; as a Christian, gentle 
and modest ; no one in the Confederate army surpassed 
him in the hold he had on the hearts of his men and the 
place in the esteem of his superiors. Of the rich blood 
that Maryland has lavished on every battle field, none is 
more precious than his and that of our other brave com 
rades in arms who fell in the four days previous, on the 
hill sides of Hanover. His command has lost a friend 
most steadfast, but his commanding officer is deprived 
of an assistant invaluable. To the first he was ever as 
careful as a father, to the latter as true as a brother. 

In token of respect for his memory the colors of the 
different regiments of this command will be draped and 
the officers wear the usual badge of military mourning 
for thirty days. 

By order of Col. Bradley T. Johnson, 


The Maryland cavalry under Colonel Johnson took a 


conspicuous and useful part in the battle at Trevilian s 
on June i2th between the Confederate cavalry, 4,500 
sabers under Hampton, and the Federal cavalry, 13,000 
sabers under Sheridan. When Custer in a dashing 
charge rode through a vacant place in Hampton s center, 
Rosser from the left with his own brigade and the Mary 
land Line cavalry charged Ouster s flank, and in turn rode 
through him, cutting him in two. The Marylanders 
captured over one hundred good horses and men com 
pletely armed and equipped. 

After this engagement at Trevilian s, Colonel John 
son obtained permission from General Hampton to 
undertake an expedition he had been preparing for all 
the preceding winter at Hanover Junction. He proposed 
to pick two hundred men and horses, proceed by roads 
he knew well on the east foot of the Blue Ridge to the 
Potomac, within twenty miles of Washington, cross at 
a well-known ford and ride swiftly to the Soldiers Home, 
twelve miles off, where Lincoln was in the habit of 
spending the summer nights, guarded by a small picket 
of cavalry, disperse that, mount the President on a 
strong horse behind an officer, and send him back into 
Virginia with five men. Johnson with the rest of the 
command was to strike west for Frederick, cut the way 
between Washington and Baltimore, isolate Irederick 
east and west, and try to cross the Potomac at Point of 
Rocks, at Shepherdstown or Williamsport, whichever 
should be found most practicable, or if pressed get be 
yond Cumberland and escape to the Virginia mountains 
by that route. But if they should be cut off entirely 
from Virginia, he intended to ride through Pennsylvania 
to Niagara and cross then into the British possessions. 
He believed that everything would be in such confusion 
on the disappearance of the President, who could not be 
heard of in less than two or three days, that he would 
have that much start and would easily get off. At any 
rate the prize was worth the risk, and the game the 


candle. So he left Hampton to ride his raid and was 
busily engaged near Gordonsville shoeing his horses and 
getting up his disunited men. 

One day General Early came along with his corps to 
head off Hunter, then rapidly approaching Lynchburg. 
Colonel Johnson felt himself bound to disclose to General 
Early his projected raid, for he would unexpectedly be 
operating within the sphere of Early s movements, and 
the latter promptly prohibited it. "I want to make 
that expedition myself, and I want you and your cavalry 
to assist me in it. You go to Waynesboro in the valley 
and watch there, guarding my rear until I dispose of Mr. 
Hunter. As soon as I ve smashed his little tea party, 
I ll come back and we ll go into Maryland together and 
see what we can do. 

So instead of * * riding his raid Johnson marched to 
Waynesboro and waited with what patience nature had 
given him until Early s corps had returned to Staunton. 
Then Early assigned him to the command of Wm. E. 
Jones cavalry brigade, Jones having been killed at New 
Hope church below Staunton on Hunter s advance up 
the valley. The First Maryland cavalry and the Balti 
more light artillery were added to the command. In a 
few days Colonel Johnson received his commission of 
brigadier-general. He made Capt. George W. Booth 
assistant adjutant-general of brigade, Booth having been 
his adjutant with ^the First Maryland infantry and with 
the Maryland Line at Hanover Junction, and for gal 
lantry, for intelligence, for industry, for zeal, for self con 
trol and cool courage being unexcelled by any man high 
or low in the army of Northern Virginia. 

General Johnson, in charge of the advance, moved rap 
idly through Winchester, marching on Shepherdstown. 
At Leetown, south of Martinsburg and northwest of 
Harper s Ferry, he encountered General Mulligan with 
3,000 infantry and a six-gun battery to stop him. He 
promptly attacked Mulligan, and after more than half a 


day s fight drove him away. Johnson s cavalry brigade 
consisted of 800 mounted men, one four-gun battery, and 
a number of dismounted men who had lost their horses 
in the preceding thirty days, fighting Hunter, and were 
now following their command to take the chances of a 
horse turning up. Like the Welshman, if somebody 
would furnish them with a bridle, they would find a 
horse. From Leetown Johnson crossed the Potomac at 
Shepherdstown, passed rapidly through Sharpsburg to 
Boonsboro, on the 4th of July, leaving a large infantry 
force on Maryland Heights on his right and rear, depending 
on Early s infantry to take care of them. From Boons 
boro he pressed down the National road through Middle- 
town on Frederick. At Middletown he ran into a regi 
ment of Federal cavalry, the Eighth Illinois, and Alexan 
der s Maryland battery. Pushing them back and over 
the mountain, he drove them to the suburbs of Frederick, 
where he found a large force of infantry deployed in 
front of the town. He sent Lieutenant-Colonel Dunn 
with his Virginia regiment over to the Harper s Ferry 
road, while he proposed to move by the reservoir road 
into the opposite end of the town. Frederick was his 
native place and he was hourly informed of the condition 
of things and the troops defending the place. He was 
convinced that a simultaneous charge by Colonel Dunn 
at one end and by himself at the other would result in 
the capture of the town and all the troops in it. It was 
crammed with a wagon train escaping from Harper s 
Ferry, whence Gordon, of Early s command, had driven 

Just as he got in motion for this attack, Maj.-Gen. 
Robert Ransom, commanding Early s cavalry, came 
up, and being informed of what was proposed, counter 
manded it and ordered Johnson back to the mountain at 
Hagan s on the top of it. He said that General Johnson 
was too enthusiastic and sanguine to get home, and that 
he would be cut to pieces. That night General Early 


gave General Johnson his orders, just received from 
General Lee by Robert E. Lee, his son. General Lee 
had singular tenacity and persistency of mind. He had 
formed the plan the preceding winter to send Johnson 
and the Maryland Line across the Potomac in boats to 
release the prisoners at Point Lookout. That plan had 
been frustrated by the movements of Kilpatrick and 
Sheridan, and now he recurred to it as soon as there was 
a possibility of accomplishing it. He directed General 
Early to detach Johnson with orders to move around the 
north of Baltimore, burn the bridges on the railroads 
leading north and cut the wires ; then, circling round, to 
break the communication between Washington and Bal 
timore ; then move on Point Lookout and attack at day 
light on the 1 2th of July, when an attack would be made 
from the water side by Capt. John Taylor Wood, who 
would run out of Wilmington and by Fortress Monroe in 
a Confederate gun-boat. When the prisoners, some 
15,000, were released, Johnson was to assume command 
and march them to Bladensburg, where General Early 
was to wait for them, when Washington was to be car 
ried, communication established across the Potomac, and 
Grant s army forced to release Richmond and come back 
to recover Washington. 

Johnson showed the commanding general that the 
time allowed was entirely insufficient. It was then the 
8th of July and he was ordered to be at Point Lookout 
on the morning of the 1 2th, three days and three nights 
to make a march of two hundred and fifty miles. Horse 
flesh couldn t do it. However, it was orders, and no 
more was to be said. The explanation was made to 
account for the inevitable result. The next morning at 
daylight he started, rode through Westminster to 
Reisterstown and Cockeysville, where he arrived on the 
morning of Sunday, July loth. At that point he de 
tached Lieut. -Col. Harry Gilmor, who with the Second 
Maryland cavalry had been attached to his command on 


the march down the valley, with orders to move on to 
the railroad connecting Baltimore and Philadelphia, burn 
the bridges over the Gunpowder and Bush rivers and 
then report to him in the neighborhood of Washington, 
where he would be by the i4th. Gilmor accomplished 
the object of his expedition, burned the bridges, captured 
a passenger train on which was Major-General Franklin 
of the Federal army, who subsequently escaped during 
the night, and reported as per orders on the i4th, at 
Poolesville. Johnson, after burning the bridge at Cock- 
eysville, turned round and rode rapidly around north of 
Baltimore. When five miles from that city, it was re 
ported to him that the home of Governor Bradford, gov 
ernor of Maryland, was only a short distance down the 
road. He at once detailed Lieutenant Blackstone, Com 
pany B, First Maryland cavalry, with a detail of a few 
men and written orders to burn the house, in retaliation 
for the burning of the home of Governor Letcher of 
Virginia by General Hunter at Lexington within the 
preceding thirty days. Such debts require prompt pay 
ment, and this was paid in thirty days without grace. 

From Cockeysville he had dispatched a friend into Bal 
timore to find out the condition of the transportation on 
the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, and he left two men at 
Hayfields, John Merryman s place, to bring him the re 
port of his scout about midnight. He stopped at the 
Caves, the place of John Canon, Esq. , about midnight, 
to feed. While there his couriers from Hayfields got up 
and reported that the Nineteenth corps, General Emory, 
had arrived in transports and was at Locust Point and 
was being landed on the trains of the Baltimore & Ohio 
and hurried to Washington. Johnson sent this information 
to Early by an officer and five men, with orders to ride at 
speed, seizing horses as fast as theirs gave out. Thence 
he rode across Montgomery and Howard counties toBelts- 
ville on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad to Washington, 
where he struck a thousand Federal cavalry and drove them 


helter-skelter into Bladensburg. After cutting the rail 
road he started for Point Lookout, distant eighty miles, 
with seventeen hours to make it. He sent couriers 
ahead to tell the people he was coming, and that they 
must have their horses on the roadside ready to be ex- 
changed for his broken-down ones. They would have 
done it, for they were all ardent Southerners. Just as 
his column got in motion, he received an order from Gen 
eral Early to report to him at once. Turning the head 
of the column toward Washington, he caught Early that 
night near Blair s house at Silver Spring and, as usual, 
took the rear guard. At Rockville there was a halt to 
feed, when a regiment of Federal cavalry charged them, 
but was driven back with loss. The Marylanders, 
however, did not escape unscathed. Capt. Wilson Carey 
Nicholas, acting inspector- general of the Maryland Line, 
leading the charge of the first squadron, had his horse 
shot and was himself shot and taken prisoner. He was 
as good a soldier and as gallant a gentleman as ever 
rode a horse in that war. 

From Rockville, still covering the rear, Johnson s bri 
gade followed the army to Poolesville, where during half 
the day it covered Early, recrossing the Potomac. His 
trains were long, piled with plunder, and his herds of 
cattle and horses very large. The Federals pressed 
down on the rear guard with pertinacity and in force, 
but the cavalry held them until dark, and the Baltimore 
light artillery fired the last shots, as the First cavalry 
were the last troops that crossed the Potomac, on Early s 
withdrawal from Maryland in 1864. He had received 
Johnson s dispatch from the Caves, reporting the arrival 
of the Nineteenth corps, just in time to countermand the 
order for an assault at daylight next morning on the 
apparently deserted Federal fortification. The morning 
revealed those same works crammed with troops, and 
Johnson s dispatch, therefore, probably saved him from a 
great disaster, for the works were impregnable to assault 


when fully manned. This ride from July 9th to July 
1 3th was probably the longest ride taken during the war. 
It was one hundred and twenty hours in which the men 
never dismounted except to unsaddle and feed once every 
twenty-four hours, and of course they ate what they 
could pick up on the roadside, and slept in their saddles. 

After crossing the river, Johnson s brigade followed 
Early to Winchester, and in a short time to Martinsburg. 
From that point General Early dispatched Gen. John 
McCausland with his own and Johnson s brigade to 
demand a contribution from Chambersburg, Pa., in 
retaliation for the burning of the houses of Hon. Alex 
ander R. Boteler, Andrew Hunter and Edmund Lee at 
Shepherdstown and Charlestown a short time before. 
He sent a written demand on the authorities of Cham 
bersburg for $100,000 in gold and $500,000 in greenbacks 
for the purpose of indemnifying these losers from 
Hunter s barbarities, or, in default of payment, he or 
dered the town to be burned. The expedition started on 
July 29th and reached Chambersburg on the soth. Mc 
Causland then sought the town authorities, but they had 
fled. He then caused the court house bell to be rung to 
call together a town meeting to make his demand known 
to them. But the panic-stricken people would trust 
themselves in no conference with the " rebels. " They 
did not believe, and they were not chary in saying so, 
that the rebels would never dare to burn their town ; they 
were afraid to do so. This was really the tone assumed 
by the people of Chambersburg that morning. Finding 
delay useless and dangerous, McCausland set fire to the 
court house, which made a flaming beacon of fast-com 
ing disaster, and in five minutes the whole town was in a 
blaze from twenty different points. 

The Confederates were withdrawn from the burning 
town and started for Virginia. They moved up to Cum 
berland, but finding General Kelly there with a force too 
strong for them, turned off and recrossed the Potomac at 

Md 17 


Old Town, in Hampshire county, now West Virginia. 
Thence they moved on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad at 
New Creek, and rinding that heavily fortified and de 
fended, proceeded to Moorefield in Hardy county, where 
they camped on the 6th of August. The First and Sec 
ond Maryland had been placed under command of Lieut. - 
Col. Harry Gilmor and were camped up the Romney 
road. The lines were made, the camps pitched and the 
pickets posted according to the orders of Brigadier-Gen 
eral McCausland, the commanding officer of the expedi 
tion, and Brigadier-General Johnson obeyed his orders. 
Next morning before day Averell surprised Johnson s 
picket on the Romney road, captured the reserve, and 
then rode over the camps of the two Maryland battalions. 
Johnson just escaped capture and endeavored to rally his 
brigade. But the surprise was too nerve- shattering. 
The Twenty-first Virginia, Col. William E. Peters, was 
the only regiment that could be held in hand. Peters 
was a man of iron resolution and imperturbable courage. 
He couldn t be shaken. Earthquakes, tornadoes, electric 
storms couldn t move him. He would have stopped and 
asked, " What next? " if the earth were opening beneath 
him and the mountains falling on him. Johnson set him 
to hold Averell, while he brought the rest of the brigade 
to his support. But the Federal rush, the elan of suc 
cess, was too strong. It carried off the Twenty-first 
Virginia like chaff before the whirlwind, leaving Peters 
shot through the body, mortally wounded, if any wound 
can be mortal. But human will triumphs over human 
anatomy and surgical skill, and Peters survives to this 
day as indomitable in his Latin professorship as he was 
that drear morning at Moorefield. 

After the return from Chambersburg, the Maryland 
Line in Johnson s cavalry brigade was actively engaged 
in all the operations of Early in the valley. There was 
not a fight in which the Marylanders were not in front. 
Like the clan McDonald, which refused to charge at 


Culloden because it had been placed on the left of the line 
of battle, and McDonald since Bannockburn had always 
held the right of the clans, they always were in front, 
whether posted there or not. They took it, and held it ! 

After Early was expelled from the valley by the over 
whelming force of Sheridan, the Maryland Line cavalry 
and artillery were attached to Davidson s brigade, after 
ward commanded by Gen. Wm. L. Jackson. There they 
served in Lomax s cavalry division during the winter 
until March, 1865, when the remnant of Early s com 
mand was dispersed by Sheridan at Waynesboro. As 
Sheridan pursued Early across the mountains toward 
Richmond, the Marylanders hung on his flank and an 
noyed him as flies worry a horse, but could do no harm. 

In the latter part of March, 1865, they were ordered to 
report to General Fitz Lee at Stony Creek. Reaching 
Richmond the evening of April ist they camped there, 
and next day, Sunday, April 2d, saw the evacuation of 
the capital of the Confederacy. The Marylanders had 
then been reduced to less than one hundred. At Stony 
Creek they found General Lee had moved, and they re 
ceived orders to cover the rear of Mahone s division, the 
rear guard of the army. On the 4th of April, Colonel 
Dorsey, commanding the First Maryland, joined Gen. 
Fitzhugh Lee and was assigned to Gen. Wm. H. Payne s 
brigade. General Payne was wounded at Amelia 
Springs and was succeeded by Gen. Thos. T. Munford. 
Under him, the Marylanders, like the McDonalds, always 
nearest the enemy, kept the enemy pursuing them in 
check. On the 9th of April a heavy force of the Fed 
eral cavalry was seen moving along Munford s front, 
parallel to it. Dorsey mounted his men and, pulling 
down a fence in his front, was moving through the gaps 
in it toward the enemy. As soon as his first section had 
passed through, they saw the Federals in full charge at 
them not a hundred yards off. * We must charge them, " 
said Capt. William J. Raisin, "that s our only chance." 


" Draw saber, gallop, charge!" was Dorsey s order, 
and the Marylanders hurled themselves on the advancing 
foe and drove him back. This was the last cavalry 
charge made in the army of Northern Virginia. Wil 
liam C. Price, Company E, was killed. His was the last 
blood shed in the war in Virginia. As General Munford 
well said in his farewell address to the Marylanders, 
You spilled the first blood of the war in Baltimore and 
you shed the last in Virginia. " 

Munford did not surrender at Appomattox. None of 
the cavalry did. They marched away to Lynchburg. 
In ten days Colonel Dorsey got an order to move up the 
valley to Salem. When they arrived at Cloverdale in 
Botetourt county, they received this parting address 
from Munford, " the bravest of the brave." 

" Cloverdale, Botetourt Co., Va., April 28, 1865. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Dorsey, 

Commanding First Maryland Cavalry: 
I have just learned from Captain Emack that your gallant 
band was moving up the valley in response to my call. 
I am deeply pained to say that our army cannot be 
reached, as I have learned it has capitulated. It is sad 
indeed to think that our country s future is all shrouded 
in gloom. But for you and your command there is the 
consolation of having faithfully done your duty. Three 
years ago the chivalric Brown joined my old regiment 
with twenty-three Maryland volunteers, with light hearts 
and full of fight. I soon learned to respect, admire and 
love them for all those qualities which endear soldiers to 
their officers. They recruited rapidly, and as they in 
creased in numbers, so did their reputation and friends 
increase ; and they were soon able to take a position of 
their own. 

Need I say when I see that position so high and almost 
alone among soldiers, that my heart swells with pride to 
think that a record so bright and glorious is in some part 
linked with mine? Would that I could see the mothers 
and sisters of every member of your battalion, that I 
might tell them how nobly you have represented your 
State and maintained our cause. 

But you will not be forgotten. The fame you have 


won will be guarded by Virginia with all the pride she 
feels in her own true sons, and the ties which have 
linked us together, memory will preserve. 

You who struck the first blow in Baltimore and the last 
in Virginia have done all that could be asked of you. Had 
the rest of our officers and men adhered to our cause 
with the same devotion, to-day we should have been 
free from Yankee thralldom. I have ordered the brigade 
to return to their homes, and it behooves us now to 

With my warmest wishes for your welfare, and a 
hearty God bless you, I bid you farewell. 

Brigadier-General Commanding Division." 

And so closes the record of the Maryland Line in the 
army of the Confederate States. It is inscribed on the 
pages of the history of the army of Northern Virginia. 
It fired the first gun in the Seven Days battles. It fired 
the first gun in Early s advance into Maryland in 1864, 
when he crossed the Potomac at Shepherdstown, and the 
last, when he recrossed at Poolesville. It struck the first 
blow and shed the first blood of the revolution in Balti 
more on the i pth of April, 1861, and made the last charge 
at Appomattox, April 9, 1865. Future generations of 
Marylanders will be proud of its achievements, and in 
the South I hope its memory will be honored and loved. 





Colonels Arnold Elzey, June 17, 1861; promoted 
brigadier- general July 21, 1861, major-general December 
4, 1862. George H. Steuart, July 21, 1861; promoted 
brigadier-general March 18, 1862. Bradley T. Johnson, 
March 18, 1862; promoted brigadier-general June 28, 

Lieutenant-Colonels George" H. Steuart, June 17, 
1861; Bradley T. Johnson, July 21, 1861; E. R. Dorsey, 
March 18, 1862. 

Majors Bradley T. Johnson, June 17, 1861; E. R. 
Dorsey, July 21, 1861. 

Acting Adjutants, Lieutenant Frank X. Ward, Com 
pany H; Lieutenant George W. Booth, Company D. 
Surgeons, E. T. Galliard, R. P. Johnson. Assistant- 
Surgeons, Styles Kennedy, Thos. S. Latimer. Captain 
and A. Q. M., Grafton D. Spurrier, Chas. W. Harding, 
Septimus H. Stewart. Captain and A. C. S., John E. 
Howard. Chaplain, Stephen J. Cameron. Sergeant- 
Major, George W. Bishop, Philip L. Moore. Quarter 
master-Sergeant, Chas. J. Wegner. Chief Musician, 
Alex. Hubbard. Drum Major, Hosea Pitt. 


Company A Captain, Bradley T. Johnson, Wm. W. 
Goldsborough. First- Lieutenant, George K. Shellman. 

* NOTE. This is not presented as a complete roster. It is compiled from 
such muster rolls as have been found in the War Records Office at Washing 
ton, with additions from memory. 



Second-Lieutenant, Chas. W. Blair, Geo. M. E. Shearer, 
W. H. B. Dorsey, John F. Groshon. Sergeants, John T. 
Smith, George Tyler, D. Windsor Kessler, W. H. Pope. 
Corporals, Francis T. Bender, Wm. Ritter, Perry Mc 
Dowell, James Abbott. Musician, Alex J. Hubbard. 

Company B Captain, Chas. C. Edelin. First- Lieuten 
ant, James Mullen. Second-Lieutenant, Thomas Costello, 
Jos. Griffin. First-Sergeant, Peter Boyle. Sergeants, 
George Moog, Daniel Dougherty, Jas. Lemates. Cor 
porals, George Bates, Wm. Haffey, Dennis O Brien, 
George Probest. Musician, Joseph Smith. 

Company C Captain, Robert C. Smith, E. R. Dorsey. 
First- Lieutenant, Septimus H. Stewart. Second- Lieu 
tenant, Wm. P. Thomas. First-Sergeant, Wm. Smyth. 
Sergeants, Sterling Murray, John B. Berryman, John H. 
Uhlhorn. Corporals, Chas. A. Arnold, John O Lough- 
lin, Frank S. Price, Henry C. Scott. Musician, Hosea 

Company D Captain, James R. Herbert. First- 
Lieutenant, Geo. W. Booth. Second-Lieutenant, Wm. Key 
Howard, Nicholas Snowden. First- Sergeant, Geo. F. 
Ruff. Sergeants, Chas. J. Wegner, Wm. H. Slingluff, 
Edward L. King, Mason E. McKnew. Corporals, Ed 
ward Selvage, Jos. Wranck, Washington Hands, Wm. 
Weber. Musician, Chas. Tuttle, Jas. M. Ruley. 

Company E Captain, Edmund O Brien, Harry McCoy. 
First- Lieutenant, John J. Lutts. Second- Lieutenant, 
John Cushing, Jr., Jos. G. W. Marriott. First- Sergeant, 
Geo. G. Raborg. Sergeants, Napoleon Camper, Green 
H. Barton, Wm. T. Wallis, Robert H. Cushing. Cor 
porals, Patrick H. Williams, Thos. H. Davidson, Joseph 
T. Doyle, Alfred Pearce. Musician, Wm. Gannon, 
Michael Quinn. 

Company F Captain, J. Louis Smith. First-Lieuten 
ant, Wm. D. Hough. Second-Lieutenant, Wm. J. Broad- 
foot, Joseph H. Stewart. First-Sergeant, Geo. W. Foos. 
Sergeants, John Marny, John Morris, Samuel A. Ken- 


nedy. Corporals, John Ryan, Michael McCourt, Edward 
Sheehan, Owen Callen. Musician, Francis Farr. 

Company G Captain, Wilson C. Nicholas. First- Lieu 
tenant, Alexander Cross. Second-Lieutenant, Edward 
Deppish. First- Sergeant, John J. Platt. Sergeants, 
James Farrell, Louis Neidhammer, James Shields. Cor 
porals, George Ross, Eli Fishpan, Samuel Kirk, Charles 
Fercoit. Musician, Andrew Myers. 

Company H Captain, Wm. H. Murray. First-Lieu 
tenant, George Thomas. Second-Lieutenant, Francis X. 
Ward, Richard T. Gilmor, W. P. Dollinger. First-Ser 
geant, John H. Sullivan. Sergeants, McHenry Howard, 
James Lyon, Chapman B. Briscoe. Corporals, Edward 
Johnson, Richard C. Mackall, Clapham Murray, Wm. S. 

Company I Captain, Michael S. Robertson. First-Lieu 
tenant, Hugh Mitchell. Second-Lieutenant, Hezekiah 
H. Bean, Eugene" Diggs. First-Sergeant, John J. Braw-* 
ner. Sergeants, John H. Stone, F. L. Higdon, Wm. H. 
Rison, Warren W. Ward. Corporals, Z. Francis Free 
man, Francis L. Higdon, Thomas I. Green, Thomas L. 

Company C (Second) Captain, Edmund Barry. First- 
Lieutenant, John Marshall. Second-Lieutenant, Wm. H. 
Edelin, Tom Washington Smith. First- Sergeant, Albert 
Tolson. Sergeants, Richard Brown, William Barry. 
(This company was enlisted in Richmond and united with 
the regiment. No muster roll of this company has been 
found in the war records. ) 

Battles and actions in which the First Maryland infan 
try was engaged: Manassas, Mason s Hill, Munson s 
Hill, Rappahannock River, Front Royal, Winchester, 
Harrisonburg, Cross Keys, Mechanicsville, Games Mill, 
Dispatch Station, Malvern Hill, Harrison Landing. 




Lieutenant-Colonel, James R. Herbert; Major, Wm. 
W. Goldsborough ; Surgeon, Richard P. Johnson; As 
sistant-Surgeon, DeWilton Snowden; A. Q. M., John E. 
Howard; Adjutant, J. Winder Laird; Sergeant-Major, 
Wm. R. McCullough; Q. M. Sergeant, Edwin James; 
Ordnance-Sergeant, Francis L. Higdon ; Chief Musician, 
Michael A. Quinn. 


Company A Captain, Wm. H. Murray, George 
Thomas. First-Lieutenant, Clapham Murray. Second- 
Lieutenant, Wm. P. Zollinger. First-Sergeant, Wm. L. 
Blackiston. Sergeants, Jas. F. Pearson, Jas. W. Thomas, 
Ezekiel S. Dorsey, Wm. H. Smith. Corporals, Willis 
Brancock, Chas. E. Maguire, George Denton, Lawrence 
K. Thomas. Musician, Wm. Gannon. 

Company B Captain, J. Parran Crane. First-Lieu 
tenant, J. H. Stone. Second-Lieutenant, Chas. B. Wise, 
Jas. H. Wilson. First-Sergeant, Philip T. Reeder. Ser 
geants, John G. Barber, Francis Z. Freeman, Witting- 
ham Hammett. Corporals, Thomas Simms, Wm. F. 
Wheatley, John Z. Downing, Albert Fenwick. Musician, 
Chas. T. Drury. 

Company C Captain, Ferdinand Duvall. First-Lieu 
tenant, Chas. W. Hodges. Second-Lieutenant, Thomas 
H. Tolson, Joseph W. Barber. First-Sergeant, Wm. T. 
Outten. Sergeants, Robert T. Hodges, George Probest, 
Wm. Ritter, Thos. D. Barren. Corporals, Edward A. 
Welch, Beale D. Mullikin, John W. Collins, Chas. Clayton. 

Company D Captain, Jas. L. McAleer. First-Lieu 
tenant, Jas. S. Franklin. Second-Lieutenant, Samuel T. 
McCullough. First-Sergeant, Thos. C. Butler. Sergeants, 
Wm. Jenkins, J. Wm. Proudt, Isaac Sherwood, Edwin 

Md 18 


Gover. Corporals, Geo. W. McAtee, Alfred Riddlemos- 
er, John McCready. 

Company E Captain, John W. Torsch. First-Lieu 
tenant, Wm. J. Broadfoot. Second-Lieutenant, Wm. R. 
Byus, Jos. P. Quinn. First- Sergeant, Samuel Kirk. 
Sergeants, Geo. L. Ross, Wilbur Ritter, Wm. Heaphy. 
Corporals, John Cain, Lewis P. Staylor, Jas. Reddie, 
Benj. F. Amos. Musician, Joseph Smith, Jas. L. Aubrey. 

Company F Captain, A. J. Gwynn. First- Lieutenant, 
John W. Polk. Second-Lieutenant, David C. Forrest, 
John G. Hyland. First-Sergeant, Nicholas J. Mills. 
Sergeants, Walter J. Randall, Philip T. Muirhead, Thos. 
O. Hodges, Joseph O. Wagner. Corporals, Jas. H. Dixon, 
Jas. T. Brown, Washington Martin. 

Company G Captain, Thos. R. Stewart. First-Lieu 
tenant, G. G. Guillette, James A. Davis. Second-Lieuten 
ant, Geo. Brighthaupt, Wm. C. Wrightson. First- Ser 
geant, Daniel A. Fenton. Sergeants, Geo. W. Manning, 
Michael C. Holohan, Algernon Henry, Patrick O Connell. 
Corporals, Jas. E. Briddle, Henry A. Mumford, Wm. 
Lord, Benj. F. Twilley. 

Company H Captain, J. Thos. Bussey. First-Ser 
geant, Thos. O Brien. Sergeants, John J. Powers. Cor 
porals, Patrick Keenan, John J. Ward. 

Battles in which the Second Maryland regiment in 
fantry was engaged: Winchester, Gettysburg, Cold 
Harbor, White Oak Swamp, Weldon Railroad, Squirrel 
Level Road, Hatcher s Run, Pegram s Farm, Appomat- 
tox, Petersburg. Steuart s brigade, to which the Second 
Maryland was assigned, assaulted Gulp s Hill at Gettys 
burg, July 2, 1863, and took the line of Federal works, 
occupying the same through the night. On the follow 
ing morning a further advance movement was attempted, 
which, however, failed, and after a desperate conflict the 
Confederate line was retired to the position on Rock 
Creek. The Second Maryland has commemorated this 
service by the erection of a monument which stands on 


the Federal line of works. The regiment carried into 
action about 400 muskets, of which force more than one- 
half were killed or wounded. 



Lieutenant-Colonels Ridgely Brown, Robert Carter 
Smith, Gus. W. Dorsey. 

Majors Ridgely Brown, Robert Carter Smith. 

Adjutants Geo. W. Booth, John E. H. Post. 

Assistant-Surgeon Wilbur R. McKnew; A. Q. M., 
Ignatius W. Dorsey; Sergeant-Majors, Edward Johnson, 
John E. H. Post, Arthur Bond ; Quartermaster-Sergeant, 
Chas. J. Wegner; Orderly-Sergeant, Edward Johnson. 


Company A Captain, Frank A. Bond. First- Lieuten 
ant, Thomas Griffith. Second-Lieutenant, J. A. V. Pue, 
Edward Beatty. First-Sergeant, John H. Scholl. Ser 
geants, Hammond Dorsey, Frank Griffith, Joshua Riggs, 
Chas. R. Cockey. Corporals, Wm. Wilson, Bazil Clark, 
Arthur Bond, John Harding. 

Company B Captain, Geo. M. Emack. First-Lieuten 
ant, Mason E. McKnew. Second-Lieutenant, Adolphus 
Cook, Henry C. Blackiston. First-Sergeant, S. B. 
Spencer. Sergeants, W. A. Wilson, W. H. W. Guyther, 
D. M. Turner, O. H. Perry. Corporals, G. M. Serpell, 
J. J. Spear, Pembroke Jones, J. R. H. Deakins, Robert 

Company C Captain, Robert C. Smith. First-Lieuten 
ant, Geo. Howard. Second- Lieutenant, T. Jeff Smith, 
T. J. Green, Graeme Turnbull, Jas. D. Walters. First- 
Sergeant, Illinois Carruthers. Sergeants, Geo. Smith 
Norris, E. Clarence Neale, Wm. F. Dorsey, Hamilton 
Lefevre. Corporals, Richard Knox, Richard C. Smith, 
LaFayette Hause. 

Company D Captain, Warner G. Welch. First-Lieu. 


tenant, Wm. H. Dorsey. Second-Lieutenant, Stephen D, 
Lawrence, Milton Welch. First- Sergeant, Phineas I. 
Davis. Sergeants, Upton L. Dorsey, Thomas G. Worth- 
ington, Albert Jones, Lewis W. Trail. Corporals, Geo. 
R. Simpson, Edwin Selvage, Geo. R. Gather, Rich H. 

Company E Captain, Wm. J. Raisin. First-Lieutenant, 
S. B. Burroughs. Second-Lieutenant, Nathaniel Chap 
man, Jos. K. Roberts, Jr. First-Sergeant, Townley 
Robey. Sergeants, John Savage, Solomon Wright, Thos. 
H. Gemmill. Corporals, Geo. T. Hollyday, Benj. J. 
Turton, Henry C. Wallis, John W. Slaven. 

Company F Captain, Aug. F. Schwartz. First- Lieu 
tenant, C. Irving Ditty. Second-Lieutenant, Fielder 
C. Slingluff, Samuel G. Bond. First-Sergeant, Josiah H. 
Slingluff. Sergeants, Howard H. Kinsey, Henry A. 
Wile. Corporals, Wilbur J. Rolph, John W. Latham, 
Jos. C. Shorb. 

Company K Captain, ^Geo. R. Gaither, Gus. W. Dor 
sey, N. C. Hobbs. First-Lieutenant, Rudolphus Cecil, 
George Howard. Second-Lieutenant, E. H. D. Pue, 
Samuel W. Dorsey, George Howard, Ridgely Brown, 
Thomas Griffith, Frank A. Bond. First-Sergeant, Robert 
Floyd. Sergeants, W. H. Wright, Geo. Buckingham, 
Ira Albaugh, W. W. Burgess. Corporals, F. Leo Wills, 
William Barnes, B. H. Morgan, Robert Bruce, James 

Some of the actions in which the First Maryland cav 
alry was engaged: Kernstown, Maurytown, Greenland 
Gap, Oakland, Morgantown, Bridgeport, Cairo, Middle- 
town, Winchester, Hagerstown, Morton s Ford, Brandy 
Station, Auburn or Cedar Creek, Buckland, Gainesville, 
Taylorsville, Pollard s Farm, Old Church, Beaver Dam, 
Dabney s Ferry, Ashland, Trevilian s Station, Leetown, 
Bladensburg, Rockville, Poolesville, Gettysburg, Martins- 
burg, Charlestown, Bunker Hill, Fisher s Hill, Madison 
C. H., Liberty Mills, High Bridge, Appomattox. 



No official muster rolls of this command having been 
found, a partial list is given from various sources. 


Lieutenant-Colonel, Harry Gilmor; Adjutant, Herman 
F. Keidel; Quartermaster, N. W. Owings; Sergeant- 
Major, Edward Williams ; Quartermaster-Sergeant, Wm. 


Company A Captain, Nicholas Burke. First-Lieuten 
ant, W. W. McKaig. Second-Lieutenant, John B. Wells. 
Second Lieutenant, Meredith Gilmor. First-Sergeant, 
Jos. Stansbury. Second-Sergeant, Alonzo Travers. 

Company B Captain, Eugene Diggs. First-Lieuten 
ant, Harrison. Second-Lieutenant, J. C. Holmes. 

Company C Captain, David M. Ross. First-Lieuten 
ant, Richard T. Gilmor. Second-Lieutenant, Geo. 
Forney, Wm. H. Kemp. First-Sergeant, Frederick 
Baker. Sergeants, M. Todd, Fields, John Bosley. Cor 
porals, W. H. Todd, John Emmerick, Henry Bushbaum. 

Company D Captain, J. R. Burke. First-Lieutenant, 
Polk Burke. 

Company E Captain, J. E. Sudler. First-Lieutenant, 
Geo. Ratcliffe. Sergeant, J. C. Holmes. 

Company F Captain, Jas. L. Clark. First-Lieutenant, 
W. H. Richardson. Second-Lieutenant, Wm. Dorsey, E. 
Hurst, Jas. McAleese. First- Sergeant, J. A. Stine. 
Sergeants, J. Sprigg, L. McMullin, R. Hahn, Robert 
Kemp, T. Kidd. Corporals, J. Andre, C. J. Stewart, S. 
C. Magraw. 



Captain, R. Snowden Andrews, W. F. Dement. First- 
Lieutenant, Chas. S. Couter. Second-Lieutenant, John 


Gale, Frederick Y. Dabney, W. J. Hill, J. H. Stonestreet. 
First- Sergeant, De Wilton Snowden, J. Harris Forbes, 
Gratial C. Thompson. Corporals, F. W. Bollinger, 
Theodore Jenkins, Geo. T. Scott, E. C. Moncure, P. A. 
L. Coiiter, J. G. Harris, John F. Ransom. 

Battles and actions of the First Maryland Artillery: 
Chickahominy, Evansport, Mechanicsville, Cedar Moun 
tain, Games Mill, 2nd Manassas, Malvern Hill, Harper s 
Ferry, ist Cold Harbor, 2nd Cold ^Harbor, Sharpsburg, 
Hamilton s Crossing, ist Fredericksburg, 2nd Fredericks- 
burg, Winchester, Mine Run, Gettysburg, Turkey Ridge, 
Petersburg, White Sulphur Springs, Squirrel Level 


Captain, John B. Brockenbrough, Wm. H. Griffin. 
First- Lieutenant, Wm. B. Bean, John McNulty. 
Second-Lieutenant, Jas. T. Wilhelm, J. W. Goodman. 
First-Sergeant, W. Wirt Robinson. Sergeants, W. Y. 
Glenn, George Poindexter, John F. Hayden, John 
Powers, Andrew J. Byrne, J. H. m Smith. Corporals, 
Wm. C. Dunn, Patrick Kirby, Lewis F. Talbott, Wm. 
H. Kendrick, Jas. O Grady. 

Some of the battles and actions of the Baltimore Light 
Artillery: Rappahannock, Front Royal, Winchester, 
Bolivar Heights, Fishers Hill, Harrisonburg, Cross Keys, 
Games Mill, Dispatch Station, Malvern Hill, Second 
Manassas, Harpers Ferry, Moorfield, Sharpsburg, Kern- 
stown, Carlisle, Pa., Gettysburg, Hagerstown, Mine 
Run, Brandy Station, Old Town, Yellow Tavern, Mar- 
tinsville, Poolesville, Maurytown. 


Captain, Henry B. Latrobe, Ferd. O. Claiborne, John 
B. Rowan, Wm. L. Ritter. Lieutenants, Ferdinand O. 
Claiborne, W. Thompson Patten, Holmes Erwin, T. D. 


Giles, J. W. Doncaster. Assistant-Surgeon, Thos. J. 
Rogers. First- Sergeant, Rtiftis McCeeney. Quarter 
master, A. T. Emory. Sergeants, Jas. M. Buchanan, Jr. , 
John P. Hooper, E. H. Langley, Joseph Lackey, L. W. 
Frazier, J.W. Smith, Wm. Fleming, Daniel Toomey, Edw. 
Wynn, A.J.Davis. Corporals, B.F. Weaver. S.G. W.Gerd- 
ing, Jos. Edgar, M. H. I Connell, W.H.Erwin, G. W. Han 
cock, T. H. Jones, J. C. Pendley, V. P. Herron, A. G. Cox, 
Wm. T. Sykes, W. Pirkle, B. Sanchez, S. Hylton, M. L. 
Welsh, Jackson Simmons, S. R. Sheppard, Wm. Buckner, 
John Light, Baldwin Bradford. Bugler, Frederick 
Geiger. Blacksmith, Nicholas Powers. Artificer, Pat 
rick McCann, Jos. G. Fletcher. Farrier, W. B. P. Mills. 
The Third Maryland artillery was mustered into the service 
of the Confederate States January 14, 1862, at Richmond, 
Va. , and immediately sent to Knoxville, Tenn. Served un 
der E. Kirby Smith in the campaigns in Tennessee and 
Kentucky, being the advance battery from Lexington, Ky. , 
to within three and one-half miles of Covington. After 
the retreat from Kentucky was sent to Vicksburg, under 
General Stevenson. One section, commanded by Lieut. 
W. T. Patten, manned the guns of the ram Queen 
of the West, when the Indianola was captured, and all 
except four were lost when the Queen was burned. 
Another detachment under Lieut. Wm. L. Ritter 
served under Col. G. W. Ferguson on Deer Creek, 
assisted in capturing a large Federal transport, and was 
afterwards under General Johnston in the battle before 
Jackson, Miss. The rest of the battery remained with 
Pemberton, participated in the battle of Baker s Creek, 
fought on the Vicksburg lines and were there surren 
dered. Seventy-seven were paroled, and furloughed after 
being exchanged. Reorganized in September, 1863; 
went to the front at Sweetwater, Tenn., served at Look 
out mountain, Missionary Ridge, and on the retreat to 
Dalton, Ga. Under the title of the Stephens (Georgia) 
light artillery, it participated in the Atlanta campaign 


and Hood s campaign in Tennessee. At Nashville the 
battery suffered heavy loss and Captain Rowan was killed 
by a shell on the morning of December i6th. The com 
pany s last muster was at Meridian, Miss., May 10, 1865. 


Captain, William Brown, Walter S. Chew. First-Lieu 
tenant, John E. Plater. Second- Lieutenant, Benj. G. 
Roberts. First- Sergeant, Jas. D. Wall. Sergeants, Rob 
ert A. Crowley, Philip H. H. Brown, John P. Hickey, 
Jos. H. Ennis, Henry C. Buckmaster. Corporals, Thos. 
W. Mummey, Geo. A. Smith, Henry Baker, Isaac J. Blunt, 
Geo. C. Philip, Thos. G. Jackson, F. M. Fairbanks. 
Bugler, Daniel A. Wilkinson. Artificer, Michael H. 
Brady, A. J. Covington. 

Some of the engagements of the Fourth Maryland Ar 
tillery: Fredericksburg, Seven Pines, Gettysburg, 
Second Manassas, Hanover Junction, Cedar Mountain, 
Seven Days around Richmond, Frederick s Hall, Sharps- 
burg, Harper s Ferry, Winchester, Yellow Tavern, 



Company A, wounded Sergt. E. S. Dorsey; Pri 
vates Somervell Sellers, John Wilson. Company B, 
wounded Privates J. E. Joy, mortally; H. Cony, Wm. 
Herbert. Company C, wounded Capt. Ferdinand 
Duvall, severely. Company D, wounded John Devres, 
mortally. Company E, w r ounded Lieut. W. R. Byers; 
captured, Joseph P. Quinn. Total, 9 wounded and i 


Wounded Col. James R. Herbert, Maj. W. W. Golds- 

Company A, killed Capt. W. H. Murray; Privates 
Wm. Bruce, John W. Hardesty, James Iglehart, Jr., 
Arthur Kennedy, C. T. Lloyd, Geo. W. Mclntire, Wilbur 
Morrison, McCormick, Herman Nicholai, George C. 
Starlings, John H. Windolph. Wounded John Bond, 
Philip Barry, Wm. H. Bowly, mortally; Chas. S. Brad- 
dock, Wallace Boiling, Thos. B. Boiling, James E. Cavey, 
Wm. S. J. Chandler, mortally; Moses Clayville, Jacob N. 
Davis, Wm. J. Edelin, Bernard Freeman, Alex. Fulton, 
Wm. F. Gardiner, Samuel T. Glenn, Notley Hanson, 
Samuel J. Hopkins, D. Ridgely Howard, Lamar Hollyday, 
Leonard Ives, mortally; T. A. Kleinkiewiez, W. T. V. 
Loane, W. E. Lowe, Wm. H. Laird, Craig Lake, John Mar- 
ney, Philip Pindell, mortally; Frank H. Sanderson, mor 
tally; A. J. Sollers, Charles H. Steele, Wm. T. Thelin, 
Charles M. Trail, Andrew C. Trippe, John P. Williams, 
Jacob E. Zollinger, Captured Albert Emory, Bernard 

Md 19 


Hubball, David H. Luchesi, James A. Peregoy, Tillard 

Company B, Capt. J. Parran Crane command 
ing. Killed Sergt. Thomas S. Freeman, Private 
Warren F. Moore. Wounded Second Lieut. James 
H. Wilson, Sergt. Francis L. Freeman, Corp. George 
Hayden, mortally, Corp. Thomas Simms, Corp. William 
F. Wheatley; Privates James P. Alvey, John H. Chum, 
Edgar Combs, Thomas J. Delozier, Albert Fenwick, 
Henry Ford, John A. Hayden, James H. Keech, Thomas 
F. Magill, Joseph H. Milstead, Wm. H. Simms, Henry 
Turner, Wm. L. Turner, James R. Webster, John W. 
Wills, James A. Wills. 

Company C, First Lieut. Charles W. Hodges command 
ing. Killed First Sergt. Robert H. Gushing; Privates 
Daniel Duval, Michael Davis, Jeremiah Dulaney, Ber 
nard Kenney, Benj. L. Lanham, James McWilliams, 
John T. O Byrn, Benjamin Payne. Wounded Second 
Lieut. Joseph W. Barber, mortally, Second Lieut. Thomas 
H. Tolson, Sergt. George Probest, Corp. Beall D. Hamil 
ton, mortally, Corp. James A. Lawson, mortally; Privates 
Samuel Anderson, mortally, Robert H. Clough, Tobias 
Duvall, Thomas Edgar, mortally, Samuel H. Hamilton, 
Edgar Hammond, mortally, Charles Hammond, John 
McGenna, W. V. McCann, James Nash, mortally, Wm. L. 
Nicholas, mortally, Frank K. Steele, Wm. K. Skin 
ner, Wm. A. Shipley, John G. White. Captured Corp. 
Edward A. Welch ; Privates Robert M. Dawson, Walter 
Mullikin, Francis E. Storm, Justus Schultz. 

Company D, Capt. Joseph L. McAleer commanding. 
Killed Privates James A. Brown, Cornelius Kerns. 
Wounded Sergt. Wm. Jenkins, Corp. Joshua Owings, 
mortally, Corp. Emmett W. Webb, mortally; Privates 
Lewis Green, John Hays, Thos. J. Hines, Richard G. 
Killman, Philip Lipscomb, James H. O Brien, John H. 
Septer, Wm. Watts. Captured Privates Wm. Hogarty, 
John Lamb. 


Company E, Capt. John W. Torsch, commanding. 
Wounded First Lieut. Wm. J. Broadfoot, mortally, 
Sergt. P. M. Moore, mortally, Corp. John Cain, Corp. 
James Reddie ; privates, Michael Barry, Charles E. Byus, 
John Brown, Alex. Brandt, James Fallen, Edward Fallis, 
J. S. Halbig, James Lemates, John N. Martin, Wm. P. 
Moran, Daniel McGee, Frank Roberts, Herman H. 
Radeke, John Sullivan, Wm. A. Wilkinson. Captured 
Michael Burke. 

Company F, Captain Andrew J. Gwynn, command 
ing. Killed Henry G. Ta>lor. Wounded Capt. 
Andrew J. Gwynn, Second- Lieut. John G. Hyland, First- 
Sergt. Nicholas J. Mills, Sergt. Joseph S. Wayner; pri 
vates, Andrew Leroy, Geo. H. Clagett, J. W. Clagett, 
Philip Doyle, Lemuel Dunnington, Benj. F. Dement, 
Benj. Hodges, Robert Holden, Minion F. Knott, Alex. 
V. Keepers, Samuel Polk, John W. Thompson, R. 

Company G, Capt. Thomas R. Stewart, command 
ing. Killed Second- Lieut. William C. Wrightson, pri 
vates, J. S. Littleford, J. N. Gossman, W. B. Cator. 
Wounded Capt. Thomas R. Stewart, First-Lieut. James 

A. Davis, Corp. J. Edwin Briddel; privates, James 
Abbott, S. E. Adkins, E. W. Breslin, mortally, Daniel 
Boyles, Charles A. Clarke, J. R Fentswait, mortally, W. 

B. Fountain, mortally, William Robbins, Benjamin F. 
Twilly, D. B. P. Tingle, W. A. Vickers, J. L. Woolford. 
Captured privates, L. H. Weaver, Ross Messick. 


Capt. I. Parran Crane, commanding. 

Company A, Capt. George Thomas. Killed privates, 
Wm. H. Holliday, Henry C. Owens. Wounded 
Thomas O Brien, Alexander Fulton, mortally, Thomas 
D. Harrison, Frederick Heiston, Ivan C. Henry, Wm. 
Hoffman. Company B, First-Lieut. John H. Stone. 
Wounded First Lieut. John H. Stone ; privates, James R. 


Herbert, A. W. Neale, Rinaldo I. Moran. Company C r 
Capt. Ferdinand Duvall. Wounded Second Lieut. 
Morris H. Tolson; Privates Wm. H. Claggett, C. S. Ford, 
Henry Loughran, R. B. Willis. Company D, First Lieut. 
James S. Franklin. Killed Private James Henley. 
Wounded Second Lieut. S. Thomas McCullough, First 
Sergt. Thomas E. Butler, Abram Philip. 


Company C, wounded Private Richard T. Anderson. 
Company G, wounded Privates James Abbott, Thomas 
Brannock, George Langford. Company H, wounded 
Corp. John I. Ward, Private John Parker. 


Capt. J. Parran Crane, commanding, received a severe 
contusion. Adjt. J. Winder Laird, killed. 

Company A, First Lieut. Clapham Murray. Killed 
Private Jacob W. Davis. Wounded Lieut. W. P. Zol- 
linger, Corp. Willis Brannock; Privates J. E. Fitzgerald, 
John C. Henry, N. Heenur, D. Ridgely Howard, Joseph 
I. Joy, George W. Marden, Somervell Sellers, Richard 
C. Tilghman. Captured First Lieut. Clapham Murray, 
First Sergt. James F. Pearson, Sergt. James W. Thomas; 
Privates William Adair, Charles S. Brannock, William J. 
Edelin, H. L. Gallagher, Theophilus N. Neale, I. R. 
Phelps, James S. Raley. 

Company B, First Sergt. C. Craig Page commanding. 
Killed First Sergt. C. Craig Page. Wounded Sergt. P. 
T. Rudar, Corp. J. Z. Downing; Privates Dionysius Ball, 
John H. Chum, J. J. Delogier, J. Mann Freeman, Wash 
ington Page, Henry Turner. Captured Sergt. F. Z. 
Freeman, Corp. W. F. Wheatley; Private James S. 

Company C, First Lieut. Charles W. Hodges. Killed 
Sergt. Robert T. Hodges. Wounded Privates H. H. 
Crawford, Daniel Duvall, John G. White. Captured 


Corp. Edward A. Welch; Privates Theodore Cookery, 
W. C. Gibson, John C. Millen, Robert H. Welch. 

Company D, First Lieut. J. S. Franklin. Wounded 
Privates John Johnson, C. C. Leitch, Philip Lipscomb, 
Thomas McCready. Captured First Lieut. J. S. 
Franklin, Sergt. William Jenkins; Privates William 
Killman, John Lynch. 

Company E, First Lieut. William R. Byus. Wounded 
Lieutenant Byus; Privates Elisha Bitter, S. M. Byus, 
James Hanly, Thomas McLaughlin. Captured Sergt. 
George L. Ross, Corp. John Cain, Privates James Apple- 
garth, John Cantrell, John Grant, James Lemates, John 
L. Stansbury. 

Company F, First Lieut. John W. Polk. Wounded 
Private Josiah T. Boswell. 

Company E, Capt. John W. Torsch. Killed Private 
Charles E. Byus. Wounded Captain Torsch, First 
Sergt. Samuel Kirk; Privates Levi G. Dawson, Joseph 
Smith, William Wilkinson, mortally. 

Company F, Capt. A. J. Gwynne. Killed Lemuel 
Dunnington. Wounded Captain Gwynne, Sergt. R. F. 
Muirhead; Privates Andrew Cretin, Hillary Cretin, Ber 
nard Dorsey, Alexis V. Keepes. 

Company G, First Lieut. G.G. Guillette. Killed Wm. 
S. Reid. Wounded Private Michael Hines. 

Company H, Capt. J. Thomas Bussey. Wounded 
William Hardy, Maurice Nair. 


Company A, killed Private John G. Wagner. Com 
pany C, killed Private Lewis H. Vrit. Company G, 
killed Private William H. Calhoun. Captured Sergt. 
Joseph L. Wagner; Corporals J. T. Brown, James H. 
Dixon. Company G, killed Francis D. Edelin. 
Wounded Private Martin L. Rider. Captured Lieut. 
G. G. Guillette ; Sergeants Daniel A. Fenton, Algernon 
Henry, George W. Manning; Corp. Benjamin F. Twilly; 


Privates William L. Brannock, W. L. Etchison, Levi 
Wheatly. Company H, wounded Capt. J. E. T. Bussey ; 
Private Julian Harzy. 


Wounded Capt. Ferdinand Duvall, commanding bat 

Company A, Capt. George Thomas, commanding. 
Killed Corp. S. Pinkney Gill, George Deaton. Wounded 
Capt. George Thomas, Second-Lieut. Wm. F. Zollinger; 
Privates John Goodwin, Wm. A. Hance, Frederick 
Heister. Missing Wm. H. Hubbard, supposed killed. 

Company B, Second-Lieut. Charles B. Wise, command 
ing. Killed Private John H. Junger. Wounded Ser 
geants John B. Barber, Whittingham Hammett; Pri 
vates Robert Beal, Charles J. Foxwell. 

Company C, Sergt. George Roberts, commanding. 
Killed Private Richard T. Guion. Wounded Sergt. 
George Roberts; Privates Wm. Grace, Thomas L. 
Mitchell. Captured, John T. White. 

Company D, Sergt. Isaac Sherwood, commanding. 
Wounded Privates David Hammett, Beale W. Owens, 
John Spence. Missing Philip Lipscomb. 

Company E, Sergt. William Heaply, commanding. 
Wounded Corp. Benjamin F. Amos, Privates John 
Keppleman, Michael Noonan. Captured Private Mar 
tin G. Hallon. 

Company F, Capt. A. J. Gwynne, commanding. Killed 
Private Abel Hurley. Wounded Captain Gwynne; 
Privates J. H. Claggett, John W. Claggett, Hillary 
Cretin, Thomas J. Webb. 

Company G, Second-Lieut. George Brighthaupt, com 
manding. Wounded Lieut. George Brighthaupt, mor 
tally; Corp. William Lord; Private Robert Mumford. 
Captured Sergt. Hallohan; Privates Michael Eligett, 
Jesse Waters. 

Company H, Corp. Patrick Heenan commanding. 
Wounded Edward Welch. 



Capt. John W. Torsch commanding. 

Company A, Sergt. Charles E. McGuire commanding. 
Wounded Private William T. Bailey. Company B, Sec 
ond Lieut. Charles B. Wise commanding. Wounded 
Private Wm. Herbert, mortally. Company C, Corp. C. M. 
Clayton commanding. Wounded John W. Blumen- 
deur, Charles Hammond, Frank Wheatley, mortally. 
Company D, Sergt. Isaac Sherwood commanding. 
Wounded Sergt. Isaac Sherwood. Company E, Sergt. 
Samuel Kirk commanding. Wounded Private John 
Brown, Wm. Gwynne. Company F, Sergt. John W. 
Pold commanding. Wounded Charles A. Hoge, mor 
tally. Company H, wounded Private James Powers. 


List of officers and men of the Second Maryland in 
fantry, surrendered at Appomattox Court House, April 
9, 1865: 

John W. Torsch commanding; Wm. R. McCullough, 
adjutant; DeWilton Snowden, assistant surgeon; Edwin 
James, quarterm aster- serge ant ; Frank Dement, sergeant- 
major; F. L. Higdon, ordnance sergeant; M. A. Quinn, 
chief musician; Charles F. Drewry, Joseph E. Smith, 

Company A, Corp. H. William Smith ; Privates William 
J. Edelin, Bernard Freeman, Henry Holliday, John J. 
Hunter, William H. Laird, William E. Lowe, John W. 
McDaniel, Alex. Murray, Edward O Donovan, James A. 
Peregoy, Andrew T. Miller. 

Company B, Sergt. Philip T. Raeder; Privates Henry 
Ford, Thomas Magill, William G. Matthews, John C. 
Mills, A. W. Neale, F. X. Lemans, James A. Wills, 
Walter Wood. 

Company C, Corp. B. D. Mullikin; Privates J. W. 
Blumenar, Wm. H. Claggett, Evans Duvall, Franklin 
Duvall, William Grace, Thomas Mitchell, James R. 
Moog, Peter Ore, Joshua Watts. 

Company D, Sergeants Thomas C. Butler, Isaac N. 
Sherwood ; Privates William F. Brawner, James Gardner, 
William Gavin, Edward Lawn, Joseph Ridgel, Elisha R. 
Rutter, William Unkel. 

Company F, Privates G. W. Claggett, G. N. Guy, 
John O. Hill, A. V. Keepers. 

Company G, Sergt. Daniel F. Fenton ; Privates John 
Callahan, Joseph Manly, William R. Mumford, William 

Company H, John Parker. 






I N 

Common Roads 



Gen.J.E-BSluoif Cavalry Raid, Oct. 9-13,1862 

Gen Earl ys Movement on Washington, July 1864 **- 


Md 20 153 


IT is generally estimated in Maryland that twenty 
thousand men from that State served in the armies of 
the Confederacy. There are no data by which an 
approximate estimate can be made of the number fur 
nished, but the above conjecture is reasonable and prob 
able. It is certain that there was no neighborhood in 
Maryland from Mason and Dixon s line to the seashore, 
from which all the young men of the better class did not 
go to military service in Virginia, and an examination 
now will show Maryland Confederate soldiers still living 
all over the State. Frederick county, which was a Union 
stronghold, shows a list of over one thousand Confed 
erates. The Marylanders were scattered throughout the 
armies of the Confederacy. In Virginia, in Georgia, in 
Mississippi, in Arkansas, they were found serving in the 
ranks of their regiments, or as commissioned officers 
from captain to brigadier-general. A large percentage, 
the majority, of the officers in the army and navy of the 
United States from Maryland, resigned their commis 
sions, and entered the service of the Confederacy. 

Captain Franklin Buchanan, United States navy, be 
came Admiral Buchanan in the Confederate service. He 
commanded the iron-clad Virginia when he sank in 
Hampton Roads the Congress and the Cumberland, two 
of the best men-of-war in the navy of the United States, 
and was prevented from sinking all transports and gun 
boats in that anchorage only by the accidental and timely 
arrival of the Monitor, a newly invented ironclad, con- 



stmcted by Ericsson. Admiral Buchanan was wounded 
at Hampton Roads. As soon as he again reported for 
duty, he was assigned to the command of Mobile harbor, 
with all the vessels and gunboats there. He defended 
his post with gallantry and skill the most distinguished, 
against the Federal fleet under Admiral Farragut, until 
he was wounded and taken prisoner in August, 1864. 

Captain Raphael Semmes served in the United States 
navy with distinction during the Mexican war, and was 
aide to General Worth. In 1861 he resigned and was 
commissioned captain in the navy of the Confederate 
States. Assigned to command the Sumter he performed 
gallant and efficient service. In August, 1862, he took 
command of the Confederate man-of-war Alabama. He 
sunk the Hatteras off Galveston, January, 1863, after a 
brief action, and thereafter his achievements and ex 
ploits make a record for brilliancy and efficiency un- 
equaled in the annals of war upon the high seas, in the 
history of the world. He captured and ransomed or 
burned eighty-nine merchant vessels bearing the United 
States flag, and literally obliterated the commerce of the 
United States from the high seas. He pervaded the 
Atlantic and the Indian oceans. He carried the Confed 
erate battle-flag in the face of four continents, and sur 
rendered it with a blaze of glory that will glow as long 
as chivalry shall nerve the hearts of men, or the story of 
gallant deeds stir the pulses of the human race. 

Commodore George Nichols Hollins was born at Balti 
more, September 20, 1799. He entered the navy of the 
United States as midshipman in 1814, served on the Erie 
in her attempt to break the British blockade of Chesa 
peake bay, and was subsequently transferred to the Pres 
ident, where he served under Stephen Decatur until cap 
tured at Bermuda, where he was held until peace was 
established. His career thus gallantly begun, continued 


to be a conspicuous one. In the Algerian war of 1815 he 
served under Decatur with such merit as to be presented 
a sword in recognition of his gallantry. Subsequently he 
was on duty upon the Guerriere, Columbus, Franklin, 
and Washington, and commanded an East India mer 
chantman for a time. He was promoted lieutenant in 
1828, commander in 1841, and captain U. S. N. in 1855. 
In the latter year he bombarded Graytown in the inter 
ests of American residents. In 1861 Captain Hollins re 
signed his commission, upon which the war department 
refused to accept the resignation and ordered his arrest. 
But he eluded the effort made to this end, and in March, 
1 86 1, was at Montgomery, then the Confederate capital, 
where he met Semmes, Tattnall, Brent, and many other 
naval officers, for consultation with the committees of 
the Confederate Congress on the means to provide a navy 
for the new government. Hollins became a commander 
in the navy of the Confederate States, was assigned to 
very important duties, and quickly attracted attention by 
his clever capture, on June 29, 1861, of the steamer St. 
Nicholas in the Potomac river. On July loth the naval 
defenses of the James river were placed under his com 
mand, and on July 3isthe was put in charge of the naval 
station at New Orleans, where he defeated the Federal 
blockading squadron in the following October. Being 
appointed flag-officer, in December he took a fleet up the 
Mississippi river to assist in the defense of the works at 
Columbus, Ky. In April, 1862, he was called back 
to New Orleans by the appearance of the enemy in 
force, but before the fall of the city he was appointed to 
the court of inquiry on the destruction of the Virginia. 
After the war he resided at Baltimore, and died there 
January 18, 1878. 

Major-General Arnold Elzey was descended from some 
of the best blood of Maryland, his ancestry being among 
its earliest and most prominent settlers. His father, Col. 


Arnold Elzey Jones, was, in his day, very prominent in 
the politics of Maryland, having several times represented 
Somerset county in the State legislature. His mother, 
Anne Wilson Jackson, of a wealthy Maryland family, 
was a lady of great culture and refinement. General 
Elzey was born December 18, 1816, at Elm wood, the 
residence of his parents, on the Manokin river, in Som 
erset county. He was graduated at West Point in 1837, 
and commissioned lieutenant of artillery in the United 
States army. Finding a number of officers in the army 
bearing his paternal "name, he adopted that of his pater 
nal grandmother, Elzey, by which he was subsequently 
known. As an artillery officer he served with credit 
during the Seminole outbreak in Florida, and when war 
was declared between the United States and Mexico, he 
was in command of a battery at Brownsville, Tex., 
where he had the honor of firing the first gun of the war. 
From this opening gun, until the surrender of the City of 
Mexico, he was with the armies of Taylor and Scott, 
participating in nearly every battle, and was twice bre- 
vetted for gallant and meritorious conduct on the field. 
In 1860, with the rank of captain of artillery, he was in 
command of the United States arsenal at Augusta, Ga. , 
which he surrendered with the honors of war upon the 
demand of superior forces soon after the fall of Fort 
Sumter. He then conducted his command to Washing 
ton, after which he resigned his commission and made his 
way to Richmond, where he was commissioned lieuten 
ant-colonel in the Confederate service. At the first 
battle of Manassas, Elzey, then ranking as senior colonel 
in Kirby Smith s brigade, had the honor, after General 
Smith was wounded, of leading the successful charge, on 
the afternoon of the day s hard fighting, which turned 
the tide of battle, broke the Federal forces, and ended in 
a rout of the almost victorious army of McDowell. For 
this gallant service he was complimented by General 
Beauregard, who styled him " the Blucher of the field," 


and was promoted brigadier-general on the field by Pres 
ident Davis, who had witnessed the gallant action. In 
command of a brigade General Elzey was with Stonewall 
Jackson all through his celebrated Valley campaign of 
1862, and the opening of the Seven Days fighting be 
fore Richmond. At the battle of Port Republic he was 
slightly wounded in the leg, and his horse shot under 
him, and in the engagement at Cold Harbor he was des 
perately wounded, a minie ball entering on the right side 
of his face just above the mouth and passing transversely 
entirely through his head and out behind his left ear. 
This injury prevented his further service in the field, but 
after his almost miraculous recovery he was promoted 
major-general and put in command of the department of 
Richmond, where he continued until the fall of 1864. 
He then joined General Hood as chief of artillery of the 
army of Tennessee, and participated in the operations 
against Sherman s line of communication. After the 
end of the war, being permitted to return to Maryland, 
he retired with his wife, and only son then living, to a 
small farm in Anne Arundel county. Here this intrepid 
soldier and modest unassuming gentleman passed the 
remainder of his days, honored for his manly virtues, 
and beloved for his gentle qualities. He died February 
21, 1870, while on a visit to Dr. Frank Donaldson, at Bal 
timore. His wife, to whom he was married in 1845, then 
Miss Ellen Irwin, a ruling belle of Baltimore society, 
still survives him. 

Major-General Isaac Ridgeway Trimble was born in 
Culpeper county, Virginia, May 15, 1802. He was grad 
uated at the national military academy in 1822, and was 
detailed to survey the military road from Washington to 
the Ohio river, having won distinction at West Point in 
engineering. In 1832 he resigned from the army, and 
becoming chief engineer of the Baltimore and Susque- 
hanna railroad, completed that line to York, Pa., in 1837. 


He was subsequently chief engineer of the Philadelphia, 
Wilmington & Baltimore and the Boston & Provi 
dence railroads, and in 1860 was engaged in large rail 
road operations in the West Indies. During April, 1861, 
he was in command of the Baltimore organizations for 
the defense of the city from the Federal troops. He 
entered the service of Virginia, as colonel of engineers, 
in May, 1861, and was assigned by General Lee to the 
duty of constructing the defenses of Norfolk. In August 
he was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confed 
erate provisional army, and ordered to report to General 
Johnston, by whom he was put in command of a brigade 
at Evansport, with the duty of erecting batteries and 
blockading the river against Federal shipping. Subse 
quently he was assigned to the command of a brigade of 
E well s division, which he accompanied to the support of 
Jackson in the Valley campaign of 1862 In this famous 
series of glorious battles and brilliant maneuvers he 
bore a conspicuous part, and at Cross Keys was particu 
larly distinguished, where in command of two brigades, 
he repulsed the attack of Fremont, and being reinforced, 
in turn advanced and routed the enemy. During the 
Seven Days battles before Richmond, his brigade con 
tinued to be distinguished, particularly at Cold Harbor, 
where Trimble led in person a successful charge against 
the Federal defenses. Moving with Jackson s command 
against Pope, he fought his men with gallantry at 
Slaughter s Mountain; and at the time when Jackson lay 
in the enemy s rear at Bristoe Station, he was roused on 
the night of August 27th to receive notice that he could if 
he chose, capture Manassas Junction before morning. 
With five hundred men, already weary, he marched at 
once, and by midnight had crushed the Federal resistance 
at the point of the bayonet, and without the loss of a man 
killed, captured three hundred prisoners, eight guns and 
the immense Federal stores. Jackson at once wrote to 
him, " I congratulate you on the great success which 


God has given you. You deserve promotion to major- 
general," and in his official report he wrote: 4i I regard 
the capture of Manassas Junction Station at night, after 
a march of thirty-four miles without food, as the most 
brilliant achievement that has come under my notice 
during the war." In the battle of the a 8th before 
Groveton, he fought on the extreme left, and during the 
severe battle of the 2pth he was seriously wounded. 
Promoted major-general in January, 1863, he was given 
the honorable assignment of command of Jackson s old 
division. In June, 1863, Lee offered him command of 
the valley of Virginia, to form the left wing of the army, 
with headquarters at Staunton, and orders to form into 
brigades under you all the Maryland troops a meas 
ure I have much at heart. During the grapple of the 
contending armies at Gettysburg, Fender fell on the first 
day, and General Trimble was assigned to the command 
of his division of A. P. Hill s corps. This division he 
led in co-operation with Pickett in the famous attack 
against the Federal center on July 3d, and being so 
severely wounded as to cause the loss of a leg, fell into 
the hands of the enemy. He was held as a prisoner of 
war at Johnson s Island and Fort Warren, despite earnest 
efforts made for his release, until February, 1865, when 
two Federal major-generals, Crook and Kelly, were finally 
received in exchange. He hastened to join General 
Lee, but upon reaching Lynchburg found that the army 
had been surrendered. As the leader selected by Lee 
under whom the Confederate soldiers of Maryland were 
to have been organized, General Trimble holds a position 
of particular prominence in the military history of his 
adopted State. His chivalrous character, great per 
sonal bravery, and capacity for generalship, were proved 
on many occasions. It may be said with the hearty 
approval of all of Maryland s brave soldiers that among 
them, as Gen. Bradley Johnson says, he performed the 
most distinguished service, obtained the highest rank 

Md 21 


and won the greatest fame. After the close of hos 
tilities he made his home at Baltimore until his death, 
which occurred January 2, 1888. 

Major-General Mansfield Lovell was born at Washing 
ton, D. C., October 20, 1822. He was the son of Dr. 
Joseph Lovell, surgeon-general of the United States 
army in 1818, and grandson of a member of the Conti 
nental Congress. Receiving an appointment in youth to 
the United States military academy at West Point, he 
was graduated there in 1842, with the distinction of 
being ninth in grade in a class which included some 
afterward distinguished generals. He received a lieu 
tenancy in the Fourth artillery, which joined General 
Taylor s army in Texas, in 1845. He was wounded at 
Monterey in 1846, was appointed aide to General Quit- 
man, went to Vera Cruz and was in the campaign from 
that place to the City of Mexico, in the assault upon 
which he was wounded at Belasco gate. He was bre- 
vetted captain for bravery at Chapultepec. After the 
Mexican war he commanded a battery of his regiment 
for two years, served in garrisons in the South and 
West, and finally in New York, where he resigned Sep 
tember 1 8, 1854, having married Emily M., daughter of 
Colonel Plympton, U. S. A. At New York he was a 
member of, and drilled the Old City Guard, and was 
deputy street commissioner from 1858 until 1861, when 
he went South. Tendering his services to the Confed 
erate government, he was commissioned brigadier-gen 
eral and in October, 1861, was promoted major-general 
and assigned to the command of Department No. i, with 
headquarters at New Orleans. On account of the inad 
equacy of his infantry force in the city he was compelled 
to evacuate when the Federal fleet passed the forts and 
came up the river. He retired to Vicksburg, was super 
seded by General Van Dorn, was second in command at 
Corinth, and commanded the rear guard in the subse- 


quent retreat. A court of inquiry relieved him of blame 
for the surrender of New Orleans, and Gen. J. E. John 
ston in 1864 proposed to give him command of a corps, 
but he was not restored to the field by the government. 
After the war he resided in New York City, engaged in 
civil engineering, until his death in June, 1884. 

Lloyd Tilghman, brigadier-general in the Confederate 
States army, was born in Talbot county, Maryland, in 
1816. He was of a distinguished colonial family, being 
the great-grandson of Matthew Tilghman, who was 
president of the revolutionary conventions of Maryland, 
member of the legislature and Continental Congress, 
head of the council of safety, and known in his old age as 
the Patriarch of Maryland. A daughter of this ancestor 
married Col. Tench Tilghman, aide-de-camp to General 
Washington. Lloyd Tilghman was graduated at the 
United States military academy in 1836, and was com 
missioned second-lieutenant in the First Dragoons. Sep 
tember 30, 1836, he resigned and took up the profession 
of civil engineering, becoming division engineer of the 
Baltimore & Susquehanna railroad in 1836-37; of the 
Norfolk & Wilmington canal in 1837-38; of the Eastern 
Shore railroad of Maryland in 1838-39; and of the Balti 
more & Ohio railroad in 1839-40. He served in the 
war with Mexico as volunteer aide to General Twiggs in 
the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and was 
captain of the Maryland and District of Columbia battal 
ion of volunteers in 1847-48. He then engaged as prin 
cipal assistant engineer of the Panama division of the 
Isthmus railroad, and was engineer on Southern rail 
roads until 1859. He joined the army of the Confederate 
States in 1861, and was commissioned brigadier-general. 
In February, 1862, he was charged with the inspection 
of Fort Henry, one of the most important defenses on 
the Tennessee river, and of the neighboring Fort Donel- 
son. He reported defects in the location of Fort Henry, 


built before he took charge, which could not be remedied 
because of the immediate pressure of the enemy. On 
the 6th of February the fort was attacked by General 
Grant with a force of 12,000 men, aided by General Smith 
with a smaller body, and seven gun-boats with an arma 
ment of 54 guns. Tilghman had a grand total of 2,600 
men not well armed, and the eleven guns of the fort. 
He resolved to retire his infantry, field artillery and cav 
alry toward Fort Donelson, retaining a small force with 
the siege guns to make a stubborn fight. The retreat 
was effected, notwithstanding the enemy was pushing 
his infantry to within a half mile of the advance work, 
and the gun-boat flotilla had opened fire. The fort re 
turned the fire with spirit and effect, disabling one of the 
gun-boats, but unfortunately losing a 24-pounder rifled gun 
by bursting, and a Columbiad by the closing of the vent. 
The enemy s entire force became engaged in an advance 
which Tilghman saw must become successful, especially 
since at one o clock only four guns remained serviceable, 
and the men were broken down with fatigue. An em 
barrassing question now presented itself as to his duty, 
whether to leave his small band of heroic defenders in 
the fort to be surrendered and join his main command 
en route to Fort Donelson, or remain and share the fate 
of the garrison. Colonel Heiman, in command of the 
escaping force, had returned to the fort for final orders, 
and General Tilghman could have left with him. But 
the men at the guns entreated him to stay, and the effect 
of his absence would have been the immediate fall of 
the fort, which he desired to postpone to the last mo 
ment. His decision was made. Colonel Heiman was 
directed to return to the main body, and General Tilgh 
man took the place of an exhausted gunner and worked 
a 3 2 -pounder with good effect. Soon afterward the 
enemy succeeded in breaching the fort, but resistance 
was continued for over two hours before the white flag 
was hoisted, under which an honorable surrender was 


made of 12 officers, 66 effective men and 16 others in 
hospital. In this gallant fight of a day he lost but five 
killed and sixteen disabled, and the entire command 
outside the fort was saved by his prolonged and heroic 
resistance. General Tilghman was a prisoner of war 
until his exchange in the fall of 1862, when he rejoined 
the army of the West, then in north Mississippi, and 
was put in command of the First brigade of Loring s 
division. At the battle of Corinth, Miss. , he took a prom 
inent part. During the retreat from Holly Springs to 
Grenada, Tilghman s brigade was assigned the respon 
sible position of rear guard, and repeatedly gave battle to 
and held in check the enemy. Between four and five 
o clock of the evening of May 16, 1863, he was killed on 
the battle-field of Champion s Hill. He was in command 
of his brigade, consisting of the Fifteenth and Twenty- 
second Mississippi regiments, First Louisiana, and Ray- 
burn s and McLendon s batteries, on the extreme right 
of the line. They received the first fire of that battle, 
but the fight drifted to the left until after midday, when 
the enemy advanced in force against Loring s division, 
and after their first repulse threw forward a line of 
sharpshooters which, aided by artillery, maintained the 
action. These sharpshooters occupied a row of planta 
tion cabins near the Confederate line, and were doing 
destructive work, when General Tilghman directed a 
gun to be trained upon them. He dismounted to give 
directions for sighting the piece, when a shell from the 
enemy exploded about fifty feet to the front, and a fragment 
tore through his body. He died very soon after receiv 
ing this terrible wound, and his body was carried to the 
rear, and subsequently interred at Vicksburg, escorted 
by his personal staff and his son, Lloyd Tilghman, Jr. 

Brigadier- General Charles S. Winder was born in Mary 
land in 1829. He was graduated at West Point in 
1850, and on advancement from second to first-lieutenant 


of infantry, U. S. A. , was ordered to the Pacific coast. 
The steamer San Francisco, on which the troops took 
passage, encountered a hurricane off the Atlantic coast, 
and for several weeks was reported lost. Lieutenant 
Winder and his men were, however, rescued and carried 
to Liverpool. For his coolness and devotion on this occa 
sion he was promoted to captain of the Ninth regiment, 
March 3, 1855, being, it is believed, the youngest captain 
in the army. Finally reaching the Pacific coast he went 
into Washington Territory in 1856, and was engaged in 
the desperate combat of To-hots-nim-me, with the Col 
umbia river Indians, and other engagements in 1856 and 
1858 in the Spokane country, under the command of 
Steptoe and Wright. Early in 1861 he resigned his com 
mission, and was commissioned, to date from March 1 6th, 
major of artillery in the Confederate army. He served 
at Charleston during the reduction of Fort Sumter, and 
was in command of the South Carolina arsenal until com 
missioned colonel of the Sixth regiment, South Carolina 
infantry, July 8, 1861. He hurried with his command to 
Manassas, but reached the battle ground at the close of 
the fight. Promoted brigadier-general in March, 1862, 
he was assigned to command the Fourth brigade in Hill s 
division, but on the occurrence of a vacancy was given 
command of the " Stonewall brigade," in Jackson s divis 
ion, with which he served in the Valley campaign of 
1862. He led the advance and opened the battle of Port 
Republic and in the campaign on the Chickahominy led 
his brigade in the desperate and memorable charge 
which broke the Federal lines at Cold Harbor or Games 
Mill. In his report of that battle General Jackson 
describes the forward movement of the brigade, through 
the swamp, meeting at that point the Hampton Legion, 
First Maryland, Twelfth Alabama, Fifty-second Virginia 
and Thirty-eighth Georgia, which were formed on General 
Winder s line. "Thus formed, they moved forward 
under the lead of that gallant officer, whose conduct 


here was marked by the coolness and courage which dis 
tinguished him on the battle-fields of the valley." In the 
subsequent advance against Pope he commanded the 
division lately under the leadership of Jackson, who was 
in command of the corps. He was, however, not des 
tined to see the second overwhelming defeat of the Fed 
eral army on the historic field of Manassas. While in 
command of Jackson s division, on August 9, 1862, and 
directing the movements of his batteries in the terrific 
artillery duel of the battle of Cedar Mountain, he was 
given a mortal wound by a shell, and died in a few hours, 
at the age of thirty-three. Gen. Stonewall Jackson said 
in his report, "It is difficult within the proper reserve of 
an official report to do justice to the merits of this 
accomplished officer. Richly endowed with those qual 
ities of mind and person which fit an officer for command, 
and which attract the admiration and excite the enthu 
siasm of troops, he was rapidly rising to the front rank 
of his profession, and his loss has been severely felt. " 
General Lee also wrote, in his official report: " I can 
add nothing to the well-deserved tribute paid to the 
courage, capacity, and conspicuous merit of this 
lamented officer by General Jackson, in whose brilliant 
campaigns in the valley and on the Chickahominy he 
bore a distinguished part. 

Brigadier-General George H. Steuart was born at Balti 
more, August 24, 1828, and was graduated at the 
United States military academy in 1848, with a lieuten 
ancy in the Second Dragoons. He served on frontier 
duty in the United States army ; on the march through 
Texas to Austin in 1848-49, and remained on duty at 
various garrisons in Texas until 1855, when he was 
promoted first-lieutenant First cavalry, March 3d, and 
captain December 2oth. Subsequently he was engaged 
in garrison duty in Kansas, Nebraska and Colorado, in 
the Cheyenne expedition of 1856, the Utah expedition of 


1848, and the Comanche expedition of 1860. Immedi 
ately after April 19, 1861, he resigned his commission, 
and going to Richmond, was commissioned captain of 
cavalry in the regular army of the Confederate States. 
Upon the formation of the First regiment, Maryland 
infantry, he was appointed lieutenant-colonel of that 
command, and by special good conduct won the com 
mendation of Gen. J. E. Johnston in orders. He was 
with the regiment under Colonel Elzey during its dis 
tinguished service at the first battle of Manassas, and at 
the promotion of Elzey, Steuart was commissioned col 
onel. In March, 1862, he was promoted brigadier-gen 
eral, and given command of a brigade in Swell s divis 
ion, consisting of the Forty-fourth, Fifty-second and 
Fifty-eighth Virginia regiments, to which the First 
Maryland was added, which he led during Jackson s cam 
paign in the valley, receiving a severe wound at Cross 
Keys, which disabled him for some time. In the Penn 
sylvania campaign he commanded a brigade consisting 
of the Second Maryland, the First and Third North 
Carolina, and the Tenth, Twenty-third and Thirty-sev 
enth Virginia regiments, in Johnson s division of Swell s 
corps, and was distinguished in the assault on Gulp s 
Hill. In the first of the fighting at the Wilderness in 
1864, he is found pushing in with his brigade after the 
repulse of Jones to meet the Federal attack, and contin 
uing in the struggle until the i2th of May, fatal to his 
division, which held the salient at Spottsylvania, known 
as the bloody angle, and was overwhelmed on that date 
by the early morning attack of Hancock. General Steu 
art was among the prisoners taken by the Federals, and 
was one of those sent to Hilton Head to be placed 
under fire of the Confederate batteries. Being ex 
changed he returned to the army on the Petersburg and 
Richmond lines and was assigned to command the First 
brigade of Pickett s division, consisting of the Ninth, 
Fourteenth, Thirty-eighth, Fifty-third and Fifty-seventh 

Brig.-<;en. W. W. MACKALL. Brig.-Gen. CHAS. S. WINDER. 

BriL .-Gen. JOHN II. WINDER. P.nir.-(ii-n. HENRY LITTLE. Kriir.-Cien. JAMES J. ARCHER. 


Virginia regiments. With this brigade he fought at the 
center of Pickett s line at Five Forks, on the day preced 
ing the evacuation of Richmond. Since the war General 
Steuart has resided upon his farm in Anne Arundel 
county, Maryland. He is a member of the Army and 
Navy society, and since the formation of the Maryland 
division of the United Confederate Veterans, has served 
as its commander-in-chief. 

Brigadier-General Henry Little, a Marylander who 
served with distinction in the Western armies of the Con 
federacy, was born at Baltimore, March 19, 1817, the son 
of Peter Little, who served eighteen years in Congress 
as a representative of Maryland, and was colonel of the 
Thirty-eighth United States infantry 1813 to 1815. He 
was graduated at West Point in 1839 and appointed sec 
ond-lieutenant of the Fifth infantry, U. S. A. ; was pro 
moted to first-lieutenant in 1845, and taking part in the 
Mexican war was brevetted captain September, 1846, for 
gallant conduct at Monterey. In 1847 he was commis 
sioned captain in the Seventh infantry. Early in 1861 he 
resigned to enter the service of the Confederate States, 
and was commissioned major. Subsequently he was 
promoted colonel and appointed adjutant-general on the 
staff of General Price, commanding the forces in Mis 
souri. He was put in command of one of the brigades 
organized by Price in the fall of 1861, and at the battle 
of Pea Ridge was distinguished in the action of the right 
wing before Elkhorn Tavern, where the Federals were 
defeated on the first day. Especial commendation was 
bestowed upon him in the reports of his commanding 
officers; he was promoted to brigadier-general April 
i6th, and General Van Dorn soon afterward wrote to 
Beauregard, "I want Little as major-general. " Gen 
eral Little commanded the rear-guard on the retreat from 
Elkhorn Tavern, and soon afterward, when the army 
of the West was called to the aid of Albert Sidney Tohn- 

Md 22 


ston, he embarked with his brigade for Memphis just as 
Beauregard was bringing Johnston s army back from 
Shiloh. Leading the advance of Price s division, he 
proceeded east of the Mississippi, and joined Beauregard 
at Corinth. Subsequently when Price was assigned to 
command the army of the West, with headquarters at 
Tupelo, Miss., he was given Price s old division, the 
First of the army. At the grand review previous to the 
movement in August toward Corinth, as his division 
passed before General Bragg, the latter turned to Little 
and said, " You had the reputation of having one of the 
finest companies in the old army. General, this is cer 
tainly as fine a division as I have ever seen. He met the 
enemy under Rosecrans at luka, Miss., September 
19, 1862, and the resulting battle was fought solely by 
his division. The Confederates were victorious, but 
while in the thickest of the fight Little was killed 
instantly by a minie ball which crashed through his fore 
head. He was buried that night by torchlight, and on 
the morrow the gloom among the troops caused by his 
death was one of the main causes for the abandonment of 
the field. Gen. Sterling Price, in reporting his death, 
paid him this touching and well-deserved tribute: * It 
will be seen that our success was obtained at the sacrifice 
of many a brave officer and soldier. Chief among them 
was Brig. -Gen. Henry Little, commanding the first 
division of the army. Than this brave Marylander no one 
could have fallen more dear to me, or whose memory 
should be more fondly cherished by his countrymen. No 
more skillful officer or more devout patriot has drawn 
his sword in this war of independence. He died in the 
day of his greatest usefulness, lamented by his friends, 
by the brigade of his love, by the division he so ably 
commanded, and by the army of the West, of which he 
had from the beginning been one of the chief orna 


Brigadier-General James J. Archer was born in Harford 
county, Maryland, of a distinguished family which has 
contributed brave soldiers to American battles. He was 
a graduate of the United States military academy, class 
of 1826, the class of Albert Sidney Johnston and E. Kirby 
Smith, and was assigned to the Third infantry. After 
serving on frontier duty in the West he was promoted 
first-lieutenant in October, 1833. March 31, 1834, he 
resigned and was engaged in business as a lumber mer 
chant at Havre-de-Grace, Md., until 1847, and from that 
date until 1861 as a planter at San Patricio, Tex. 
He was commissioned a captain in the regular army of 
the Confederate States March 16, 1861, and soon after 
ward with the rank of colonel of the Fifth Texas regi 
ment, was in command of the Texas brigade at the 
Evansport batteries. In May as acting brigadier-gen 
eral he was on duty at West Point, Va., and after the 
battle of Seven Pines he was promoted brigadier-general 
and assigned to the command of a brigade in A. P. Hill s 
division, consisting mainly of Tennessee and Alabama 
regiments. Under his gallant leadership Archer s 
brigade soon rose to prominence in the famous " light 
division and won laurels through all the hard fighting 
which followed. On June 26th in the battle of Mechanics- 
ville, he advanced along the Bethesda road and made n 
desperate attack upon the Federal position with such 
valor that the losses of the attack fell principally upon 
his brigade. Following the retreating enemy he was 
again engaged with distinction at Games Mill. With 
Jackson s command in the campaign of Manassas which 
followed, he was in action at Cedar Mountain, August 
9th, Manassas Junction, August 26th, and in the battles of 
Manassas, August 28, 29 and 30. On the 29th, according 
to General Lee s report, General Archer " firmly held 
his ground against every attack." He was subsequently 
in action at Ox Hill, during the Maryland campaign took 
part in the capture of Harper s Ferry and the battle of 


Sharpsburg, and the encounter of Shepherdstown, and 
in the following December was in the heat of the fight 
ing at Fredericksburg. He participated in the flank 
movement and hard fighting of Jackson s corps at Chan- 
cellorsville. At Gettysburg, Hill having been promoted 
to command of corps, General Archer s brigade was in 
the division commanded by Gen. Henry Heth, which 
led in the Confederate advance on Gettysburg, Archer s 
command on the right of division line. The first shot of 
this memorable struggle was fired by Archer s brigade, 
and the first Confederate who fell was a private of one of 
his Tennessee regiments. The brigade occupied Mc- 
Pherson s wood, against which the Federal troops were 
promptly hurled under the leadership of Major-General 
Reynolds himself. In the fight which followed Reynolds 
was killed, and Archer was wounded and with many of 
his command fell into the hands of the enemy. The serv 
ice lost at this time, as General Early well expressed it, 
a " most gallant and meritorious officer." In the sum 
mer of 1864, he was one of the six hundred Confederate 
officers who were sent from Fort Delaware to be placed 
under fire at Morris Island. Subsequently exchanged, 
he was assigned on August 19, 1864, to the command of 
his brigade and Walker s, temporarily united, of Heth s 
division. But in a few weeks the effects of his wounds 
and the hardships of imprisonment disabled him for act 
ive duty, and caused his death October 24, 1864. 

Brigadier-General William W. Mackall, native of Cecil 
county, Maryland, was distinguished in various capac 
ities in the Confederate service in the Western States. 
He was graduated at the United States military 
academy in 1837, a class-mate of General Bragg, and 
was assigned to the First artillery as second lieutenant. 
In the Seminole war he gained promotion to first lieuten 
ant, and was severely wounded in an ambush at New 
Inlet in February, 1839. He served at Plattsburg, N. Y., 


during the Canada border disturbances in 1840, and 
on the Maine frontier in 1841-42. In the Mexican war 
he gained the brevet of captain by gallant service at 
Monterey, and of major for his record at Contreras and 
Churubusco. He served as adjutant-general on the staff 
of Generals Butler and Worth in 1846-48, and subse 
quently as adjutant-general of the Western division and 
the Third military department. After two years as 
treasurer of the Soldiers Home, he made a tour of in 
spection of the Florida and Gulf posts, and in 1853 be 
came adjutant-general of the Eastern division, and in 
1856 of the department of the Pacific. In May, 1861, 
he declined promotion to lieutenant-colonel of staff, and 
then resigned, to offer his services to the Confederate 
States. He was commissioned lieutenant-colonel, and 
became adjutant-general on the staff of Gen. Albert 
Sidney Johnston. He was promoted brigadier-general 
early in 1862, and was assigned by General Johnston to 
the command of the Confederate forces at Madrid Bend 
and Island No. 10, where he was captured, with a large 
number of men, by the Federal army under Pope, on 
April 8th. He was exchanged later in the season, and 
General Beauregard, who had written to Adjutant-Gen 
eral Cooper that he considered " the services of Mackall 
as a division commander indispensable at this critical 
juncture, was able to send word to Mackall under date 
of August 22d, " I am happy to hear of your safe return 
to the Confederacy, and hope you will soon receive a 
command commensurate with your merit." Gen. Sam 
uel Jones, commanding the department of Tennessee, 
asked that General Mackall be assigned to that department 
to command a brigade, and a special order was issued 
accordingly. In December following he was given com 
mand of the district of the Gulf, and in February, 1863, 
being succeeded by General Buckner, he took charge of 
the Western division of that district. In April, 1863, he 
was appointed chief-of-staff by Gen. Braxton Bragg, with 


whom he rendered important services during the cam 
paigns of that year until relieved at his own request, 
after the battle of Chickamauga. In his general order 
announcing this event, General Bragg wrote concerning 
Mackall: " He will proceed with his aides and report to 
Gen. J. E. Johnston, now commanding the department 
from which he was transferred. With a grateful sense 
of the distinguished services rendered by this accom 
plished officer in the high position he has filled, the com 
manding general tenders him his cordial thanks and 
wishes him all success and happiness in his future career. 
The general and the army will long feel the sacrifice 
made in sparing the services of one so distinguished for 
capacity, professional acquirements and urbanity." In 
November, now being on duty in the department of Mis 
sissippi and East Louisiana, he was assigned to the com 
mand of the brigades lately under General Hebert. In 
January, 1864, after serving for a time with Gen. Leoni- 
das Polk, who recommended his promotion to major-gen 
eral, he returned to Johnston, then in command of the 
army of Tennessee, and being appointed chief-of-staff, 
served in that capacity throughout the famous campaign 
against Sherman from Dalton to Atlanta. After the 
removal of Johnston he was relieved from his staff duties 
at his own request, but he continued to participate in 
the Confederate operations, and on April 20, 1865, after 
the surrender of Lee s army, joined with Generals G. W. 
Smith and Howell Cobb in the surrender of Macon, 
Ga. General Mackall died August 12, 1891. 

Brigadier-General Bradley T. Johnson, as commander 
of the Maryland Line, became most prominently the repre 
sentative Marylander in the South. Ardent in his devo 
tion to the cause, intelligent in his performance of duty, 
with a courage that was fearless as was his gallantry con 
spicuous, he attained a reputation throughout the service, 
and won repeated commendation and honorable mention 


at the hands of his superiors. His highest ambition was 
that his loved State should be properly represented in the 
great struggle for liberty, honor and home rule. No in 
ducement that would separate him from this great pur 
pose was for a moment considered. As a Marylander he 
entered the army of the Confederacy associated withMary- 
land troops. Their fame was his fame ; the honor of their 
record was his honor ; and the perpetuation of the story 
of their privations and the glories of their triumphs was 
to him the ever-prevailing object of his efforts. To them 
he gave his loving care, and for them he made the sacri 
fices of the four years war. Thus it can be readily un 
derstood why, then and since, Bradley T. Johnson has 
been recognized as the typical Marylander in the Confed 
erate army, and the love and devotion so freely bestowed 
on the men of the Maryland line have in return followed 
him to this day, and make glad his declining years. 
He was without the great advantages of military educa 
tion, his early efforts being given to that more prosaic 
profession, the law. In this he attained a degree of suc 
cess and was becoming prominently known when the dis 
ruption of the Democratic party occurred and the fatal 
struggle of 1860 was precipitated. When the dire altern 
ative was presented of taking sides against conviction 
and kindred, or against the Federal government, and the 
crisis was accentuated by the passage of troops through 
Baltimore, Johnson, in command of a company of Fred 
erick volunteers, was among the first to unhesitatingly 
tender his services to defend the city and State. When 
futility of opposition by the State to the Federal power 
became apparent he moved his company to Point of 
Rocks, and declining a commission as lieutenant-colonel 
in the Virginia service from Governor Letcher, endeav 
ored to organize a distinctively Maryland command. His 
hopes were realized in the organization of the First regi 
ment, whose record, which cannot be disassociated from 
the history of his own gallant career, has been eloquently 


told in the preceding pages. Acting first as major, he be 
came lieutenant-colonel after First Manassas, and colonel 
in March, 1862. During the famous Valley campaign 
under Stonewall Jackson the ability of Johnson as a com 
manding officer was abundantly manifested, and in gen 
eral orders his name received most honorable mention. 
On the right flank of McClellan before Richmond he gal 
lantly led his Marylanders to victory at Games Mill, and 
during the night of terror and apprehension following the 
fight at Malvern Hill he kept vigil among the dead and 
dying until dawn revealed that McClellan had withdrawn 
to the protection of his fleet. Subsequently, while recruit 
ing at Charlottesville, it was deemed expedient by the 
Confederate war department to disband the gallant regi 
ment, and Colonel Johnson was left without command. 
He then readily yielded to the invitation of Generals Jack 
son and Ewell to accompany them in the operations of 
August, 1862. During Jackson s brilliant movement to 
the vicinity of Manassas Junction, Colonel Johnson was 
assigned to the command of the Virginia brigade of Gen. 
J. R. Jones, temporarily absent by reason of sickness. 
After the capture of Manassas Junction, while Hill moved 
in the direction of Centerville, and Ewell held the railroad 
line at Bristoe station, Johnson took position at Groveton, 
a few miles south of the famous stone bridge over Bull 
run, to resist the advance of Pope. This important serv 
ice he successfully performed until Taliaferro had come 
up and Jackson s forces were united. The sanguinary 
battle of the 28th followed, leaving the armies substan 
tially on the old lines of July, 1861, but with positions re 
versed. On the 29th, after repeated assaults on the Con 
federate left under Hill, the attack was made on Johnson s 
line, which connected with Hill s right. Permitting the 
enemy to enter the edge of the woods in which he was 
stationed he gave command to fire and then to charge, 
and hurled the Federals back to their original position, 
bringing off two pieces of artillery. In this crisis he acted 


without instruction, the occasion not admitting of delay. 
The headlong movement was witnessed by General Hood 
from the hills of Groveton, and the latter impetuous 
fighter sent an officer over to inquire what command had 
so magnificently risen to the emergency. On the 3oth 
Johnson advanced his line to the railroad cut before his 
position, and there his men repulsed charge after charge. 
After ammunition gave out they used stones with great 
effect. Finally reinforced by Stafford and aided by Pen- 
der, the Federals were swept from the field. 

During the Maryland campaign General Jones resumed 
command of his brigade, but Jackson was anxious that 
the young Maryland officer should be continued in duty 
adequate to his talent. He addressed the war department 
under date of September 4th, as follows: "I respectfully 
recommend that Col. Bradley T. Johnson, late colonel of 
the First Maryland regiment, be appointed brigadier-gen 
eral. While I was in command at Harper s Ferry, in the 
early part of the war, Colonel Johnson left his home in 
Maryland and entered our service, where he continued 
until his regiment was recently disbanded. I regarded 
him as a promising officer when he first entered the army, 
and so fully did he come up to my expectations that when 
his regiment was disbanded I put him in command of a 
brigade, and so ably did he discharge his duties in the 
recent battles near Bull Run as to make it my duty, as 
well as my pleasure, to recommend him for a brigadier- 
general cy. The brilliant service of his brigade in the 
engagement on Saturday last proved that it was under a 
superior leader, whose spirit was partaken of by his com 
mand. When it is so difficult to procure good general offi 
cers, I deem it due the service not to permit an opportunity 
of securing the services of one of such merit to pass unim 
proved. Upon the occupation of Frederick by the army 
of Northern Virginia, Colonel Johnson was appointed 
provost-marshal, and his knowledge of the country and its 
people was of value to General Lee, with whom he was in 

Md 28 


frequent conference. When Jackson moved toward Har 
per s Ferry, he was sent to Richmond with important dis 
patches from General Lee. This was the occasion of his 
appointment as a member of the military court then be 
ing organized, with the rank of colonel of cavalry. The 
recommendation of General Jackson was for the time not 
acted upon for the reason, creditable to Maryland, that 
so many general officers had already been appointed from 
that State. 

On February 4, 1863, General Jackson renewed his rec 
ommendation for Colonel Johnson s promotion and urged 
his assignment to command Taliaferro s brigade of the 
Stonewall division, concluding an earnest appeal with the 
words, "I do not know of any colonel who, in my opinion, 
is so well qualified for the position in question. A week 
later Jackson again urged action upon his recommendation. 
In a few months came Chancellorsville, and the heroic 
Jackson was no more. Though his promotion was still 
delayed, Johnson, upon the call of the Marylanders in the 
valley, secured his relief from the military court and 
reached his comrades at Gettysburg on the morning of 
July ad, intent upon his cherished plan of organizing the 
Maryland Line, which he had been selected to command. 
But the exigencies of the Pennsylvania campaign made 
this for the time impracticable, and his service until after 
the return to Virginia was as temporary commander again 
of the brigade of General Jones. In November, 1863, he 
was ordered to Hanover Junction, and there, as has been 
related, he finally brought together a considerable Mary 
land command. Toward the close of February, 1864, oper 
ating against Kilpatrick s raid, he had opportunity to ren 
der service of great value by the capture at Yellow Tavern 
of a dispatch from Dahlgren, and promptly acted as the 
emergency demanded. Gen. Wade Hampton in a letter 
to General Lee stated that he was convinced that " the 
enemy could have taken Richmond, and in all probability 
would have done so, but for the fact that Colonel Johnson 


intercepted a dispatch from Dahlgren to Kilpatrick, ask- 
ing what hour the latter had fixed for an attack on the 
city, so that both attacks might be simultaneous;" and 
in his report the gallant South Carolinian complimented 
the Marylander for his gallantry in attacking the enemy 
at Beaver Dam, with a handful of men, and hanging on 
their rear, striking them continually, and never losing 
sight of them until they had passed Tunstall s station. 
Hampton further expressed his appreciation by presenting 
Johnson with a saber. This promptly won distinction as 
a cavalry leader he confirmed by his service against Mer- 
ritt s division at Pollard s farm, and under Hampton at 
Trevilian s. June 25, 1864, he received his commission 
as brigadier-general and was assigned to the command of 
the cavalry brigade lately led by Gen. William E. Jones, 
killed at New Hope church. The service of this com 
mand under his gallant leadership is narrated in the pre 
ceding pages. His prime object in the Maryland cam 
paign under Early was the release of the Confederate 
prisoners at Point Lookout, which had been discussed by 
General Lee and the President. Regarding the selection 
of a leader for this hazardous duty, General Lee had writ 
ten the President: " It will be well he should be a Mary- 
lander, and of those connected with the army, I consider 
Col. Bradley T. Johnson the most suitable. He is bold 
and intelligent, ardent and true, and yet I am unable to 
say whether he possesses the requisite qualities. Every 
thing in an expedition of this kind depends upon the lead 
er. But he was fated not to be permitted to perform 
this service, being recalled after he made a detour around 
Baltimore to Beltsville by information from Early that 
the expedition was about to retire to Virginia. Later in 
July, 1864, he was associated with General McCausland 
in command of the expedition to Chambersburg, Pa. , and 
as he occupied the place with his brigade it fell his lot 
to execute the orders of General Early to burn the town. 
Justifiable as it was, as a stern and righteous retribution 


for the outrages in the valley, the work was no less repug 
nant to him and to the large majority of his command. 
He announced that no plundering would be permitted ; 
nothing was to be appropriated but boots, shoes and army 
stores. Before the work of destruction had ceased many 
of his men were seen to unite with the residents in efforts 
to suppress the flames or rescue property. At Hancock 
his indignant protest prevented a similar visitation upon 
a community that had representatives in the Confederate 
service. The disaster at Moorefield followed, where General 
Johnson narrowly escaped capture and was distinguished 
by his efforts to retrieve the day. That he was not cen 
surable was evidenced by the refusal of General Early to 
order the investigation demanded by him soon afterward. 
During the campaign in the valley against Sheridan he 
did all that a gallant officer could do in the face of over 
whelming opposition. At Winchester, September ipth, 
he fought from dawn to night, and by a headlong charge 
of his brigade gave Ramseur at a critical moment an op 
portunity to reform his lines. When heavy losses made 
it necessary to reorganize and consolidate commands, 
Johnson, being junior in rank and not commanding troops 
from his own State, gave way to others in the field, and 
in the latter part of November, 1864, was given command 
of the post at Salisbury, N. C. This had been a Confed 
erate military prison, but on the advance of Sherman 
through Georgia a large number of Federal prisoners were 
transferred thither, without adequate preparations for 
their care. Officers and men were huddled in the over 
flowing buildings, and boxes and even excavations in the 
earth were employed for shelter from the rigor of ap 
proaching winter. The post was also in danger from the 
inroads of Federal guerrillas. Under such circumstances 
General Johnson was called on to take charge, and his 
active efforts toward restoring order and alleviating dis 
tress met with the best of results. He secured the issu 
ing of fuel to the prisoners, and of food identical with 


that of his own men ; through his representations to the 
Confederate government the Federal government was in 
duced to send supplies by their own officers through the 
lines ; and, through the co-operation of Governor Vance, 
all that was possible was done to relieve distress. Fin 
ally, in the early days of March, 1865, he was enabled to 
start his charge in the direction of Wilmington for deliv 
ery to their friends. Within sixty days the struggle came 
to an end, and then as is well remembered those who were 
connected with the prison posts were made the subjects of 
investigation by military courts. But the archives at 
Raleigh and Richmond, and the voluntary testimony of 
those he had guarded, were so eloquent of the humanity 
of General Johnson that he was promptly relieved of perse 
cution. Finding himself broken in fortune he made his 
home at Richmond and resumed the practice of his pro 
fession. As soon as the restrictive legislation of the re 
construction period admitted, he entered public life, and 
served in the senate of Virginia with distinction. His 
heart, however, still yearned for his native State, and in 
1878 he removed to Baltimore, where his efforts were at 
once enlisted in the organization of the Society of the 
Army and Navy of the Confederate States in Maryland, 
and in the formation of the Association of the Maryland 
Line. The perpetuation of the record of Maryland in the 
armies of the Confederacy, and the relief of needy 
and disabled Confederates were to him duties par 
amount to all other obligations. He was at once placed 
at the front in all movements which represented the Con 
federate sentiment of the State. He became and still 
continues the president of the Army and Navy society, 
and of the Association of the Maryland Line, and he con 
tributed largely in effort and influence to the establish 
ment of the Home for Confederate veterans. Now, in 
the fullness of honors and in complete assurance of the 
love of his old comrades, he is living in retirement in his 
Virginia home. The State holds him in reverence as one 


of its heroes, worthy of a place with Howard, Smallwood 
and Gist, of the Revolution, as their honored successor in 
the " Maryland Line." GEORGE W. BOOTH. 

Brigadier- General Joseph Lancaster Brent, of Balti 
more, distinguished for his service in various arms of the 
Confederate military forces, was born in Charles county, 
Maryland, in 1826. He was reared at his native place, 
and attended college at Georgetown, D. C. When the 
war broke out, he was in California, but the ties of sym 
pathy were too strong to be overcome by his great dis 
tance from home, and he took ship for the seat of war, 
in company with William M. Gwyn, ex- United States 
senator, and Calhoun Benham, United States district 
attorney in California. But on the high seas they were 
arrested by Gen. E. V. Sumner, and the three were sent 
to Fort Lafayette, and held two or three weeks, when 
they were paroled and permitted to go to Washington. 
They sought to be relieved of this coercion and finally, 
through the influence of George D. Prentice, a brother- 
in-law of Mr. Benham, Mr. Brent was discharged from 
restraint without being required to take the oath of 
allegiance, which he had refused to do. He proceeded 
to Richmond in the winter of 1861-62, and at once entered 
the Confederate service, with rank of captain, on the 
staff of Gen. J. B. Magruder, in command of the district 
of Yorktown. After the conclusion of the Yorktown 
campaign, he was promoted major of artillery and 
assigned to duty as chief ordnance officer of the right 
wing of the army of Northern Virginia, under command 
of General Magruder, as the army was organized by 
Gen. Joseph E. Johnston. Major Brent held this posi 
tion until the close of the Peninsular campaign of 1862, 
contributing to the success of the Confederate arms, and 
was then assigned to the staff of Gen. Richard Taylor, 
who was in command of the district of Western Louis 
iana. He participated in the military operations of this 


district as chief of artillery and ordnance, with rank of col 
onel July, 1862; also commanded First Louisiana brigade 
cavalry until, in October, 1864, he was promoted brigadier- 
general of cavalry, in which rank he served until the 
close of the war. At the time of the surrender he was in 
command of the forces of the front line in the West, 
extending from Arkansas to the Gulf, the last line held 
by the Confederate army. One of the most exciting ex 
ploits in which General Brent was engaged was the cap 
ture of the Federal ironclad Indianola, early in the spring 
of 1863. The Indianola, after running the batteries at 
Vicksburg, had proceeded to the mouth of the Red river, 
and thence started back up the river. Unexpectedly to 
him, Brent was assigned by General Taylor to take com 
mand of two boats and engage the Indianola. The boats 
on the Red river available were the side-wheel steamer, 
Webb, which was used as a towboat before the war, and 
was without any protection whatever, except tiers of cotton 
bales about the boiler, and the Queen of the West, a 
gunboat captured a few days before from the Federals 
at Fort DeRussy on Red river. The latter was a modern 
boat, with bow strengthened for ramming, but had no 
protection for her machinery except tiers of cotton bales. 
With this flotilla General Brent started in pursuit of 
the ironclad Indianola and overtook her twenty miles 
below Vicksburg. He immediately engaged his formid 
able antagonist, which carried n-inch guns, a shot from 
which, properly served, would have disposed of either of 
the Confederate vessels. But every time the iron 
shutters of the Indianola were raised to allow a gun to be 
fired, the men of the Webb or Queen of the West would 
open on them with rifles, with the result that the Federal 
gunners were demoralized. Only one ball from the In 
dianola struck the Queen of the West, and that did no 
damage further than scatter a lot of her defensive armor, 
cotton bales, like leaves in an autumnal gale. Meanwhile 
the wooden boats rammed the Indianola repeatedly, 


until she was surrendered by her commander. Her crew 
were overcome with shame by this capitulation, especially 
when they saw the vulnerability of the two boats which 
had so daringly given them battle. Only six or eight 
men were lost by Brent in this engagement. After the 
surrender of the armies, General Brent was paroled at 
Alexandria, La., in May, 1865, and thence returned to 
Baltimore, where he resumed the practice of law, in 
which he had been engaged before the war. In 1870 he 
went to Louisiana and engaged in planting until 1888, 
when he again took up his residence at Baltimore, which 
has since been his home. While a resident of Louisiana 
he twice served in the legislature of the State. At Balti 
more he is held in high regard, and especially by his com 
rades of the Confederate army. He is a member of the 
society of the Army and Navy. 







THE partition of Virginia was called by the Hon. 
S. S. Cox, "one of the whimsical excesses of 
secession or vicissitudes of war. " In a vigorous 
expression of his repugnance to the movement he ex 
claimed, "Forty western counties of Virginia agree to 
secede and form a new State without the consent of the 
old one ! It is anomalous and unconstitutional. It is a 
new phase of secession made by the war. It is vigor 
ously opposed, but in vain. The first beginning of recon 
struction thus, and in the very midst of the war, came 
out of this despoiling of Virginia. It is one of the scars 
made by the war. It remains to commemorate the 
policy of force. It inevitably led to the successful attack 
which was soon to be made upon State institutions, 
including slavery. Thaddeus Stevens, with his charac 
teristic frankness, said that "We know it is not constitu 
tional, but it is necessary." The justification of the 
existence the right to be of the State of West Virginia 
was "military necessity," but its Statehood has been 
achieved and is now no longer questioned, though its 
birth was Caesarian and roughly accomplished at that. 
The Old Dominion which had voluntarily donated the vast 
Northwest to the Union and dedicated it to the use of 
white labor, was cloven by the hand it had nurtured into 
strength. Yet Virginia and all the South hail West 
Virginia and rejoice in its progress as one of the States 
of the Union, notwithstanding the nature of its origin. 


In proper historical review of the creation of this State, 
we may begin with the fact that Virginia was forced into 
secession by the military movements which compelled it 
either to surrender all its resources to the uses of war 
against its sister States, or to ally itself with secession in 
order to resist the threatening armed coercion. "The 
crossing of troops into Virginia with hostile purpose is 
the act of war," said Robert E. Lee in April, 1861, and 
that act occurred before the secession ordinance was 
voted on by the people. 

The original ordinance of secession passed April 17, 
1 86 1, to take effect on the fourth Thursday in May, 1861, 
if ratified by the vote of the people, was opposed stren 
uously in the convention by the delegates from some of 
the northwestern counties, and notwithstanding its pass 
age, many of those who had resented it returned to their 
counties to organize open opposition to the action of the 
convention. The Virginia convention adjourned on May 
ist to meet again on June i ith, and immediately upon 
the adjournment, public meetings were held in various 
western counties resulting in an informal call for a gen 
eral convention of disaffected counties, to be held at 
Wheeling on May i3th. 

These proceedings attracted the attention of the ad 
ministration at Washington. Communication with the 
national capital was easy, the distance slight and the way 
entirely open. The call for national assistance in defy 
ing the action of the Virginia convention was earnestly 
made and did not go unheeded. First among the mili 
tary operations to support the secession of these counties 
from Virginia were those in the two great neighboring 
States of Pennsylvania and Ohio. The conference be 
tween the vigorous governor of Pennsylvania and Presi 
dent Lincoln, on April 12, 1861, which encouraged the 
President in making his call for troops, was followed by 
the rapid military organization of the State and the sta 
tioning of large bodies of troops at Chambersburg under 


Patterson, and at other points from which invasion could 
be made into Maryland and across any part of the eastern 
border of Virginia. The State of Ohio passed an act to 
enroll the militia of that State on April i2th, providing 
for immediately mustering and arming its volunteers. 

These active preparations were made before Virginia 
had seceded, and even before the attempt to reinforce 
Fort Sumter had failed. Then followed the ample 
answer to President Lincoln s call for troops, after which, 
it is a strange circumstance that on the 26th of April, 
Ohio created a debt of $2,000,000 to raise funds to defend 
the State, the governor deciding the measure constitu 
tional because "Ohio is in danger of invasion." An im 
mense "home army" was organized under orders of May 
6th, part of which was to be "the active army of opera 
tion;" the enrolled militia of 300,000 men were divided 
into three corps ; the people of the cities promptly raised 
large sums of money for the support of volunteers, and 
under all this pressure the State soon had a large force 
in the field. 

Maj.-Gen. George B. McClellan, who had been in the 
regular United States army, and was, in 1861, the general 
superintendent of the Ohio & Mississippi railroad, was 
made major-general of State troops May ist, and pro 
ceeding with great energy in the work, had twenty-two 
regiments mustered before June ist to meet President 
Lincoln s call, besides a large number of other regiments 
in State camps, at an expenditure, as certified by the 
governor and auditor, of over $2,000,000. 

The preliminary arrangements which rendered such 
rapid action possible, were made prior to the sailing of 
the fleet destined to reinforce Fort Sumter, and pending 
the efforts of Virginia to arrest secession. Through the 
energetic efforts of the war governors in forwarding 
troops to Washington in April, the State of Maryland 
was reduced to Federal control before it could be suc 
cored, and by the ist of May, the entire eastern, north- 


era and western borders of Virginia became the boundary 
line across which the first bloody experiment of coercion 
by land was to be made. This long frontier of Virginia 
was exposed to the assaults of four armies ; one consisting 
of regulars and volunteers stationed in and around Wash 
ington, one at Fortress Monroe, one under General Pat 
terson along the upper Potomac, and one gathered chiefly 
from Ohio, under the command of General McClellan. 
To these two last mentioned armies, and particularly to 
the able general from Ohio, were intrusted the military 
operations which would enforce the movement inaugu 
rated in April in the western counties of Virginia to 
resist the ratification of the ordinance of secession, passed 
by the State convention, and to overthrow the existing 
State government. For the purposes of this movement, 
the situation was exceedingly favorable. Ohio was on 
the western border and Pennsylvania on the northern. 
Wheeling, the city chosen as the place where the conven 
tion would assemble, was in the narrow strip of Virginia 
lying between those two States, and McClellan s forces 
were assembling in easy striking distance. The people 
of the nearest counties were generally opposed to the 
secession of Virginia, and had been at all times in near 
commercial and political sympathy with the people of 
the adjacent States. With these advantages, McClellan 
prepared in May to advance into Virginia. 

During these movements, so adverse to its wishes and 
interests as well as to its sovereignty, the State of Vir 
ginia was well advised of the dangers that threatened it, 
and began preparations after April iyth to place its 
people and their possessions in a state of defense. Gen. 
Robert E. Lee having been appointed by Governor 
Letcher to command all Virginia forces until the State 
should be formally incorporated in the Confederate 
States, directed Maj. A. Loring, commanding volun 
teers at Wheeling on April 29, 1861, to accept and mus 
ter into service such volunteer companies as might offer 


themselves in compliance with the call of Governor 
Letcher, and to take command of them. His command 
was confined to the counties of Wetzel, Marshall, Ohio, 
Brooke and Hancock, with special duty to protect the 
terminus of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. At the same 
time Maj. F. M. Boykin, Jr., at Western, was directed by 
General Lee to muster volunteer companies into the 
service of the State, and posting his command at or near 
Grafton, to co-operate with Major Loring in holding both 
branches of the railroad for the benefit of Maryland and 
Virginia. These officers were directed to give quiet and 
security to the inhabitants of the country, and also to 
facilitate peaceful travel. Two hundred old pattern flint 
lock muskets were the only arms with which General 
Lee was able to supply these important forces. 

Lieut. -Col. John McCausland was given similar duties 
in the valley of the Kanawha, and Col. C. Q. Tompkins, 
of Charleston, was assigned to command. Col George 
Porterfield was directed to repair to Grafton and select 
positions for the troops in that section so as to cover the 
points liable to attack. The call for troops to assemble 
at Grafton was made on the counties of Braxton, Lewis, 
Harrison, Monongahela, Taylor, Barbour, Upshaw, 
Tucker, Mason, Randolph and Preston. The volunteers 
from Wood, Wirt, Roane, Calhoun, Gihner, Ritchie, 
Pleasant and Doddridge were to rendezvous at Parkers- 
burg. Lieuts. J. G. Gittings and W. E. Kemble were 
ordered to report to Porterfield for duty. Col. Jubal A. 
Early was ordered to Lynchburg to organize and com 
mand the forces at that point, and Col. Thomas J. Jackson, 
who was at Harper s Ferry, was notified to watch the 
threatening movements of the enemy, to occupy and use 
the Baltimore & Ohio railroad and the Chesapeake & 
Ohio canal. Lieut. -Col. John Echols was placed in com 
mand at Staunton, about the same time, with two regi 
ments of infantry. 

Thus it appears that so far as Governor Letcher and 


General Lee could act in defense of the exposed north 
western frontier of Virginia, all dispositions were rapidly 
and sagaciously made within a few weeks after the 
proclamation of President Lincoln calling for 75,000 
volunteers to act with forces already assembled at Wash 
ington, to invade the South through the State of Virginia. 
These dispositions were made before May loth, by Gen 
eral Lee under his commission from that State, and on 
that date the Confederate secretary of war directed him 
to assume control of the Confederate as well as the Vir 
ginia forces in the State, assigning them to duty at his 
discretion until further orders. 

The measures thus energetically taken, were made 
necessary by the action of the anti-secessionists in the 
extreme western counties adjacent to Ohio and Pennsyl 
vania, and also by the evident intention of the Federal 
authorities to seize and occupy these counties at once. 
The opponents of Virginia s ordinance of secession formed 
organizations to defeat that measure, and evidences of 
movements to call in the assistance of the Federal army 
of invasion alarmed the people. Enlistments in the vol 
unteer army of Virginia were discouraged in many ways 
so forcibly as to make men afraid to leave their families. 
Enlistments, especially around Graf ton, were therefore 
slowly secured, and it became necessary about the ist of 
May to order at first 400 and later 600 rifles with ammu 
nition, from Staunton, to be sent to Major Goff at Bev 
erly, who was to turn them over to Porterfield. With 
these arms it was expected that some companies could 
be supplied for immediate service. General Lee did not 
think it was prudent at that time to order companies 
from other parts of the State to Grafton, as it might irri 
tate, rather than conciliate, the population of that region. 
But Lee was very much concerned at the failure to pro 
cure volunteers in the West for the service of the State, 
and was induced by his anxieties on May 14, 1861, to ask 
Jackson, at Harper s Ferry, to send some aid to Porter- 


field if he could do so without endangering his own posi 
tion. Porterfield had reached Grafton on the same day 
that Lee s letter was written to Jackson, and found no 
forces to command. The sparseness of the population 
and the general uncertainty prevailing everywhere made 
concert of action difficult. Citizens who were true to the 
Old Dominion, appeared to be in the minority and needed 

In view of the emergency, Col. M. G. Harman moved 
from Staunton, May 15, 1861, with a supply of arms, under 
escort of Capt. F. F. Sterrett s company of cavalry, for 
the relief of the Northwest. Capt. Felix H. Hull also 
proceeded to Highland with the company to recruit and 
join Captain Sterrett. Captain Moorman marched to 
Monterey and Captains Stover and McNeil were sent to 
Huttonsville. Under similar orders, Colonel Goff was 
engaged in raising troops in Randolph county, and all 
these separate companies were directed to unite as rap 
idly as possible at a point on the route to Grafton. 

These Federal and Confederate military dispositions 
around and within the western counties of Virginia had 
their special bearings upon the political movements here 
tofore referred to, the object of Virginia and the Confed 
erate government being to hold the western counties, 
while it was the Federal design to facilitate the "dispart 
ing of Virginia. Keeping these military operations 
which were occurring in April and May, 1861, before us, 
we will consider the action taken at the same time among 
the people of that section which led finally to the institu 
tion of the State of West Virginia. 

The citizens of Virginia inhabiting the western counties 
were uncompromisingly divided among themselves in 
opinion as to their duty when their State became in 
volved in the Confederate war. They had voted against 
the secession of Virginia, and many of their representa 
tives refused to conform to the ordinance of secession. 
Hostilities, therefore, were begun first among themselves 

W Va 2 


by the antagonisms of neighbors and households ; and by 
the recruiting of military companies for both the Con 
federate and the Federal armies. Allegiance to the com 
monwealth of Virginia as being the paramount obligation 
of the citizen held large numbers of Union men to the 
defense of its action, who formed themselves into military 
companies and entered the Confederate army. On the 
other hand many were so resolute in their repugnance to 
secession as to throw off the restraints of the old Vir 
ginia theory of allegiance, and to form companies and 
regiments for Federal service. 

The Unionist sentiment in western Virginia led to a 
meeting at Clarksburg, April 22d, one week after the 
adoption of the ordinance of secession by the Virginia 
convention, at which eleven delegates were appointed to 
meet delegates from other counties at Wheeling, May 
1 3th, to determine what course should be pursued. Sim 
ilar meetings followed, and the convention which met at 
the date fixed, contained representatives of twenty-five 
counties. The popular vote on the ordinance of seces 
sion, polled May (fourth Thursday), was largely for rejec 
tion in western Virginia and almost unanimous for adop 
tion beyond the mountains. 

The informal convention of May i3th adopted resolu 
tions condemning the ordinance and providing for a 
general election May 23d, of delegates from all counties 
favoring a division of the State, for a convention to be 
held at Wheeling, June nth. Before that date arrived, 
on the pretext of defending railroad and other property, 
General McClellan with his army had entered the State, 
and Wheeling and the country far beyond were occupied 
by Ohio soldiers in overwhelming numbers. At the same 
time also, many companies of Virginia troops, for United 
States service, were organized, composed of men who 
afterward rendered gallant service for the cause they 

About forty counties were represented by delegates 


at Wheeling, June nth, and the members before pro 
ceeding to business joined in an oath of supreme alle 
giance to the United States. On June i3th a bill of 
rights was adopted, repudiating all allegiance to the 
Confederate States, to which Virginia was now united 
by ordinance ratified by popular vote ; the offices of gov 
ernor of Virginia, etc. , were declared vacant, a provisional 
government was provided for, all officers were required 
to take the oath of national allegiance, and on the iQth 
a declaration of independence from Virginia was unani 
mously adopted. The main argument in justification of 
this declaration, was that under the bill of rights the 
legislature had no right to call a convention to alter the 
constitution and the relations of the commonwealth, with 
out the previously expressed consent of the majority, and 
that therefore usurpation had occurred which would 
inevitably lead to military despotism. 

During the session of this convention, Governor Letcher 
issued a proclamation June i4th, to the people of north 
western Virginia, pointing out that the sovereign people 
of Virginia by a majority of nearly 100,000 votes, had 
exercised the right claimed by the fathers, to institute a 
new government, and had united the commonwealth 
with the Confederate States. He declared that the 
people had all had an opportunity to vote. "You, as 
well as the rest of the State, have cast your vote fairly, 
and the majority is against you. It is the duty of good 
citizens to yield to the will of the State." He quoted 
the bill of rights, "that the people have a right to uni 
form government; and therefore that no government 
separate from and independent of the government of 
Virginia ought to be erected or established within the 
limits thereof," and therefore, he said, "the majority 
have a right to govern." "But notwithstanding, this 
right, thus exercised, has been regarded by the people of 
all sections of the United States as undoubted and sacred, 
yet the government at Washington now utterly denies 


it, and by the exercise of despotic power, is endeavoring 
to coerce our people to abject submission to their author 
ity. Virginia has asserted her independence. She will 
maintain it at every hazard. He also pointed out that 
the new constitution had removed the previous inequality 
of taxation between the east and west, and he closed an 
eloquent appeal for unity in the commonwealth by the 
words: The troops are posted at Huttonsville. Come 
with your own good weapons and meet them as brothers. 
On June 2oth, the convention at Wheeling elected a 
provisional governor, Francis H. Pierpont, other State 
officers and an executive council of five. The convention 
purported to represent the whole State of Virginia, and 
Pierpont declared that it was not the object of the con 
vention to set up any new government in the State, other 
than the one under which they had always lived. A 
legislature was elected, which met at Wheeling, July 2d, 
and was called the legislature of the restored govern 
ment of Virginia. This body elected two senators for 
Virginia, who took the seats in the United States Senate 
vacated by Mason and Hunter. By authority of the 
legislature, $27,000 in specie deposited in the Exchange 
bank at Weston was seized and taken to Wheeling. 
A resolution favoring the division of the State of Vir 
ginia was at first voted down in the Senate. The propo 
sition to form a new State, to bear the name of Ka- 
nawha, was, however, already very strong, and a conven 
tion was called to carry out this plan. Attorney-General 
Bates, of Lincoln s cabinet, in a letter to a member of 
the convention, strongly opposed it, declaring that "the 
formation of a new State out of western Virginia is an 
original, independent act of revolution. Any attempt to 
carry it out involves a plain breach of both the constitu 
tions, of Virginia and of the nation. He contended that 
the plan under which the Unionist Virginians should act, 
should be one purporting to preserve the old State gov 
ernment, "claiming to be the very State which has been 


in part overthrown by the successful rebellion. . . . The 
Senate admitted your senators, not as representing a new 
and nameless State, now for the first time heard of in 
our history, but as representing the good old common 
wealth. The constitutional convention met at Wheel 
ing, November 26, 1861, and, influenced more by the suc 
cess of the United States army than by the grave objec 
tions urged by Bates, framed a new constitution, which 
was ratified May 3, 1862, by the "qualified voters" of 
forty-eight of the old Virginia counties. Berkeley and 
Jefferson counties were subsequently added. The mount 
ain counties of Morgan, Hampshire, Hardy, Pendleton, 
Pocahontas, Greenbrier, Monroe, Mercer and McDowell 
(including the present counties of Mineral, Grant and 
Summers), did not participate in the initial movement, 
but were included in the formation of the new State. 
At the election of May 3d, Pierpont also was elected "gov 
ernor of Virginia," to fill the "unexpired" term of Gov 
ernor Letcher, and he continued to administer the affairs 
of the Trans- Alleghany until the new State was estab 
lished, when he removed his "seat of government" to 



ON May 24th, Colonel Porterfield, who, with about 
100 men, had been holding the town of Fetterman, 
fell back to Grafton, and sent Col. J. M. Heck, 
who had joined him two days before, to Richmond, to 
report the condition of the little force, half armed and 
altogether undisciplined, which was attempting to hold 
the important post of Grafton, the junction of the roads 
connecting Washington with Parkersburg and Wheeling 
and thence with the Western States. In response to this 
appeal General Lee could only say that he would furnish 
some arms at Staunton, Va. , and give Heck authority to 
recruit a regiment in the valley and mountain counties on 
the road to Grafton. Meanwhile, Colonel Porterfield had 
received advices of the concentration of Federal troops 
on the Ohio river, at Marietta and Bellaire and on Wheel 
ing island, with the intention of invading the State ; and 
he thereupon caused the destruction of the railroad 
bridges at Farmington and Mannington, northwest of 
Grafton, and one on the Parkersburg line. 

Almost simultaneously Gen. George B. McClellan, in 
command of the Federal department of Ohio, issued a 
proclamation to the people of western Virginia, declar 
ing that "armed traitors" "are destroying the property 
of citizens of your State and ruining your magnificent 
railways, that the general government had heretofore 
carefully abstained from invading the State, or posting 



troops on the border, pending the election, but now 
" cannot close its ears to the demand you have made for 
assistance. I have ordered troops to cross the river. 
They come as your friends and brothers as enemies only 
to the armed rebels that are preying upon you. " He 
pledged a religious respect for property rights, and not 
only non-interference with slaves, but an "iron hand to 
crush" any servile insurrection. On the same date he 
ordered Col. B. F. Kelley, commanding the First Virginia 
infantry (U. S.) at Wheeling, to move toward Fairmount, 
supported by the Sixteenth Ohio from Bellaire, while the 
Fourteenth and Eighteenth Ohio, and a battery, were sent 
toward Grafton from Parkersburg. The troops from the 
northwest promptly repaired the bridges en route and 
occupied Grafton May joth, the force from Parkersburg 
meeting with greater difficulties which delayed it. 

Before this invasion by three or four thousand well- 
armed men, Colonel Porterfield with his little command 
moved south on the Tygart river to Philippi, carrying 
with him the State arms and stores. Before taking this 
step, which abandoned the Baltimore & Ohio railroad to 
the invading forces, he had appealed in vain for assist 
ance from General Johnston at Harper s Ferry. Though 
bodies of volunteer infantry and cavalry formed by patri 
otic West Virginians joined him, he was compelled to 
dismiss some of them for want of arms. It was his 
intention to gather at Philippi a force with which he 
could advance upon the railroad and destroy its value to 
the enemy, but he was not able to get together more than 
600 effective infantry and 175 cavalry, which, though 
armed, were but poorly supplied with ammunition and 
the necessary accouterments. In the meantime the Fed 
erals at Grafton had been reinforced by Indiana troops, 
and General Morris, of Indiana, had assumed command. 
He sanctioned a movement against Philippi devised by 
Colonel Kelley, and put under the latter s command. To 
insure a complete surprise of the Confederates at Philippi, 


the attacking party was divided. Twenty-one companies 
under immediate command of Colonel Kelley started out 
by rail ostensibly toward Harper s Ferry, and after pro 
ceeding 6 miles disembarked and took the wagon road 
for Philippi, and nineteen companies and a battery were 
sent forward on the west side of the river from Webster. 
These forty companies marched through the night in a 
heavy rain that had quieted Colonel Porterfield s fears of 
such an attack, and reaching the Confederate camp at 
very nearly the same time, at daybreak, June 3d, surprised 
the pickets, opened fire with artillery, and charged with 
the intention of capturing the entire command. Such a 
result should certainly have followed, under the condi 
tions of surprise and great disproportion of numbers. 
Nevertheless the raw and undisciplined troops, both 
officers and men, conducted themselves with such cour 
age and coolness that they caused the enemy about as 
much loss as fell upon themselves, and the whole com 
mand, after leaving the town, was restored to the good 
order which characterized a considerable part of it from 
the first firing. About six Virginians were killed and 
several wounded, but the wounded were not abandoned. 
On the Federal side the main loss was the severe wound 
ing of Colonel Kelley, as he was leading his men in a 
charge. He was reported mortally wounded, but he 
survived to receive promotion to brigadier-general and to 
figure prominently in the war history of the State. 
Porterfield s command then retreated further down the 
river and through the mountain gap to Beverly, behind 
the mountain line of Rich mountain and Laurel hill, 
where more sanguinary contests were soon to occur. 

At Beverly Colonel Porterfield reported his misfortune 
to General Lee, also giving an account of the depreda 
tions of the Federal troops and the "state of revolution" 
which existed in the section in the hands of the enemy. 
General Lee responded in a kindly letter, giving the 
welcome information that Gen. Robert S. Garnett had 


been assigned to command in that region and would soon 
reach the scene of action with such forces as were avail 
able in Virginia to aid the loyal western Virginians in 
their unequal struggle. 

Colonel Heck, whose mission to Richmond has been 
mentioned, was on the way early in June with a battery 
of four pieces from Shenandoah county, Captain Moor 
man s cavalry company, and three companies of Virginia 
infantry, and Governor Letcher had called out the militia 
from the counties of Pendleton, Highland, Bath, Poca- 
hontas, Randolph and Barbour. The response to this 
call seems to have been patriotic and abundant, but Col 
onel Heck decided to send the major part home to tend 
the crops, taking but 300 men from Highland, Bath and 
Pendleton. General Garnett reached Huttonsville, where 
Porterfield had then collected about twenty-four com 
panies of West Virginians. From these were organized 
two regiments, the Twenty-fifth Virginia infantry, under 
Colonel Heck, and the Thirty-first, under Col. William 
L. Jackson, former lieutenant-governor of the State. 
With Jackson s regiment, Schumacher s battery, Ander 
son s half battery, and a company of cavalry, General 
Garnett occupied the pass on the Philippi road at the 
south end of Laurel hill, while Colonel Heck, in command 
of his regiment, a half battery and a company of cavalry, 
was stationed before the Buckhannon pass over Rich 
mountain, a few miles west of Beverly. A forced night 
march was made June i5th to seize these positions in ad 
vance of the enemy, who was reported to be advancing. 
For nearly three weeks these troops were undisturbed, 
meanwhile being reinforced by the Twentieth Virginia 
under Col. John Pegram, Col. J. N. Ramsey s First 
Georgia, and Col. J. V. Fulkerson s Thirty-seventh Vir 
ginia. Reconnoissances were made, and in one of these, 
Lieut. Robert McChesney, of Rockbridge county, was 
killed by a Federal ambush in Tucker county, June 29th, 
while fighting gallantly. 
W Va 8 


While the Virginians were thus preparing to defend 
the Cheat river line, McClellan, having entered Virginia 
in person, was promising the Washington authorities, as 
early as June 23d, an attack which should turn the Con 
federate position. He had issued proclamations and called 
for abundant reinforcements; had stationed eleven com 
panies on the railroad at Cheat river bridge, a regiment 
at Grafton, another at Clarksburg, another at Weston, 
six companies at Parkersburg, six companies at Wirt 
Court House, had four companies out against a Confed 
erate reconnoissance, had ordered four regiments into the 
Kanawha valley, and besides all this, "of his active army 
fifty-one companies and one battery" were at Philippi, 
under General Morris, "amusing the enemy," while Mc 
Clellan had with him at Buckhannon six entire regiments 
of infantry, six detached companies, two batteries and two 
companies of cavalry, and more than two regiments ex 
pected. He repeated on July 5th his promise to advance, 
adding that he expected to "repeat the movement of 
Cerro Gordo, " and on July 6th he positively promised that 
his advance guard would move the next day. Official 
figures of the numerical strength of his army are lacking, 
but the statement just made from his reports sufficiently 
indicates its overwhelming character as compared with 
the troops waiting on the hills under command of 

General Garnett, a soldier of twenty years experience 
in the United States army, had no false confidence in the 
strength of his position, and gave the government at 
Richmond no reason to expect anything but disaster if 
he should be attacked by the enemy in force. He did 
not greatly fear such an attack, as he believed Mc 
Clellan had possession of as much of western Virginia as 
was desired. In this vein General Garnett wrote, and 
General Lee, in response, expressed his belief that Mc 
Clellan would attack and endeavor to penetrate Virginia 
as far as Staunton, a project that Garnett s object should 


be to " prevent, if possible, and to restrict his limits 
within the narrowest range, which, though outnumbered, 
it is hoped by skill and boldness you will accomplish. 
The Forty-fourth Virginia, Col. William C. Scott com 
manding, was already approaching Beverly from Rich 
mond, followed by the Second Georgia, Col. Edward 
Johnson, and a North Carolina regiment under Col. 
Stephen Lee. To further relieve Garnett, General Lee 
on July nth ordered Wise to move from Charleston upon 
Parkersburg. But reinforcements and diversion were 
alike too late. The blow had already fallen. 

The entire Confederate force on July 8th consisted of 
3,381 men at Laurel hill, 859 at Rich mountain, and 375 
at Beverly. The position at Rich mountain, on a spur 
near its western base, called Camp Garnett, was fortified 
with a breastwork of logs covered with an abatis 
of slashed timber along its front, and the position on 
the Philippi road at Laurel mountain was similarly 

On July 6th the Confederate picket was driven in from 
Middle Fork bridge between Buckhannon and Rich 
mountain, and that position was occupied by McCook s 
brigade, while Morris advanced from Philippi to within 
a mile and a half of Garnett s position. On the pth Mc- 
Clellan s three brigades encamped at Roaring Run flats, 
in sight of the Confederate camp at Rich mountain, and on 
that day and next made reconnoissances in force. There 
were now about 1,300 Confederates at Camp Garnett 
under command of Col. John Pegram, afterward distin 
guished as a brigadier-general. He, as well as General 
Garnett, underestimated the Federal strength, and he 
even contemplated a night attack upon the 10,000 troops 
confronting him. But perceiving signs of a flank attack, 
he posted pickets on the top of the mountain about two 
miles to the rear, and early on the morning of the nth 
he learned that six regiments of infantry, under General 
Rosecrans, were already on their way to seize a position 


on the summit of the mountain commanding his fortifica 
tions. To meet this he could only send reinforcements 
to the mountain picket, making in all about 300 men and 
one gun, under Capt. Julius A. DeLagnel, while he asked 
Garnett to order Colonel Scott s Forty-fourth regiment 
in the valley to hold the road in advance of Beverly. 
About ii o clock in the forenoon of the nth, Rosecrans 
attacked Captain DeLagnel at Hart s house, on the 
mountain, in overwhelming numbers. The intrepid 
300 fought with desperate courage, repulsing two 
attacks, and keeping up the fight for three hours, during 
which about one-third of their number were killed or 
wounded. Pegram, upon hearing the firing, had hurried 
to the scene and ordered up the remainder of his regi 
ment, but becoming convinced that his situation was too 
desperate to warrant an attack, he sent this body under 
Maj. Nat Tyler to effect a junction with either General 
Garnett or Colonel Scott, while he returned to the camp, 
where Colonel Heck with a few hundred men and two 
guns had been all day confronting McClellan. The 
latter had passed the day, in sound of the musketry on 
the mountain, cutting roads and mounting artillery to 
assault a force which he outnumbered ten to one. 
Heck s command, as soon as Pegram arrived, about 
midnight, under his orders, spiked their guns and re 
treated up the mountain, along which they made their 
way slowly next day toward General Garnett s camp at 
Laurel hill. The men under Tyler traversed the pathless 
mountain to Beverly, overtook the Forty-fourth at Hut- 
tonsville, and retreated to Monterey. 

Meanwhile, when Morris advanced toward Laurel hill 
there had been brisk skirmishing with Garnett s pickets, 
and on the 8th an attempt of the enemy to drive the Con 
federates from an advanced position at Belington was 
repulsed. But at midnight following the nth, being 
informed of the success of Rosecrans at Hart s farm, 
Garnett evacuated Laurel hill. He was falsely informed 


that the Federals had advanced to Beverly, and conse 
quently crossed Tygart valley and over Cheat mountain 
into the Cheat river valley, down which he was pursued 
northward by the Federal brigade under General Morris. 
On the morning of July i3th skirmishing began between 
his rear guard and the Federal advance, and when Car- 
rick s ford was reached, the rear guard, the Twenty-third 
regiment, under Colonel Taliaferro, supported by artil 
lery, took position on the high bank as soon as it had 
crossed, while the enemy brought up infantry and artillery 
on the opposite bank, and for some time a spirited fire 
was kept up across the stream, in which Taliaferro lost 28 
killed and wounded, the enemy s loss being much greater. 
The Confederates opened the fight with cheers for Presi 
dent Davis, and twice drove back the enemy from the ford, 
but finally, having exhausted their ammunition, with 
drew in good order to the next ford, about a half mile to 
the rear. On the further side of this ford the gallant 
Garnett, having posted the main command 4 miles further 
back, was waiting for the rear guard, and when it had 
crossed placed a few sharpshooters as skirmishers behind 
some drift-wood on the bank, while the regiment was 
sent on to a position he had selected. The enemy s 
advance was close upon him, and soon perceiving that he 
was about to be flanked, he sent orders to Taliaferro to 
retreat rapidly to the rear. Under the fire of the enemy 
now, he ordered his skirmishers to fall back, and at that 
moment was killed by a rifle ball, one of the sharpshoot 
ers at the same time falling dead at his side. His riderless 
horse, dashing to the rear, carried the sad news of the 
general s death. Thus fell, sharing the post of greatest 
danger in a disastrous retreat which he could not avoid, 
the first distinguished martyr of the Confederacy. His 
command, greatly depleted by the fatigues of the rapid 
march over the mountain paths, rendered still more 
difficult by the heavy rain, continued northward under 
the command of Colonel Ramsey, marching all the fol- 


lowing night to a point near West Union, when they 
crossed the Maryland line to Red House and thence 
moved southward, the next day, to Greenland, Hardy 
county, finally reaching Monterey after seven days ardu 
ous marching. 

Colonel Pegram s command, which we left in the 
course of their march of 17 miles along the summit 
of the mountain to join Garnett, on the night of the 
1 2th made an attempt to cross the valley eastward, but 
his reconnoissance was fired upon and he was advised 
that the enemy held Leadsville, in the rear of Garnett s 
former position. Both commander and troops were 
exhausted and starving, and it was decided after return 
ing to the foot of the mountain range to surrender. 
Accordingly at midnight a proposition to that effect was 
sent to General McClellan, then at Beverly, and on the 
next day, July isth, the first formal capitulation of the 
great war took place, 28 officers and 525 men becoming 
prisoners of war. They were well treated, and in a few 
days all were released on parole save Colonel Pegram. 

Thus ended in disaster the first completed campaign of 
the Confederate war. There were many instances of 
remarkable heroism and valor. In the main the troops 
fought with coolness and tenacity in the face of fearful 
odds, and maintained their organizations wonderfully well 
during exhausting and rapid movements over the most 
impassable country that can well be imagined. Their 
marches were made through dense thickets of laurel, over 
precipitous mountains, across raging streams, and along 
paths impracticable for ordinary military operations. 
Yet the conduct of the Confederates under these circum 
stances, and particularly their stubborn fighting at Hart s 
house and Carrick s ford would suffice to convince a care 
ful observer that the same sort of soldiers, given chances 
somewhat even, would yet win a victory glorious enough 
to lift the cloud of gloom which settled upon the South 
after this unfortunate campaign. Such a prophet would 


have found himself speedily justified, for ten days later 
came Manassas. 

Previous to the active operations which we have de 
scribed, the Federal commanders had sent out various 
parties to break up meetings of citizens supposed to be 
in the interests of Virginia, or for the formation of mil 
itary commands. Col. Lew Wallace, of Indiana, sta 
tioned at Cumberland, Md., engaged in such an enter 
prise June 1 3th. 

The people of Hampshire county were loyal to the 
Southern cause. This county was on the border line, and 
suffered untold troubles and horrors during the war then 
beginning. It would take volumes to contain all that 
was done and suffered for the Southland by the men and 
the women and the children of this county during the 
following four years. When the convention at Richmond 
passed the ordinance of secession, a meeting of citizens 
of Romney, the county seat, was held on the 2yth of April 
and patriotic resolutions were passed, calling upon the 
people to prepare for the worst, and a committee of safety 
was appointed to look out for the public good. The 
county prepared for war, meetings were held, men 
enlisted, money was subscribed to equip volunteers 
and pay the men, and the county court appropriated 
$10,000 to be expended under the supervision of a com 
mittee appointed for the purpose. 

Hearing of this and that some Virginia militia were 
drilling at Romney, Colonel Wallace made a descent 
upon that place, June i3th, with 500 Indianians, and 
reported that he put to rout not only all the military 
but the inhabitants of the town, including women and 
children, and captured among others "Maj. Isaac Van- 
dever, a gentleman who, from accounts, has been very 
active in exciting rebellion, organizing troops, and im 
pressing loyal citizens." No town in the South, except 
perhaps Winchester, 40 miles away, had a record sur 
passing that of the town of Romney, in regard to the 


changing of its occupancy by the armies of each side. 
It is well established that, beginning with Wallace s raid, 
at least fifty-six times during the war it passed into the 
control of the Federal army. 

After the evacuation of Harper s Ferry, June 16, 1861, 
when the army of the Shenandoah retired toward Win 
chester, Thomas J. Jackson, then ranking as colonel, was 
stationed near Martinsburg, and after making some 
demonstrations against the Federal advance, did good 
work in destroying transportation cars and locomotives 
on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. 

The Thirteenth Virginia and Third Tennessee regi 
ments, under the command of A. P. Hill, were marched 
from Harper s Ferry, by way of Winchester, to Romney, 
a distance of about 75 miles. The Union troops had 
retired. Upon reaching Romney it was ascertained that 
a company of Federal infantry, with two field pieces, 
was guarding the bridge over the north branch of the 
Potomac on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, some 18 miles 
northwest from Romney. Colonel Hill detached Company 
I, of the Thirteenth, and a company of Tennesseeans and 
sent them to capture the bridge referred to. About 
sunrise on June ipth, an attack was made, the Federal 
soldiers driven from the bridge and the two pieces of artil 
lery captured and carried off. This little fight was quick 
and sharp, ending in one of the first victories of the war. 

Jackson, having advanced to Darkesville, at Falling 
Waters, encountered the Federals who had crossed the 
Potomac to attack him, and although fighting in retreat 
with one regiment of infantry and his cavalry, punished 
his adversary by the loss of 49 prisoners and several 
killed, while in his own command there were 1 2 wounded 
and 13 killed and captured. Jackson was made briga 
dier-general a few days previous to this fight. 

On June 26, 1861, Richard Ashby, a brother of the 
celebrated Gen. Turner Ashby, lost his life in a skirmish 
in Hampshire county. The two Ashbys were in charge 


of a body of Virginia cavalry, scouting toward Cumber 
land, Md. , when Richard was mortally wounded by a 
bayonet thrust. His body lies beside that of his brother 
Turner in the Confederate cemetery at Winchester, Va. 

On July 21, 1 86 1, a Federal force under Colonel 
Kain entered Romney. In the same month Colonel 
Cummins with some Confederate troops retook it. 

The loyal Virginians in other parts of the State were 
active in expeditions to repress hostile organization. 
One of these was made by Capt. A. G. Jenkins, after 
ward famous as a cavalry general, in the latter part of 
June. He advanced from Charleston to Point Pleasant 
with a mounted party, and secured the persons of several 
prominent Union men. Colonel Norton, of the First 
Ohio, at Gallipolis, crossed the river with zoo men and 
made a vain attempt to overtake Jenkins, after which he 
"scoured the country and took 30 prominent secessionists 
prisoners." These gentlemen, who were carried to 
Camp Chase, Ohio, were the first to arrive from the 
South at that noted prison camp. They reached Camp 
Chase July 5th, but were released a few days later. The 
names of these loyal Virginians were R. B. Hackney, 
A. B. Dorst, A. Roseberry, H. J. Fisher, R. Knupp, 
Jacob C. Kline, Frank Ransom, J. N. McMullen, J. W. 
Echard, David Long, G. D. Slaughter, A. E. Eastman, 
J. F. Dintz, Robert Mitchell, S. Hargiss, E. J. Ransom, 
T. B. Kline, Alexander McCausland, O. H. P. Sebrill, 
James Johnson, W. O. Roseberry, Benjamin Franklin 
and James Clark. 

On June 6th the Confederate war department, being 
advised of the contemplated occupation of the Kanawha 
valley by the United States troops, and fearing for the 
safety of the Tennessee & Virginia railroad, issued orders 
designed to protect that region. Ex-Gov. Henry A. 
Wise, having been commissioned brigadier-general, was 
ordered to move from Richmond with the force placed 
at his disposal to the valley of the Kanawha, and Gen, 
W Va 4 


John B. Floyd, an old United States officer, was spe 
cially charged with the protection of the railroad. Wise 
was instructed to rally the people of western Virginia, 
and rely upon the people of that section not only for sup 
plies but for arms. In case the enemy should largely 
outnumber the forces he could gather and equip, with 
such resources, he was to fall back to the mountain passes. 
The Confederate government then had more formidable 
attacks to oppose. Patterson advancing from Mary 
land was threatening Johnston s army in the Shenandoah 
valley, McDowell before Washington was advancing 
upon Manassas, and a large force was needed for the 
defense of Norfolk and the James river. When John 
ston was writing that he must retreat from Harper s 
Ferry, having but forty rounds of ammunition, the gov 
ernment was forced to rely upon the ability of the West 
Virginians to defend themselves, and that failing, upon 
the mountains as a line of defense. Wise left Col. J. L. 
Davis at Richmond for the organization of Wise s legion 
from Virginia and North Carolina volunteers, and pro 
ceeded to Lewisburg and thence to Charleston. 

As early as April 2pth Lieut. -Col. John McCausland had 
been authorized to muster into the State service as many 
as ten volunteer companies, and direct the military 
operations of that part of the State. He was told that 
two companies in Kanawha county, Captain Patton s 
"Kanawha Rifles," Capt. T. B. Swann s company and 
two in Putnam, Captain Beckett s and Capt. W. E. 
Fife s (Buffalo Guards), would doubtless offer their 
services, and that 500 muskets of the old pattern would 
be sent and four field pieces. On May 3d a com 
mission as colonel was sent to C. Q. Tompkins, of 
Charleston, and he was directed to take command of the 
troops raised in the valley. The latter officer sent Colo 
nel McCausland to Richmond, May 3oth, to confer with 
Governor Letcher on the situation. It was difficult to 
procure reliable soldiers in large numbers, with perhaps 


the preponderance of sentiment favoring the Federal 
cause. By this time McCausland and Tompkins had gath 
ered but 340 men at Kanawha Court House, and when all 
the companies promised had been formed, the aggre 
gate would hardly exceed 1,000. But with a stout heart 
Tompkins at once issued from Charleston a proclamation 
counter to that of McClellan: 

Men of Virginia ! Men of Kanawha! To Arms! 

The enemy has invaded your soil and threatens to 
overrun your country under the pretext of protection. 
You cannot serve two masters. You have not the right 
to repudiate allegiance to your own State. Be not 
seduced by his sophistry or intimidated by his threats. 
Rise and strike for your firesides and altars. Repel the 
aggressors and preserve your honor and your rights. 
Rally in every neighborhood with or without arms. 
Organize and unite with the sons of the soil to defend it. 
Report yourselves without delay to those nearest to you 
in military position. Come to the aid of your fathers, 
brothers and comrades in arms at this place, who are here 
for the protection of your mothers, wives and sisters. 
Let every man who would uphold his rights turn out with 
such arms as he may get and drive the invader back. 

Out of the troops gathered at Charleston, McCausland 
subsequently organized the Thirty-sixth Virginia infantry 
regiment, which he commanded until promoted brigadier- 
general, and Tompkins formed the Twenty-second, led 
by Col. George S. Patton, until he fell at Winchester, 
and afterward by Colonel Barbee. By July 8th, General 
Wise, who had reached Charleston and assumed command, 
had a force of 2,600 men, consisting of the First and Sec 
ond Kanawha regiments, the Kanawha battalion, seven 
independent companies of infantry, and three companies 
of mounted rangers. Reinforcements from his legion 
soon arrived, so that a few days later he had about 4,000 
men, with ten small pieces of artillery. 

In the meantime Ohio troops had been massed at Gal- 
lipolis and Point Pleasant, and Gen. J. D. Cox, an officer 
afterward distinguished at South Mountain and Franklin, 


was assigned to the command. July nth he began his 
movement up the Kanawha river, by boat, with advance 
guards marching along the river roads, while another 
column moved up the Guyandotte and another advanced 
overland from Ravenswood. In anticipation of this 
advance General Wise arranged to meet the enemy west 
of Charleston, posting 900 men at Coal and 1,600 at 
Two Mile and Elk, with outposts at Ripley and Barbours- 
ville; while 1,000 men were scattered in the rear from 
Gauley bridge past Summersville to Birch river, toward 
Rich mountain. He could not safely make the Parkers- 
burg diversion suggested by Garnett and Lee. Instead 
he asked that Garnett reinforce the Kanawha army, at 
the very time that the latter general was engaged in his 
fatal retreat. 

On the 1 6th, Colonel Clarkson, with Brock s and Beck- 
et s troops of horse, had a brisk skirmish with the enemy 
near Ripley, and another fight occurred at Barboursville 
with the right of Cox s army. 

Wise wrote at this juncture that the difficulties of his 
situation were great, and that "this army here has grown 
by neglect at Richmond. It has been literally created 
by Colonel Tompkins, at first beginning with Patton s 
company alone, since assisted by my legion, which I 
have created between this and Richmond. 

Cox united his three columns at the mouth of the 
Pocotaligo, and on the afternoon of the i yth sent Colonel 
Lowe, with the Twelfth Ohio and two companies of the 
Twenty-first, to make a landing at Scary creek, where 
Colonel Patton with about 800 men held a position which 
commanded the river. Patton had been ordered by Wise 
to retreat to Bunker Hill, but he gallantly turned back of 
his own accord and met the enemy s advance. The 
enemy was better armed, and after a half hour s fighting 
a portion of Patton s command fell back. He rallied his 
men, however, and returning instantly to action was 
fifteen minutes later wounded and disabled. Capts. 


Albert G. Jenkins, Bailey, Swann and Sweeney stood 
their ground, also Col. F. Anderson, whose two companies 
on the left had not yet come into action. Now there was 
a rally by the Confederates and they were gaining the 
advantage, when a cannon ball from the enemy struck 
one of Patton s 6-pounder guns, disabling it and killing 
Lieutenant Welch and fatally wounding a private. The 
other gun withdrew, and for a time the Virginians were 
disordered. But A. G. Jenkins came to the rescue and 
a rally followed in which Colonel Anderson and his men 
joined, with Bailey, Swann and Sweeney, and reinforce 
ments from Captain Coons on Coal mountain, and the 
enemy were driven back and forced to recross the river. 
General Wise, whose report is followed in this account 
of the fight, reported the capture of Federal Colonels 
Norton, Woodruff and DeVilliers, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Neff, Captains Austin and Ward, and some 10 to 20 pri 
vates, and about 30 of the enemy killed. His loss was 
i killed and 2 wounded. Colonel McCausland with 800 
men followed this up with an attack on Cox s position on 
the north side of the river, and drove back the enemy to 
the shelter of their guns on the Pocotaligo. 

This fight of July iyth was a very creditable affair for 
the Virginians and did much to restore confidence that 
had flagged under the influence of continued "surprises" 
and retreats. It was the first victory for the Confederate 
States in an open fight, Big Bethel being rather a repulse 
by artillery from behind breastworks. McClellan, though 
he called it "something between a victory and a defeat," 
took it seriously to heart, and adjured the government, 
"In Heaven s name give me some general officers who 
understand their profession." "Unless I command 
every picket and lead every column I cannot be sure of 
success," he added, strangely oblivious to the fact that 
his success thus far had been entirely due to the energy 
of Rosecrans as a column leader. 

General Wise, though jubilant over his victory, realized 


the difficulty of his position, and on the ipth sent Maj. 
C. B. Duffield to Richmond with official reports and a 
letter, in which he complained bitterly of hostile feel 
ing of the inhabitants of the valley, and of the diffi 
culty of defending a position threatened by over 
3,000 Federals at the Pocotaligo, 1,500 from Ripley to 
Sissonville, and forces from the north by Summersville. 
He had an engineer, "Colonel Adler, a Hungarian, a 
man of consummate ability, science and bravery, aided 
by Prof. Thomas I. L. Snead, of William and Mary, and 
Lieut. J. B. Harvie. "We are throwing up breastworks 
and defenses at every pass and mean never to be taken, 
he added. 

But on the 24th the fears of General Wise regarding 
the weakness of his position were justified. Cox, by a 
circuitous advance among the hills, came upon the Con 
federate rear at Elk or Tyler mountain, and as soon as 
the outposts were driven in Wise was compelled to re 
treat up the river. The enemy brought up artillery to 
the bluff and nearly succeeded in cutting off 700 of 
Colonel Tompkins command at Coal. They escaped but 
were compelled to burn the steamer on which they were 
about to start up the river, when the artillery fire was 
opened upon them. The retreat was made in creditable 
order, and on the ayth Wise and his army passed through 
Gauley, destroying the bridges behind them, because 
there was a great deficiency of transportation and the 
men, worn out with marching and countermarching, 
lacking shoes and clothing and without tents, were 
obliged to move slowly. He reached Lewisburg August 
ist, and reported the enemy following in three columns 
from Fayetteville, Gauley and Summersville. 

The Confederate forces were now practically expelled 
from transmontane Virginia. Wise lay in the Green- 
brier valley, and the remnant of the forces that were 
with Garnett was at Monterey, beyond the limits of 
what is now West Virginia. Among the volunteers who 


joined Wise at this time were about 300 from Boone and 
Logan counties, who mainly entered the Third regiment, 
Wise legion, later known as the Sixtieth regiment, and 
commanded by Col. B. H. Jones. 

Cox held Gauley, and began fortifications, with an 
advance guard skirmishing toward Sewell mountain, and 
a regiment guarding his river communications; while 
Rosecrans, now the Federal commander of the depart 
ment, fortified the Cheat mountain pass before Huttons- 
ville, and the mountain pass between Huttonsville and 
Huntersville. These were advanced posts. His main 
line was marked by a chain of posts, with a regiment or 
two at each, at Bulltown, Suttonville and Summersville, 
between Weston and Gauley. 

While the events we have described were taking place, 
an army was forming at Monterey for the purpose of 
retrieving the Confederate disasters. Previous to Gar- 
nett s defeat there had been assembled near Staunton 
5,000 or 6,000 troops for his reinforcement, under the 
command of Gen. Henry R. Jackson, of Georgia. It 
will be remembered that the Forty-fourth Virginia was 
at Monterey during the battle of Rich Mountain. It took 
a position directed by General Garnett, which happened to 
be one where no service could be rendered. Col. Edward 
Johnson s Twelfth Georgia, following, made a forced 
march to occupy Cheat mountain, but met Colonel Scott 
returning, was advised of Garnett s retreat and fell back 
to Jackson s main body. The entire command then 
retired to Monterey, where, with about 3,500 men, Jack 
son prepared to combat the expected advance of McClel- 
lan by Huntersville and Warm Springs to cut the railroad 
near Staunton. This, however, was not attempted by the 
Federals. It was deemed too dangerous an enterprise, 
and McClellan being transferred to Washington, took 
with him many of his troops, leaving adequate garrisons 
at the posts established. 

On July 2oth Brig. -Gen. William W. Loring, a veteran 


of the Mexican war, commander of the department of 
Oregon during the gold excitement, and experienced in 
mountain warfare, was assigned to the command of the 
Northwestern army. He was advised by General Lee 
that, in addition [to the forces he would find at Monterey 
under Jackson, Brigadier- General Floyd, with the brigade 
he had organized in southwest Virginia, had been directed 
to move to Covington, Brigadier-General Wise toward 
the same point, and Col. Angus McDonald with his cav 
alry legion from the south branch of the Potomac to 
Staunton. On the 2ist, the day of victory at Manassas, 
three Tennessee regiments, reaching Staunton, were 
put under General Loring s orders. 

Loring reached Monterey July 24th, accompanied by an 
efficient staff, including Col. Carter L. Stevenson, adju 
tant-general, and Maj. A. L. Long, chief of artillery, and 
flushed with the assurance of success which pervaded the 
Confederate States immediately after the splendid tri 
umph at Manassas. Jackson had found it unadvisable to 
attempt a direct attack upon the Federal fortifications at 
Cheat Mountain pass, a narrow gap approachable only by 
the Parkersburg turnpike, and fitted for effective defense. 
Col. Edward Johnson, with Anderson s battery, was sta 
tioned at Alleghany Mountain pass, supported by Rust s 
Arkansas and Baldwin s Virginia regiments; Colonel 
Lee s North Carolina regiment was advanced to Elk 
Mountain pass, supporting the Bath cavalry at Big Spring. 
Captain Marye s battery was sent forward to Colonel Lee, 
and 250 Pocahontas militia being mustered in, 80 of them 
were put on duty as scouts and guides. With Johnson at 
Monterey were Fulkerson s and Scott s Virginia regi 
ments, Ramsey s First Georgia, Major Jackson s cavalry 
and Shumaker s battery. General Loring determined 
to flank the Federal position by way of the Valley mount 
ain. He ordered Jackson s command over into the 
Greenbrier valley and made preparations for an advance 
from Huntersville. At the latter point were Maney s, 


Hatton s and Savage s Tennessee regiments, Campbell s 
Virginia regiment (Forty-eighth), Colonel Munford s 
battalion, Maj. W. H. F. Lee s cavalry squadron, and 
Marye s and Stanley s batteries. Colonel Gilham was at 
Valley Mountain pass with his own and another regiment, 
and Burks Virginia and a Georgia regiment were en route 
from Staunton. Loring s force on the Huntersville line 
was in all about 8,500 effective men. But the prompt 
advance which was contemplated in the orders of General 
Lee, was delayed for the establishment of a depot of sup 
plies and the formation of a wagon train. 

When General Wise had first been ordered to the Ka- 
nawha valley, he had been advised that whenever it be 
came necessary for him to be joined by Gen. John B. 
Floyd, the latter should have command of the joint forces. 
The time for this junction had now arrived and trouble 
immediately resulted. Floyd, also an ex-governor of 
Virginia, as well as ex-secretary of war of the United 
States, had been telegraphed to at Abingdon, May i4th, 
by President Davis, asking him if he could raise a "bri 
gade of your mountain riflemen with their own tried 
weapons." Floyd immediately responded that he could 
and would, and he was commissioned brigadier-general 
soon afterward. At Abingdon and Wytheville and 
Dublin Depot he took measures to protect the railroad 
communications of Richmond with Tennessee, until, 
under the orders of July, he moved to Covington and 
thence to the vicinity of Wise s troops at White Sulphur 
Springs. General Wise immediately objected to passing 
under the command of General Floyd, and an embarrass 
ing situation followed, which in a large measure pre 
vented effective work in the Kanawha valley. 

WVa 5 



AFTER the danger of invasion from the northeast 
had been relieved by the victory at Manassas, 
Gen. Robert E. Lee gave his attention personally 
to the direction of affairs in the Trans- Alleghany depart 
ment. He arrived at Huntersville in the latter part of 
July, and assumed chief command. The circumstances 
were somewhat embarrassing to Lee. Throughout his 
entire career as a soldier he manifested confidence in his 
subordinates, wisely no doubt, taking upon himself blame 
when misfortune came, and treating with indulgence 
those manifestations of human nature that do not become 
subordinate generals, but often impair their usefulness. 

He now had an army of two wings ; the right under 
Loring, who had outranked Lee in the old army, and 
the left nominally under Floyd, but actually divided with 
out prospect of effective co-operation. Establishing him 
self near the headquarters of General Loring, he main 
tained constant communication with Floyd and Wise. 

To add to the difficulties of the situation, the weather 
heightened the disadvantages of the rugged country. 
For weeks it rained daily in torrents, and the roads be 
came hardly passable. The army was provisioned with 
the greatest difficulty, and the troops, deprived of proper 
food and shelter, suffered a terrible scourge of measles 
and fever. 

In preparation for active operations, Gen, Alfred Beck- 



ley and Gen. A. A. Chapman, commanding militia bri 
gades in western Virginia, were ordered to collect as 
much of their forces as possible. 

On the loth, Colonel Davis, occupying the advanced 
post at Meadow Bluff, reported the enemy in his front, 
and Floyd advanced to that place, * peremptorily ordering 
Wise to follow on the i4th, to which Wise responded that 
he would execute the order "as early as possible, and as 
forces and means of transportation are available." He 
did not have half enough wagons, his horses were with 
out shoes, and his command was in a very unsatisfactory 
condition. But he sent forward such men as he believed 
available, about 2,000, and a few days later occupied Big 
Sewell mountain. At this juncture, in response to the 
request of General Wise, General Lee detached from the 
latter s command Tompkins and McCausland s Twenty- 
second and Thirty-sixth regiments, and restricted the 
immediate command of General Wise to his legion. 

General Wise advanced with skirmishing to Dogwood 
gap, while Floyd occupied Summersville, one of the 
posts on Rosecrans line, where he could make a flank 
attack either on Cox at Gauley or Rosecrans to the north, 
and he asked for reinforcements from Richmond. Gen 
eral Cox, with about three regiments, had succeeded in 
impressing his antagonists with an exaggerated idea of 
his strength, while he was preparing to stand a siege. 
At Carnifix Ferry was stationed the only reinforcement 
near him, an Ohio regiment under Colonel Tyler. 

On the 2oth of August, Lieutenant-Colonel Croghan, 
in advance of Wise, had two skirmishes on the turnpike, 
one near Hawk s Nest, in which each side lost a few 
killed and wounded. The little army was then greatly 
afflicted with measles, to such an extent that the Forty- 
sixth Virginia reported but one-third of the command 
effective. On the 25th, Colonel Jenkins cavalry was 
defeated at Hawk s Nest near Piggot s mill by an infan 
try ambuscade, with a loss of 8 or 10 wounded. Wise, 


previous to this, had marched to the Gauley river near 
Summersville to aid Floyd, but had been returned to 
Dogwood gap. On the 2 6th Floyd achieved a brilliant 
success. Raising a flatboat which Tyler had sunk, he 
crossed the Gauley river at Carnifix Ferry and surprised 
Tyler s regiment at breakfast near Cross Lanes. Floyd 
reported that between 45 and 50 of the enemy were killed 
and wounded, and over 100 prisoners and some stores were 
taken. The receipt of news of this disaster caused Rose- 
crans at once to make arrangements to advance toward 
Gauley. Floyd was now in a position to attack Gauley 
from the rear while Wise advanced, but unfortunately a 
strong movement was not made. Floyd being informed 
that Cox was abandoning Gauley and marching upon 
him, ordered Wise to hasten to his reinforcement, which 
he did, only to be informed en route that it had been 
ascertained that he would not be needed. Returning to 
Dogwood he advanced on September 2d, against the 
strong position of the Federals at Hawk s Nest, attack 
ing in front while Colonel Anderson attempted to gain 
the rear of the little mountain which the enemy occupied, 
covering the turnpike which circled about its base toward 
Gauley. Parts of three companies, Summers , Ryan s 
and Janes , were sent across Big creek and up the hill, 
driving the enemy gallantly, until the Confederates 
gained the summit. Meanwhile a howitzer was set to 
playing on the hill, which speedily cleared the enemy 
from the side next Wise ; but the enemy being reinforced, 
and commanding the road with a rifled cannon and 
Anderson not completing his roundabout march soon 
enough, Wise abandoned his project of turning the hill, 
and took a position covering Miller s ferry and Liken s 
mill. General Beckley s militia had driven the enemy 
from Cotton hill on the south side of the river, and was 
joined there by General Chapman s militia, whence a few 
cannon balls were thrown into the Federal camp at 
Gauley. During this period, the troops under Wise and 


the militia south of the river kept up a continual skir 
mishing, and the Federals, annoyed by the hostility of 
the volunteers, sent an expedition to Boone Court House, 
which, according to General Cox, routed a militia encamp 
ment and left 25 dead upon the field. 

Floyd remained inactive at Carnifix Ferry, fearing an 
attack from Rosecrans, and waiting for reinforcements 
for a flank attack upon Gauley. On the pth, becoming 
alarmed by news of the approach of Rosecrans, he asked 
Wise to send troops to his assistance, stating that he had 
but i, 600 men to oppose the six regiments of Rosecrans. 
Wise returned Tompkins regiment, but declined to send 
more for fear of losing his position. At the same time 
he wrote to General Lee, asking to be separated from 
Floyd s command. In this letter, Wise estimated the 
Confederate forces at 1,200 infantry, 250 artillery and 350 
cavalry in his legion, Tompkins regiment 400, Floyd s 
immediate command 1,200, McCausland s regiment 400, 
Chapman s and Beckley s militia, 2,000. Repeated orders 
from Floyd for reinforcements followed, the last one 
written in the midst of battle. 

Failing to obtain assistance, General Floyd constructed 
intrenchments on the elevations before Carnifix Ferry at 
the junction of Meadow river and the Gauley, and was 
there attacked at 3 p. m., September loth, by General 
Rosecrans, who had under his command nine regiments, 
eight of which participated in the battle. The odds were 
at the least estimate three to one. The Federal brigade 
which made the first attack was commanded by Gen. 
H. W. Benham, the same officer who, as a captain, was in 
charge of the vigorous pursuit of General Garnett to 
Carrick s ford. His command suffered heavily from an 
effective fire of musketry and artillery, which greeted its 
first appearance before the works. Colonel Lytle, com 
manding the Tenth Ohio in this brigade, was among the 
wounded and gained promotion by his gallantry. Colo 
nel Lowe, of the Twelfth Ohio, was killed at the head of 


his regiment. A series of charges were made upon the 
works as the various regiments came up, but were gal 
lantly repulsed. The Federal batteries joined in the 
attack, replied to with equal spirit from the Confederate 
guns. The battle raged without intermission four hours, 
until night put an end to the righting. Both infantry 
and artillery of Wise s command behaved with great 
coolness and intrepidity, and General Floyd specially 
mentioned the excellent performance of Guy s battery, 
for the first time under fire. The Federals were repulsed 
in five separate assaults, and finally withdrew from the 
front of the works, intending to renew the attack in the 
morning. But Floyd, having observed that the Federals 
had gained during the fight a position from which his 
line could be enfiladed, determined to abandon his haz 
ardous position during the night, which he accomplished 
in safety without the loss of a gun. He had great diffi 
culty in getting his guns down from the cliffs in the 
darkness over a wretched road, but he made the move 
ment without molestation, and gained a position on the 
opposite shore where he could command the ferry, a 
smooth bit of water in the otherwise impassable mountain 
torrent. Once over, the bridge and ferryboat were 
destroyed. The Confederate loss in this action was but 
20 wounded, Floyd himself receiving a slight wound in 
the arm, while the Federal loss was 17 killed and 141 
wounded. Floyd had abandoned his position, but held 
one stronger, and still commanded the road by which 
Rosecrans would march to attack Wise, and with very 
little loss had inflicted severe punishment upon the 
enemy. He should have been captured to give Rose 
crans title to claim of a victory. 

Floyd considered the battle of Carnifix Ferry decisive 
so far as the troops with him and Wise were concerned. 
He reported that he could have beaten the enemy if 
Wise had come up when ordered, and the North Caro 
lina and Georgia regiments could have arrived before the 


close of the second day s conflict, but that now the 
project of opening the Kanawha valley could only be 
attained by an advance upon the enemy along the south 
bank of the Kanawha. He estimated the Confederate 
forces at hand as 4,200 and the enemy at 12,000. The 
secretary of war responded, conveying the congratula 
tions of the President and himself "on this brilliant 
affair, in which the good conduct and steady valor of 
your whole command were so conspicuously displayed, 
and promising reinforcements. General Floyd soon 
abandoned the Gauley river, and moved to a junction 
with Wise near Dogwood gap. 

Cox advanced on the i2th and the Confederates retired 
to Sewell mountain, occupying first the crest of the ridge 
and later a more defensible position about a mile and a 
half in the rear, which appears to have been selected by 
Wise. Here the latter established 44 Camp Defiance," 
and in the spirit of that title awaited the advance of Cox 
and Rosecrans, and disregarded the orders of Floyd to 
fall back to Meadow Bluff, a point 16 miles west of 
Lewisburg, in a fertile country, at the union of the only 
good roads to the Gauley and the New ferries. Mean 
while there was some skirmishing going on with the Fed 
eral advance, and Col. Lucius Davis, commanding the 
First regiment of Wise s legion, operated on the south 
side of the New river, capturing over 40 prisoners. 

Up to this time, General Lee had not visited the forces 
in the Kanawha valley, and had left the conduct of opera 
tions entirely to General Floyd, and we will now turn to 
that even more rugged and difficult field in which the 
department commander was endeavoring to dislodge the 
enemy. The Federal force before Huttonsville was under 
the immediate command of Brig. -Gen. Joseph J. Rey 
nolds, who with about 5,000 men lay at Elkwater, about 
10 miles below Huttonsville in the Tygart valley, on the 
Huntersville road, while three regiments under Colonel 
Kimball held the impregnable pass of Cheat mountain, 


through which the main road from Huttonsville east 
ward, the Parkersburg turnpike, led in a narrow defile. 
The two posts were about seven miles apart by bridle 
path through the hills. 

The army of the Northwest, now well organized, and 
under the immediate command of General Loring, con 
sisted of the brigades of S. R. Anderson, D. S. Donelson, 
William Gilham, H. R. Jackson, and W. B. Taliaferro, 
and unassigned commands, amounting nominally to 
11,700 men, including about 300 each in the cavalry and 
artillery arms. 

One portion of the army, the "Monterey division," 
under Gen. H. R. Jackson, was encamped at "Camp 
Bartow," near where the Parkersburg pike crosses the 
Greenbrier river, and included Jackson s Georgia bri 
gade, Rust s Arkansas regiment, Taliaferro s brigade 
(Twenty-third, Thirty-first, Thirty-seventh and Forty- 
fourth regiments), Hansbrough and Reger s battalions, 
two batteries of artillery, and a few companies of cavalry, 
in all about 2,500 effective men. 

The other wing of the army, under General Loring, in 
camp at Valley mountain, included the brigades of Don 
elson, Anderson and Gilham (Twenty-first and Forty- 
second Virginia and Irish battalion in the latter), Colonel 
Burk s command and Major Lee s cavalry. About 3,500 
men in this division were effective. 

General Lee went to the front early in August, accom 
panied by his aides, Col. John A. Washington and Capt. 
Walter H. Taylor, and Maj. W. H. F. Lee s cavalry bat 
talion. He entered personally upon the work of recon- 
noissance, a work in which he had contributed brilliantly 
to the success of General Scott s army in Mexico, and 
hardly a day passed when he was not climbing over rocks 
and crags, to get a view of the Federal position. One 
day, Captain Preston, adjutant of the Forty-eighth Vir 
ginia (the incident is recorded by Gen. A. L. Long), his 
regiment being on picket, saw three men on a peak about 


a half mile in advance, and believing them to be Yankees, 
got permission to steal up with two men and capture them. 
After a tedious climb over the rocks and through the 
mountain thickets, he suddenly burst upon the unsus 
pecting trio, and to his amazement found that one of 
them was General Lee. 

About the middle of August, rain set in and continued 
for several weeks, making the narrow mountain roads 
impassable, while the troops unaccustomed to exposure 
fell easy victims to typhoid fever, measles and homesick 
ness. These afflictions rendered nearly one-third the 
army unavailable if the rain had ceased. During this 
trying period, General Lee maintained his cheerfulness 
and busied himself in the exertions to find a practicable 
route leading to the rear of Cheat Mountain pass, the key 
to the northwest. Colonel Rust, of the Third Arkan 
sas, finally reported a possible path, and on September 
pth, General Lee issued orders for a general advance of 
the army of the Northwest. There was a skirmish at 
Marshall s store on the 9th with an infantry reconnois- 
sance of the enemy, in which several were wounded on 
each side, and on the 1 1 th a Federal outpost at Point 
Mountain pike, after a brisk skirmish in which they lost 
5 killed and wounded, narrowly escaped capture. 
These were incidents preliminary to the battle which was 
planned. The attack was to be made early on September 
1 2th. From Camp Bartow, Colonel Rust was to gain the 
rear of the Federal position at Cheat Mountain pass, with 
1,500 men, and attack early in the morning; General 
Anderson, with two Tennessee regiments, was to get 
between Elkwater and the gap, and support Rust, while 
General Jackson was to make a demonstration in front. 
The pass being carried, the whole Confederate force there 
under Jackson was to sweep down upon the rear of Rey 
nolds at Elkwater, with the co-operation of General Don- 
elson with two regiments, who was to have gained a 
flanking position. Meanwhile, Burk and Major Lee 

W Va 8 


would move to the west flank of Reynolds, and the rest 
of the forces would advance by the main road up the 
valley to attack Reynolds in front. The plan was good, 
but the signal for the general mele*e was to be Rust s 
attack, and unfortunately that never occurred. Jackson 
moved up the mountain from the east, and gained the 
first summit, driving in the picket under Captain Junod, 
who, with one private, was killed. Anderson promptly 
in position, drove back a Federal company, and re 
pulsed the attack of another body of Federal reinforce 
ments, with some loss on each side, and cut the telegraph 
between the two Federal camps, but decided not to make 
the attack upon Reynolds until the prearranged signal 
had been given. On the following day, Reynolds sent 
several regiments against Anderson, reopening his com 
munications, and checked the advance of Loring s recon- 
noissance from the south. On the i4th, there was a 
renewal of the Confederate advance, but without result, 
and on the i5th, an attack upon Cheat mountain was 
repulsed. But there was no hope entertained of success 
by General Lee after the fiasco of the 1 2th. The loss on 
each side was slight, that of the Federals being reported 
at 9 killed, 2 missing and 60 prisoners. But among the 
Confederates great sorrow was felt for the untimely 
death of Colonel Washington, who fell pierced by three 
balls while making a reconnoissance with Major Lee, 
whose horse was killed at the same time. 

This movement failed to divert Rosecrans from his ad 
vance up the Kanawha valley, and General Lee continued 
to receive from Wise alarming news of the enemy s 
advance on Sewell mountain, and from Floyd reports that 
Wise would not fall back. He repaired promptly to the 
Kanawha valley, reaching Floyd s camp September 2ist, 
and at once wrote to Wise, using these words: "I beg, 
therefore, if not too late, that the troops be united, and 
that we conquer or die together. To this, the indomita 
ble Wise responded that he would join Floyd there or at 


Meadow Bluff if Lee would say which, that he laughed the 
enemy to scorn, and that he was ready to do, suffer and 
die for the cause, but that any imputation upon his motives 
would make him "perhaps, no longer a military subordi 
nate of any man who breathes. " Lee then "went to the 
mountain," and on the 23d, learning that Rosecrans had 
occupied in force the crest of Big Sewell, brought up 
Floyd to the mountain position which Wise had held with 
such tenacity. He did this, because it was the most 
defensible line, and he also caused reinforcements to be 
sent by Loring, which increased the Confederate strength 
at Little Sewell mountain to 8,000 or 9,000 men. General 
Wise was relieved from command, and assigned to another 
field of equal importance and dignity. 

General Rosecrans on Big Sewell mountain had about 
the same number of men as Lee, but each had exagger 
ated reports of the strength of the other, and it was difficult 
for either to make an offensive move. Lee naturally 
anticipated that Rosecrans would attempt to continue 
his advance, and waited for an opportunity to thwart it. 
Thus the two forces observed each other across a deep 
gorge for eleven days, during which period the Confed 
erates, poorly sheltered from the tempests of wind and 
rain, suffered severely. "It cost us more men, sick and 
dead," General Floyd averred, "than the battle of Ma- 
nassas, Finally, on the morning of October 6th, it was 
found that Rosecrans had retreated, and on pursuit it 
appeared that he had fled with considerable precipitation 
and disorder. 

While this was going on, there was renewed activity 
before Cheat mountain. General Reynolds, on October 
3d, set out to make an attack upon Camp Bartow, 12 
miles from the summit of Cheat mountain, taking with 
him 5,000 Ohio and Indiana troops and Howe s battery. 
Jackson s pickets were driven in early in the morning, 
but were reinforced by 100 men under Col. Edward John 
son, Twelfth Georgia, who held the enemy in check 


nearly an hour, not withdrawing until outflanked and 
under fire of six pieces of artillery. This gave time for 
a proper disposition of Jackson s little army of less than 
2,000 men, for a defense of the works which they had par 
tially completed. An artillery duel now began and con 
tinued with energy and with circumstances of romantic 
scenery and reverberating thunder from the surrounding 
mountains that made the scene one long to be remem 
bered by the soldiers waiting for their part in the fight. 
Presently the enemy sent a strong column of infantry 
across the shallow river against Jackson s left wing, 
which the Arkansans drove back in confusion. On the 
other flank a more formidable movement developed, 
while a direct attack was made in front. But the enemy 
was met with such a well-directed fire of musketry and 
artillery, that his whole force finally fell back in disorder, 
leaving behind some of their killed and a stand of United 
States colors. The combat in which the Confederates 
won such brilliant distinction, lasted from 7 in the 
morning until 2:30 in the afternoon, when the enemy, 
whose well-filled haversacks indicated a purpose to make 
a much more protracted campaign, was in full retreat to 
his mountain fastness. The official returns on each 
side show a loss in killed and wounded: Confederate 39, 
Federal 43; Confederates taken prisoner, 13. 

Some indication of the sufferings of the soldiers in this 
mountain campaign is given in the appeal of Col. John 
B. Baldwin to Secretary Benjamin, from his post on the 
top of Alleghany mountain. He reported that the coun 
try, sparsely settled, producing little surplus at any time, 
was now especially barren. Supplies from the Hardy 
valley were interrupted by the enemy s incursions, the 
roads to Petersburg and Staunton would be impassable 
in winter, and even then (October) his horses were on 
half rations. Winter rapidly approaching would find 
them without huts or houses or tools to build shelters 
with. Perhaps some relief was given these gallant men. 


At any rate, they were kept there, at Camp Baldwin, or 
Alleghany, and reinforced by the Twelfth Georgia, 
Thirty-first Virginia, Anderson s and Miller s batteries, 
and a detachment of the Pittsylvania cavalry under Lieu 
tenant Dabney, making about 1,200 effectives in all, and 
put under the command of Col. Edward Johnson. 

In December, after an interval of quiet in the Cheat 
Mountain district, Johnson was attacked by a Federal 
force of 1,760 men under Gen. R. H. Milroy. At first 
pushed back by superior numbers, on the right, also 
assailed on the left, the Confederates fought with such 
unflinching courage, Virginians and Georgians alike, that 
the enemy was finally repulsed. This was the bloodiest 
fight, so far, in western Virginia. The total Confederate 
loss was 20 killed, 98 wounded and 28 missing; the Fed 
eral loss, 20 killed, 107 wounded and 10 missing. 

After the retreat of Rosecrans to the Hawk s Nest and 
Gauley bridge, Lee detached Floyd for a movement up 
the south side of the New river, and that general crossed 
about October i6th, with the available portions of Rus 
sell s Mississippi regiment, Phillips legion, the Four 
teenth Georgia and the Fifty-first, Forty-fifth, Thirty- 
sixth and Twenty-second Virginia and 500 cavalry, in all 
about 4,000 men. In this southern region the enemy 
was in possession as far as Raleigh, having laid waste 
the village of Fayette and the country upon his lines of 
march, penetrated within 70 miles of the Virginia & Ten 
nessee railroad, and produced great alarm among the 
people of Mercer, Giles and Monroe counties. Floyd 
occupied Fayette and established his camp on Cotton hill, 
a rocky mass in the angle of the junction of New and 
Kanawha rivers, where he startled Rosecrans on Novem 
ber ist, by opening with cannon on the camp at Gauley. 
To do this, he had moved his guns by hand over pre 
cipitous hills for many miles. With his cannon and 
sharpshooters, he greatly annoyed the Federals, sinking 
one of the ferryboats, which served in lieu of the burned 


bridge. He hoped that a concerted attack would be made 
from Meadow Bluff, but the force there was inadequate. 

General Lee soon returned to Richmond and in Novem 
ber was transferred to the department of South Carolina, 
Georgia and Florida, his military reputation for the time 
under an unwarranted eclipse. 

From Rosecrans army, which was stationed along the 
river from Kanawha Falls to the Hawk s Nest, Colonel 
DeVilliers, of the Second Kentucky, was sent across the 
Kanawha at the mouth of the Gauley by ferry on Novem 
ber loth, with several hundred men, and a brisk skirmish 
resulted in the repulse of his attack. On the next day 
the Federals being reinforced, renewed the advance, and 
after vigorous skirmishes, Floyd abandoned the front of 
the mountain and moved his camp to the rear. On the 
1 2th, General Schenck crossed with his brigade and occu 
pied Cotton hill, and General Benham moved from Loop 
creek to attack Floyd in the rear. But the latter evaded 
the trap prepared for him, and fell back upon Loop 
mountain, with little loss, except that Lieut. -Col. St. 
George Croghan, one of the most gallant officers in the 
service, fell in a skirmish at McCoy s mill, November 
1 4th, after which Floyd took position on Piney creek. 

Previous to this Colonel Clarkson with the cavalry had 
been sent on a raid toward the Ohio river, and that gallant 
officer at Guyandotte, November loth, attacked a body of 
recruits for a Federal regiment, called the Ninth Virginia, 
U. S. A., killing a considerable number, and taking 70 
prisoners and 30 horses, some stores, and 200 or 300 rifles. 
Some of the dead were thrown from the bridge into the 
river. Among the prisoners were K. V. Whaley, mem 
ber of Congress, and several other Ohio citizens, and 
Clarkson also brought back with him several citizens of 
the town. He held Guyandotte until the next day, 
when a steamboat came up with reinforcements, upon 
which the Confederates withdrew and the Federals from 
Ohio set fire to the town, which had already suffered 


so far as the Union citizens were concerned. Thus the 
Guyandotte valley was introduced to the horrors of war. 

Floyd was ordered to Dublin Depot, in December, and 
he finally abandoned the Kanawha valley. On Decem 
ber 1 5th, Col. George Crook, of the Thirty-sixth Ohio, 
sent out a detachment, which scattered the guards left at 
Meadow Bluff, burned the encampment, and returned 
after gleaning the livestock of the neighborhood. Ral 
eigh Court House was occupied by a portion of Schenck s 
brigade, December 28th. The Huntersville line also 
was abandoned, General Loring leaving a guard of about 
250 men, who were scattered on January 8th by an expe 
dition from Huttonsville, which defeated the Confeder 
ates despite their gallant stand in two skirmishes, and 
entering the town, burned the military stores. 

Thus the year closed with no organized Confederate 
commands in the State except in the northeast, though 
Gen. Edward Johnson, commanding the Monterey line, 
still clung to his mountain post on the border, Camp Alle- 
ghany, and held two regiments, Goode s and Scott s, near 

There were some little affairs in the center of the State 
in December, one in Roane county, in which a noted 
partisan, Lowerburn, came to his death, and about De 
cember 3oth a force of Confederate partisans issued from 
Webster county, drove the Federal garrison from Brax- 
ton Court House, and burned the military stores there. 
But this was followed by swift retaliation, many of the 
band being killed and their homes burned 26 houses, 
the Federal commander reported. 

At this time 40,000 Federal troops occupied the State, 
under the general command of Rosecrans, the Kanawha 
district being in charge of General Cox, the Cheat Moun 
tain district under Milroy, and the Railroad district under 
Kelley, the West Virginia soldier who was promoted brig 
adier-general in the United States army after his suc 
cess at Philippi. 



ON August 3, 1 86 1, Rosecrans had assigned General 
Kelley to the special military district of Grafton, 
embracing the Baltimore & Ohio railroad from 
Grafton to Cumberland, and the Northwestern Virginia 
from Grafton. Under his command nearly 4,000 men 
were stationed at Grafton and along the railroad. In 
September, Col. Angus W. McDonald, a leader in the 
Confederate cause in the lower Shenandoah valley, was 
stationed at Romney with his cavalry regiment, the 
Seventy-seventh militia regiment under Col. E. H. Mc 
Donald, the One Hundred and Fourteenth militia under 
Col. A. Monroe, and one gun under Lieutenant Lion- 
berger, in all about 600 men. Upon this command an 
attack was made from New Creek Station, or Keyser, by 
Kelley s soldiers, September 23d. The advance pickets 
being driven in, the enemy attempted to force their pass 
age through the Mechanicsburg and Hanging Rock 
passes, of the South Branch mountain, toward Romney, 
but were repulsed at the first by Major Funsten, while 
Capt. E. H. Myers and Col. E. H. McDonald, with a few 
men, defeated the attack at Hanging Rock in true mount 
aineer style, by rolling rocks down upon the road as well 
as using their rifles, before which attack the Federal cav 
alry fell back in confusion, riding down the infantry and 
leaving some dead upon the road and in the river. Later 
the enemy advanced in force and gained the two passes, 
and after some brisk skirmishing the Confederates aban- 



doned Romney and fell back toward North River mount 
ain, fearing to be cut off from Winchester. The next 
morning Funsten s cavalry and the artillery successfully 
attacked the enemy at Romney, making a daring charge 
under heavy fire. The Federals began a retreat, and 
were pursued nearly to New Creek. 

On October 22d, General Kelley was assigned to com 
mand of the Federal department of Harper s Ferry and 
Cumberland. On the 25th he massed a still more for 
midable force at New Creek, and marched against Rom 
ney, while Colonel John s Maryland cavalry regiment 
moved from Patterson s creek to strike the Confeder 
ates in the rear. Passing Mechanicsburg Gap without 
resistance, they found the Confederates on the 26th in 
position on the cemetery hill at the town, where the little 
band made a gallant resistance for an hour or more. It 
was only after an assault by overwhelming numbers that 
McDonald s command retired, withdrawing their artil 
lery and making another stand east of town, from which 
they were again compelled to retreat. General Kelley 
reported the capture of artillery and baggage train and 
small-arms, but no prisoners. Colonel John s cavalry, 
mentioned above, was met at South Branch bridge, near 
Springfield, by Colonel Monroe, and defeated with con 
siderable loss. A Federal force was stationed at Romney, 
while Colonel Monroe encamped 15 miles east, at the 
town of Hanging Rock. About two months afterward 
there was a considerable engagement between some of 
Kelley s troops and the Confederates, at Blue s Gap, 
about 15 miles east of Romney, in which the Confeder 
ates were victorious. Kelley s men on this march de 
stroyed by fire a group of houses known as the village of 
Frenchburg, as well as the residences of some of the best 
people of the county. 

On the 4th of November, Thomas J. Jackson, with the 
immortal battle-name of "Stonewall," earned at Manas- 
sas, and the rank of major-general, returned to the val- 
w Va 7 


ley and assumed command of that district, his only regret 
at the assignment being that his Stonewall brigade was 
not ordered at first to accompany him. This separation 
was so painful as to cause him to say, "Had this commu 
nication not come as an order, I should instantly have 
declined it and continued in command of the brave old 

Jackson was a descendant of a sterling western Vir 
ginia family, which first settled in Hardy county and then 
moving across the Alleghany ridge made their home in 
Buckhannon. He was born at Clarksburg, and his 
mother s grave is in the soil of the new State. The spot 
where reposes the venerated woman who gave this hero 
birth is thus described : 

On the top of a wooded hill near the mining village of 
Anstead, Fayette county, W. Va., is an old graveyard 
still used as a burying place by the dwellers in this 
mountainous region. It is greatly neglected, and many 
graves are scarcely to be found, though a few are pro 
tected by little pens of fence rails. The location is so 
beautiful and the view it commands is so extensive and 
exquisite that it is worthy of being well cared for. Among 
those who lie buried here is the mother of that Christian 
soldier, Thomas Jonathan Jackson. The grave, or spot, 
for the grave is scarcely to be recognized, has been 
kindly cared for by Stephen M. Taylor, formerly of 
Albemarle county. But no stone was erected until a 
gentleman of Staunton, Capt. Thomas D. Ransom, one 
of his old soldiers, seeing the neglected condition of the 
grave, had prepared a simple but suitable monument : a 
tall slab of marble with an inscription giving the dates of 
her birth and death, and adding that it is "a tribute to 
the mother of Stonewall Jackson by one of his old 

Among the valleys and hills of this romantic part of the 
Old Dominion, Jackson passed his boyhood and the greater 
part of his life until appointed to a cadetship at West 
Point. After his military life in Mexico he was elected 
to a professorship in the Virginia military institute, sit 
uated in the splendid valley which reposes in beauty and 


grandeur between the Blue ridge and the Alleghany 
mountains. There a ten years service, from 1851, allied 
him again with the western portion of his native State, 
identified him with its interests, and explains his ardent 
desire to hold it as a part of the "Old Dominion" for 

General Jackson was accustomed to speak of western 
Virginia as "our section of the State," and no one de 
plored more than he the divisions among its people which 
exposed them to special severities during the war. After 
the brilliant victory at First Manassas, his thoughts 
turned to the reverses which the Confederates were 
suffering in his home country. Learning that Lee had 
been sent there, he expressed his wish to "go and give 
my feeble aid as an humble instrument in the hands of 
Providence in retrieving the down-trodden loyalty of that 
part of my native State. In August he wrote to Colonel 
Bennett, first auditor of the Virginia commonwealth : 

Should you ever have occasion to ask for a brigade from 
this army for the Northwest, I hope mine will be the one 
selected. This is, of course, confidential, as it is my duty 
to serve wherever I may be placed, and I desire to be 
always where most needed. But it is natural for one s 
affections to turn to the home of his boyhood and family. 

When General Jackson arrived at Winchester, he had 
at his disposal only the militia brigades of Boggs, Carson 
and Meem, McDonald s cavalry and Henderson s mounted 
company. Jackson began upon his arrival the important 
work of organizing, recruiting and drilling these troops, 
and was soon reinforced by his Stonewall brigade. The 
disasters which had occurred in the western counties were 
so dispiriting to the desolate people of that section, and 
their numerous and urgent appeals for relief and protec 
tion were so great that he felt the necessity of a vigorous 
campaign even in the midst of winter. His spirit was 
stirred within him as he heard of the rapid advances of 
the invasion over the land of his boyhood, and thus 


moved to begin military operations without delay, he 
petitioned the secretary of war to send the entire com 
mand of General Loring to reinforce him at Winchester 
for the purpose of making an immediate attempt to cap 
ture the Federal forces at Romney, commanded by Gen 
eral Kelley. He stated to the secretary of war that it 
was of great importance to occupy northwestern Virginia 
at once, and that while the enemy was not expecting 
attack, during the severity of winter, was the Confeder 
ate opportunity of achieving success. 

Jackson s plan, as outlined in his letter of 1861, cov 
ered a campaign which included a general battle with 
McClellan, who was to be defeated, and the reoccupation 
of the northwest counties and the Kanawha valley. 
The proposed campaign was undoubtedly hazardous, but 
the ardent spirit of Jackson saw that the chances of a 
great success were on the Confederate side. 

The eagerness of Jackson to be striking a blow against 
the enemy somewhere would not suffer him to wait for a 
decision which seems to have been delayed in a too cau 
tious consideration of obstacles. Believing that even his 
small command could be made effective, before the 
arrival of the army of the Northwest, and as a good exer 
cise in the chilly December, he moved upon Dam No. 5, 
on the Chesapeake & Ohio canal, which was being used 
by the Federals in forwarding troops and supplies. The 
expedition involved more hardship than danger. Though 
Banks, with a large force, was near the opposite bank of 
the Potomac, Jackson deceived that Federal officer easily 
by making a diversion with Virginia militia toward 

Early in December, Taliaferro s brigade of the army 
of the Northwest the First Georgia, Third Arkansas, 
Twenty-third and Thirty-seventh Virginia regiments, 
arrived, and a few weeks later more of the same army 
reported, under General Loring, consisting of Col. Wil 
liam Gilham s brigade the Twenty-first, Forty-second 


and Forty-eighth Virginia, First battalion, and Marye g 
battery and Gen. S. R. Anderson s Tennessee brigade. 
After Loring s arrival, though Jackson had the general 
direction of the projected operations against Bath, Han 
cock and Romney, Loring retained command of his army 
by the orders of the war department. The leader of the 
cavalry was the brave Lieut. -Col. Turner Ashby, whose 
fame was already foretokened by chivalrous exploits in 
the campaigns of the summer. 

The army under Jackson and Loring, including about 
8,000 infantry, besides Ashby s cavalry, moved away 
from Winchester, January ist, under a bright, clear sky, 
with the temperature of the air like that of a crisp, invig 
orating April morning. The troops, though ignorant of 
their destination, marched out of quarters with buoyant 
spirits and springy step, and all went well for the first 
day, but with unexpected suddenness the sleet and snow 
fell upon them with increasing severity, the frozen roads 
became slippery, the wagons were delayed, and the men 
forced to bivouac without their tents for a dreary night. 
The severe storm continued for two days, during which 
the true and tried soldiery braved adversity and struggled 
on with the leaders who shared with them the hardships 
of the march. Many were compelled by sickness to 
return, and some whose courage failed them dropped out 
of line and straggled to shelter, while the larger number 
pressed on until after the third day they entered Bath, 
which the Federals had hastily abandoned, leaving a con 
siderable part of their stores. After only a temporary 
halt Jackson pushed on after the retreating foe, and driv 
ing them into Hancock he sent Ashby under a flag to 
demand their surrender. Colonel Ashby, on reaching 
the Federal front, was received and blindfolded, then led 
into the town, hearing his name often mentioned by the 
Northern troops as "The famous Ashby." Many of 
them had heard that name called out in the charge of 
Ashby s men as they rode into Bath, and were now eager 


to look upon the noted cavalry captain of Virginia. Col 
onel Ashby was conducted to the Federal officer in com 
mand, and on hearing his refusal to surrender returned 
and reported to General Jackson. In a few minutes 
McLaughlin s Confederate artillery drove the enemy out 
of Hancock. Thus far the expedition had attained suc 
cess nearly equal to Jackson s expectations. The only 
reverse had been experienced by Monroe s militia, which 
encountered superior forces of the enemy at Hanging 
Rock, January yth. Six days had passed since leaving 
Winchester, during which time the intrepid soldiers had 
endured great hardships from long marches in the severe 
cold over rough roads, but on the yth they were again on 
the march against Romney, which was reached on the 
loth and occupied. The Federals in a panic had fled 
from the town, abandoning to the Confederates a quan 
tity of tents and supplies. 

Loring s command was now put into winter quarters 
near Romney, while Jackson returned to Winchester and 
made his report of the expedition, showing his loss in 
killed only 4 and wounded 28 ; and describing the gen 
eral result of the brief affair, he says : * Shepherdstown 
protected from shelling, the railroad communication with 
Hancock broken, all that portion of the country east of 
the great Cacapon recovered, Romney and a large part 
of Hampshire county evacuated by the enemy without 
firing a gun ; the enemy had fled from the western part of 
Hardy and been forced from the offensive to the defen 
sive. " It was Jackson s design to advance from Romney 
on an important expedition, but the enterprise was aban 
doned temporarily with the view of further aggressive 
operations in a different direction. He had disposed his 
forces so as to protect the territory which had been 
reclaimed. The regiments of Cols. A. Monroe, E. H. Mc 
Donald and W. H. Harness were assigned to the region of 
their homes; Colonel Johnson s regiment was with Har 
ness in Hardy, and three companies of cavalry were left 


with Loring, one of them the daring company of Capt. 
George F. Sheetz, which was familiar with all that sec 
tion of the country. 

But soon after Jackson s return he was directed by the 
secretary of war to order Loring s army back to Win 
chester, which he reluctantly obeyed. In consequence of 
this withdrawal, Kelley reoccupied Romney, and drove 
the Confederate outpost from Moorefield, February 
1 2th, while General Lander occupied Bloomery Gap two 
days later, capturing Col. R. F. Baldwin, Thirty-first 
regiment, and about 50 others. But this last point was 
reoccupied by Colonel Ashby on the i6th. General Jack 
son reported that many houses and mills had been burned 
in Hampshire county by "the reprobate Federal com 
manders." On March 3d, Colonel Downey s command of 
Federal forces occupied Romney. Downey evacuated the 
place later in the spring, when it was again occupied by 
the militia of the county. In the summer the town was 
occupied by the Twenty-second Pennsylvania regiment, 
and afterward by the Hampshire county militia. 



AS the season approached for opening military 
operations again, after the winter of 1861-62, Gen 
eral Rosecrans was sent to the West, and the gen 
eral command of the Federals in West Virginia, now 
called the Mountain department, was given to Gen. John 
C. Fremont, with headquarters at Wheeling. On the 
Confederate side there was considerable activity in March 
on the border. General Johnson had reoccupied Hunters- 
ville, and at Camp Alleghany and other posts had a force 
of about 3,000 men present. Among his soldiers were 
the Thirty-first, Fifty-second, Twenty-fifth, Fifty-eighth 
and Forty-fourth Virginia regiments and the Church- 
ville cavalry. Brig. -Gen. Henry Heth, who in a subordi 
nate capacity had gained distinction in the campaigns of 
the previous year, had his headquarters at Lewisburg, 
with 1,400 men and four guns, including the Twenty- 
second and Forty-fifth infantry and the Eighth cavalry, 
and had called out the militia of Mercer, Greenbrier and 
Monroe counties. 

But the military events in western Virginia were for 
some time to be subordinate to the great campaigns of 
the year, the plans of which were speedily developed. 
As it became evident that McClellan would menace Rich 
mond from the peninsula, Johnston s army withdrew 
from Manassas about the middle of March, and Jackson 
fell back from Winchester to Mount Jackson. General 


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Banks, with 12,600 men in the field, including Shields 
division, and 10, 500 on post duty, occupied Winchester and 
Strasburg. Ashby soon reported the evacuation of Stras- 
burg, and Jackson, fearing that Banks would leave the 
territory, promptly attacked him at Kernstown, where he 
was repulsed by superior numbers. Retreating to Swift 
Run gap, he was reinforced by Swell s division, while 
Banks pushed up the Shenandoah valley to Harrisonburg. 
Meanwhile Gen. Edward Johnson s army of the Northwest 
had withdrawn from Alleghany mountain to Valley Mills, 
Augusta county, and Milroy advanced to Monterey and 
thence to McDowell, where he was reinforced by 
Schenck. The army of the Northwest, backed by Jack 
son, occupied Bull Pasture mountain and repulsed two 
assaults by Milroy, who then retreated to Franklin, 
Pendleton county, while Jackson moved northward to 
assail Banks. 

This battle of McDowell is of special interest to West 
Virginia soldiers. General Johnson, commander of the 
army of the Northwest, had command of the troops en 
gaged in the fight, until he fell wounded, when his place 
was taken by General Taliaferro. Johnson s army had 
previously been divided into two brigades, under the 
command of Colonels Porterfield and Baldwin, the First 
embracing the Twelfth Georgia, Twenty-fifth and Thirty- 
first Virginia regiments, Hansbrough s battalion and the 
Star battery; the Second including the Forty- fourth, 
Fifty-second and Fifty-eighth Virginia regiments and 
Miller s and Lee s batteries. These seven regiments 
were the ones which first occupied Setlington s hill, bring 
ing on the Federal attacks, and there they bore with 
great gallantry the heat of the battle. When it became 
desirable, the Georgia regiment at the center was rein 
forced by the Twenty-third and Thirty-seventh regiments, 
formerly of Loring s command, while the Tenth Virginia 
went to assist the Fifty-second, which, after repulsing the 
enemy from its front, was about to make a return blow 

W Va 8 


on the flank. Almost the entire loss was suffered by the 
regiments named, mainly by Johnson s army, which 
lost 388 of the total 498. The gallantry of these regiments 
was particularly commended by Jackson, and it is but 
justice to say that here the army of the Northwest, so 
long condemned to suffer the hardships and none of the 
distinction of war, won at last a permanent title to fame 
by gaining for Jackson his first victory in the campaign 
which established his place as one of the world s greatest 
generals. Ac the previous battle of Kernstown, the other 
division of the old army, Burk s brigade (the Twenty- 
first, Forty-second and First battalion), and Fulkerson s 
brigade (the Twenty- third and Thirty-seventh), had also 
fought with great distinction. 

Thus in a blaze of glory the old Army of the North 
west passes from history. During the remainder of the 
Valley campaign its regiments were incorporated in the 
divisions of Jackson and Ewell, and the cavalrymen 
shared the adventures of Ashby. The story of that cam 
paign is elsewhere told, and we return to the considera 
tion of events beyond the Alleghanies. 

General Loring had been assigned to the department of 
Southwest Virginia, and General Heth had gathered near 
Lewisburg a little force of good fighters called the 
"Army of New River." His First brigade, under Col. 
Walter H. Jenifer, included the Forty-fifth Virginia 
infantry, Lieutenant -Colonel Peters, the Eighth cavalry 
(Jenifer s) and Otey s battery, while Col. John McCaus- 
land, returned from the Fort Donelson campaign, com 
manded the Second brigade, including his own Thirty- 
sixth regiment and Col. George S. Patton s Twenty- 

Early in May, Scammon s brigade of Cox s army was 
moving toward Princeton, threatening the Virginia & 
Tennessee railroad. The advance guard of Col. R. B. 
Hayes regiment, the Twenty-third Ohio, upon reaching 
Camp Creek, Mercer county, was attacked and severely 


handled. All the rolling stock of the railroad had been 
withdrawn west of Staunton, and General Heth, still at 
White Sulphur Springs, near Lewisburg, was ordered by 
General Lee to defend the approaches to Dublin Depot, 
and Gen. Humphrey Marshall, of Kentucky, commanding 
the district of Abingdon, moved with about 2,000 Vir 
ginians and Kentuckians toward Princeton. The latter 
point was now occupied by Cox, who also held the Nar 
rows of New river, and the town of Pearisburg or Giles 
Court House. On the loth, Jenifer and McCausland drove 
the Federals out of Pearisburg by a gallant charge, with 
a stout "rebel yell," and continued to drive them from 
hill to hill until they made their last stand in the Narrows, 
from which a well-directed artillery fire dislodged them, 
leaving the approaches to the railroad in this direction in 
the hands of General Heth. In this fight Colonel Patton 
(wounded), Lieutenant-Colonels Peters and Fitzhugh, and 
Captains Otey, Chapman and Lowry, of the artillery, won 
especial distinction. 

Calling to his aid Colonel Wharton, who was at Rocky 
Gap with some of the old Floyd brigade, not with Heth, 
Marshall attacked General Cox at Princeton on the even 
ing of the 1 6th with such vigor that the Federals retreated 
in haste, abandoning General Cox s headquarters. From 
the Federal correspondence Marshall discovered that he 
was near a superior force of the enemy, and he withdrew 
from the Federal camp and the ruins of the town, occupy 
ing a stronger position, where Wharton soon joined him. 
Throughout the day there were spiteful skirmishing and 
artillery combat, and Wharton, attacked in flank, repulsed 
a Federal regiment with heavy loss. Marshall maintained 
his position and Cox retreated, frightened by a demonstra 
tion toward his rear by Heth, to Flat Top mountain, 
which bounds on the west the valley of the Blue Stone, 
in which Princeton lies. Marshall then withdrew. The 
proposed Federal invasion had been defeated with little 
loss in his command, 4 dead and 1 2 wounded. Cox re- 


ported a total loss of 1 1 3 killed, wounded and missing, 
while Marshall stated that he left 71 Federals badly 
wounded at Princeton, and took 29 prisoners. 

Heth then marched against Lewisburg, which was held 
by Col. George Crook with about 1,500 men. With a 
superior force, including the Forty-fifth and Twenty-sec 
ond regiments and Cook s battalion, Heth attempted a 
surprise, and succeeded well at the start, but as he 
reported, "one of those causeless panics for which there is 
no accounting seized upon my command. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Finney, Major Edgar and other officers, while 
gallantly attempting to restore order, were captured, 
and 93 prisoners, 66 wounded, 38 dead, four pieces of 
artillery, and about 300 stand of arms fell into the hands 
of the enemy. Heth retired beyond Union, to the 

During June, July and August, 1862, while splendid 
victories were being won in eastern Virginia, driving 
the Federals without the State, the enemy remained in 
unchallenged possession of the West. A few raids and 
skirmishes alone disturbed the quiet. Some mention of 
these gleaned from the Federal reports will serve a use 
ful purpose, notwithstanding the tone of enmity which 
pervades them, in showing the hardships of citizens who 
maintained allegiance to the Old Dominion, either pass 
ively or actively by forming organizations for protecting 
their property, and watching or annoying the enemy. At 
Shaver s river in May, a band of Confederate partisans 
was surprised and several wounded; near Palestine, 
early in June, a squad of men of the Greenbrier cavalry 
and White s cavalry was attacked, and Lieutenant Han 
over killed, and two others, whose bodies floated down 
Muddy creek. A scout from Flat Top mountain into 
Wyoming county reported: "Took Squire Clendennen, a 
noted rebel, prisoner, and fired on his son, who escaped 
to the mountains. A surprising affair at Summersville, 
or Nicholas Court House, July 25th, showed the activity 


on the other hand of the loyal Virginians. Lieutenant 
Miller, of the Ninth Virginia (U. S. A.), reported that 
he was awakened by a shot, and saw the street full of 
"rebel cavalry, dressed in gray uniforms, yelling at the 
top of their voices." He went out of the back window 
and into the woods, and found on his subsequent return 
that all his comrades had been "gobbled" except those 
who were as lucky as himself. In Wyoming county, near 
where Floyd was stationed, in Tazewell, a daring cavalry 
raid was made by Captains Straton and Witcher, joining 
the companies of Chambers and Beckley at Horse Pen, 
and several skirmishes were fought, in which brave men 
fell, Straton and Witcher both being reported danger 
ously wounded. 

Early in August, General Cox was still at Flat Top moun 
tain" and Brook at Meadow Bluff, on opposite sides of the 
junction of the New and Greenbrier, before which lay Col 
onel Hayes near Pack s ferry, maintaining the communi 
cations of the two commands. Before him, about the Nar 
rows, was General Lor ing with the Confederate forces. On 
Augtist 6th, Col. G. C. Wharton with 900 men moved from 
Peterstown and made a demonstration against the out 
post at the ferry, driving the enemy from their camp with 
considerable loss and destroying two flatboats. 

A week or two later General Cox was ordered to retire 
from the Kanawha with most of his troops, which were 
sent to Washington and thence to reinforce Pope on the 
Rappahannock, and Col. J. A. J. Lightburn, of the 
Fourth Virginia (U. S. A.), was left in command of the 
Kanawha, with headquarters at Gauley. The Federal 
force in the vicinity of Franklin and Moorefield had been 
previously withdrawn, and as soon as Lee was informed 
of Cox s orders by the capture of Pope s headquarters and 
letter-book at Catlett s Station, he requested that Loring 
be ordered "to clear the valley of the Kanawha and then 
operate northwardly, so as to join me in the valley of 


During the summer J. D. Imboden, subsequently col 
onel and brigadier-general in the Confederate service, 
had been organizing a cavalry battalion in Highland 
county, enlisting refugees from Braxton, Lewis and 
Webster counties and other regions, a large majority of 
his men having "but recently escaped from Pierpont s 
dominion, brimful of fight. " In a private letter written 
about this time, he gave a graphic picture of the situation 
in the mountain region. He said : 

No Oriental despot ever exercised such mortal terror 
by his iron rule of his subjects as is now felt by three- 
fourths of the true men and women of the northwest. 
Grown-up men came to me stealthily through the woods 
to talk to me in a whisper of their wrongs. They would 
freely have given me grain and meat, but dared not 
do so. They begged me in some instances to take it 
apparently by force, so that they might not be charged 
with feeding us voluntarily. Men offered to sell me cattle 
or horses secretly, if I would send armed men to seize and 
carry off the property. Their pious Union neighbors, 
they said, would watch and report their every act as soon 
as my back was turned, and the Yankees would strip 
them of all they possessed. 

In conformity with orders, General Loring on August 
22d sent out Brig. -Gen. A. G. Jenkins, with his cavalry, 
about 550 in all, to sweep around the northwest by the 
Cheat valley, destroy the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, and 
fall upon the rear of the enemy in the Kanawha valley, 
while the infantry under Loring in person advanced to 
ward Gauley. 

In the meantime Imboden, with about 300 men, had 
made an expedition, attended by several skirmishes, to 
St. George, and thence returned to Cheat mountain. 
Jenkins, who expected to surprise Beverly, found it rein 
forced by General Kelley, and though joined by Imboden 
he was not strong enough to attack. Consequently Im 
boden remained and amused the Beverly garrison, while 
Jenkins rode on, crossing Rich mountain by a trail 
through the unbroken wilderness. So arduous was this 


march that some of his men and horses broke down and 
were left behind. Finally emerging from the wilder 
ness he suddenly entered the fertile valley of the Buck- 
hannon, and after the first consternation due to his 
appearance had passed, was assailed continually on his 
march by the home guards of that region. In one of the 
skirmishes Capt. J. M. Ferguson was painfully wounded. 
Approaching Buckhannon, by a skillful disposition of his 
cavalry and a gallant attack of three parties under Col 
onel Corns, Captain Spotts and Captain Preston, the en 
emy was defeated, with a loss of 15 wounded and 20 pris 
oners, including the commanding officer, Captain Marsh. 
Lieut. -Col. A. F. Cook, Eighth Virginia, and three others 
of Jenkins men were wounded. 

Jenkins now cast aside his shotguns, armed his men 
with handsome new rifles, and otherwise supplied him 
self, and then destroyed the remainder of the vast stores, 
including 5,000 stand of arms, ordnance stores, clothing, 
etc. At Weston next morning, August 3ist, the Federal 
garrison escaped in the fog, leaving but a dozen prisoners, 
and Jenkins destroyed all the public property, after 
which he drove the garrison out of Glenville, and reach 
ing Spencer, September 2d, surprised and captured Col. 
J. C. Rathbone and Maj. George C. Trimble and their 
entire command, six companies of the Eleventh West 
Virginia infantry. Having paroled the prisoners, Jenkins 
went on to Ripley, finding a lone paymaster, whose 
funds on hand, $5,525, were applied to the Confederate 
cause, and then moved to Ravenswood, where, after rest 
ing his men, he forded the Ohio river on the evening of 
September 4th, and was the first to carry the Confederate 
flag into Ohio. "The excitement of the command as we 
approached the Ohio shore was intense," he wrote, "and 
in the anxiety to be the first of their respective compa 
nies to reach the soil of those who had invaded us, all order 
was lost, and it became almost a universal race as we 
came into shoal water. In a short time all were over, 


and in a few minutes the command was formed on the 
crest of a gentle eminence and the banners of the South 
ern Confederacy floated over the soil of invaders. As 
our flag was unfurled in the splendors of an evening sun, 
cheers upon cheers arose from the men, and their enthu 
siasm was excited to the highest pitch." 

General Jenkins made a considerable march in Ohio, 
and surprised the inhabitants, who begged in abject 
terror that their homes might be spared from the torch, 
by committing no depredations, assuring the people that 
though many of his soldiers were homeless and their 
families in exile because of such warfare in Virginia, he 
did not represent barbarians, but a civilized people 
struggling for their liberties. On more than one occa 
sion, also, he was gratified by the friendly waving of 
handkerchiefs, and "shouts for Jeff Davis and the South 
ern Confederacy." Recrossing the Ohio at Racine, he 
made a demonstration against Point Pleasant, proceeded 
to Buffalo, crossed the Kanawha, advanced to Barbours- 
ville, and thence returned down the Guyandotte valley 
to Wyoming. 

Lightburn s command in the valley consisted of two 
Ohio regiments at Raleigh Court House, two companies 
of West Virginia cavalry at Camp Ewing, 10 miles in 
advance of Gauley bridge, four West Virginia companies 
at Summersville, and the remainder of the Ninth and 
Fourth infantry and Second cavalry, West Virginia Fed 
eral troops, at different points from Gauley to Charleston. 
He soon began concentrating upon hearing of Jenkins 
movements, and the force at Raleigh fell back to Fay- 
ette. Loring advanced with a little army of about 5,000 
men, organized as follows: 


Maj.-Gen. W. W. Loring commanding. Maj. H. Fitz- 
hugh, chief of staff; Col. C. E. Thorburn, chief of ord 
nance ; Capt. R. L. Poor, chief engineer ; Surg. John A. 
Hunter, medical director. 


First brigade, Brig. -Gen. John Echols: Fiftieth Vir 
ginia infantry, Col. Thomas Poage, Colonel Rodgers; 
Sixty-third, Col. J. J. McMahon; Twenty-third battalion, 
Lieutenant-Colonel Derrick. 

Second brigade, Brig. -Gen. John S. Williams: Forty- 
fifth Virginia infantry, Col. William H. Browne ; Twenty- 
sixth battalion (Edgar s), Maj. A. M. Davis; Twenty- 
second regiment, Col. George S. Patton. 

Third brigade, Col. George C. Wharton: Fifty-first 
Virginia infantry, Lieut. -Col. A. Forsberg; Thirtieth 
battalion sharpshooters, Lieut. -Col. Melvin Clarke. 

Fourth brigade, Col. John McCausland: Thirty-sixth 
Virginia infantry, Sixtieth (?) Virginia infantry. 

Artillery, Maj. J. Floyd King, chief of artillery: 
Otey s, Stamps , Bryan s, Lowry s and Chapman s bat 

Cavalry, Gen. A. G. Jenkins: Eighth Virginia regi 
ment and other companies. Major Salyers commanding 
cavalry with Loring s advance. 

General Loring approached Fayetteville on the loth of 
September, and after driving the enemy in his works, 
which were of great strength, prepared for an attack. 
Williams made the assault in front, while Wharton, rein 
forced by Colonel Patton, made a demonstration against 
the turnpike to Montgomery Ferry. Williams brigade 
drove the enemy from hill to hill by sharp fighting, after 
which "the artillery dashed in magnificent style over the 
ridge, down the slope and up to the top of the next hill, 
where they unlimbered within 300 yards of the enemy s 
fort, and opened a terrible cannonade upon it. Browne 
with the Forty-fifth and McCausland with the Thirty- 
sixth drove the enemy from their front in gallant style. 
In the meantime, Wharton was making a determined 
attack, under great difficulty, against another fort which 
he encountered in his flank movement, and still another 
fort beyond, in a commanding position, frowned upon the 
gallant Confederates. Night coming on, they slept upon 
their arms, within stone s throw of the enemy. Shrouded 
by darkness the Federals evacuated their works, attempted 
to fire the town, and made a precipitate retreat toward 


Gauley. At Cotton hill, next morning, reinforced from 
Gauley, they made a desperate stand against the pursu 
ing Confederates, pouring grape and canister into the 
advance, but were finally driven, and the entire bri 
gade, headed by Browne and McCausland,went down the 
hill with a shout, giving the enemy time to transfer but 
a small part of his force by ferry to the north bank. 
Those who got across fired the ferryboat, under the pro 
tection of their guns, and the magazines and commissary 
stores were seen to be in process of destruction. Dr. 
Watkins of the Thirty-sixth, Lieutenant Samuels of 
Williams staff, W. H. Harman and Allen Thompson of 
the Forty-fifth, and some others, boldly sprang into the 
river, and swam across in a shower of grape and canister, 
seized the ferryboat, and brought it back to the south 
shore, extinguishing the fire with their hats as water 
buckets as they came. Echols brigade, McCausland and 
Patton, crossed the Kanawha, seized the Federal camp 
without resistance, and pursued the retreating enemy 
across the Gauley toward Charleston on the north bank, 
while Williams and Wharton followed them up rapidly 
on the south side, with a skirmish at Montgomery s Ferry. 
On the following morning the enemy crossed at Camp 
Piatt. The artillery was active in the pursuit, keeping 
up a fire upon the enemy at their rear, as well as across 
the river from Williams column. 

As Charleston was approached, the Federals, who under 
the circumstances had displayed much gallantry, the 
fighting qualities of West Virginians being proved on both 
sides, made a sally across the river to check Williams, but 
unsuccessfully, and the enemy soon withdrew, mainly to 
a fortified eminence across the Elk river, while a portion 
of the command contested the advance of McCausland, 
then in command of Echols brigade, and fired the build 
ings used for military storehouses. There was a hill on 
the south shore, commanding the Federal intrenchments 
and artillery beyond the Elk, from which sharpshooters 


attempted to keep back the victorious Confederates, but 
Otey, Bryan and Stamps brought up their guns at a gal 
lop and soon made the Federal infantry abandon their 
last position. McCausland, with Derrick s battalion as 
skirmishers, McMahon, Rodgers and Patton in line, and 
his own regiment in reserve, Lowry s battery and a sec 
tion of Otey s, advanced with some brisk skirmishing into 
Charleston, and on reaching the Elk found the suspension 
bridge cut down. The artillery opened a warm fire upon 
the enemy opposite, while McCausland moved to a ford fur 
ther up the Elk, where he was able, however, to cross his 
cavalry only. By night he was ready to move his infan 
try over in boats, but on the following morning it was 
found that the enemy was in full retreat, and it was not 
thought advisable to pursue further. Jenkins, meanwhile, 
had moved down the Coal river and struck the enemy on 
the flank, compelling him to abandon his proposed march 
down the Gauley, and take the road for Ravenswood, 
whence he reached Point Pleasant on the i6th. 

In this brilliant campaign, involving a mountain march 
of 169 miles, the Confederates lost 18 killed and 89 
wounded. Lightburn reported a loss of 25 killed, 95 
wounded and 190 missing. He was compelled to aban 
don all the immense stores, worth by Loring s estimate 
about $1,000,000, and did not have time to destroy the 
important Kanawha salt works. 

The Kanawha valley was now in the hands of the Con 
federate forces, and General Loring at once issued a con 
gratulatory address to his command, and a proclamation 
to the people of western Virginia, opening with these 
well-chosen words: 

The army of the Confederate States has come among 
you to expel the enemy, to rescue the people from the 
despotism of the counterfeit State government imposed 
on you by Northern bayonets, and to restore the country 
once more to its natural allegiance to the State. We 
fight for peace and the possession of our own territory. 
We do not intend to punish those who remain at home as 


quiet citizens in obedience to the laws of the land, and 
to all such, clemency and amnesty are declared; but 
those who persist in adhering to the cause of the public 
enemy and the pretended State government he has 
erected at Wheeling, will be dealt with as their obstinate 
treachery deserves. 

He appealed to all able-bodied citizens to join the army 
to "defend the sanctities of religion and virtue, home 
territory, honor and law," and declared that the oaths 
imposed by the invaders were void, being "immoral 
attempts to restrain you from your duty to your State 
and government. 

Loring had considerable success at first in securing 
recruits and collecting conscripts, but these accessions 
were checked by rumors of another Federal invasion, and 
complaints began to go into Richmond of his course in 
gathering men, also regarding the methods of General 
Floyd, commanding the State line in Logan and Boone 
counties. Reconnoissances were made toward Point 
Pleasant, in one of which General Jenkins had a skirmish 
near Buffalo, September 27th. Loring at this time had 
about 4,000 men at Charleston and garrisons at Gauley 
and Fayette. On September 3oth the secretary of war 
ordered him to proceed soon, leaving a detachment to 
co-operate with General Floyd in holding the Kanawha 
valley, toward Winchester, to make a speedy junction 
with General Lee, destroy the Federal depots at Clarks 
burg and Grafton, make impressments from the Union 
men en route, paying in Confederate money, and capture 
and send to Richmond such prominent Union men as 
should come within reach. "Assure the people that the 
government has no animosities to gratify, but that per 
sistent traitors will be punished, and under no conceivable 
circumstances will a division of the State be acquiesced 

Loring replied, October yth, that his most practicable 
movement was by way of Lewisburg to Monterey, which 
he had begun that day, and that he had sent out expedi- 


tions against the railroad at Parkersburg and Clarksburg, 
while General Jenkins would be sent against Cheat river 
bridge. Loring announced to his troops, October nth, 
that they would be withdrawn to another field, but soon 
becoming aware of the increasing strength of the enemy 
in his department, he advised the government that he 
could not do more than possibly hold the valley. His 
infantry, meanwhile, had retired to the verge of western 
Virginia. He was relieved from command October i5th, 
and Gen. John Echols, appointed his successor, was 
ordered to reoccupy the valley, where only Jenkins cav 
alry had remained. The army started back toward 
Charleston on the iyth, though very poorly supplied. 

But overwhelming forces were being massed against 
Echols. Gen. J. D. Cox had been returned to the depart 
ment of Western Virginia from corps command under 
McClellan, with his old division, which, with Milroy s 
brigade, was sent to Clarksburg, while Lightburn was 
reinforced at Point Pleasant by Morgan s division from 
Ohio, and a brigade under Colonel Cranor was sent into 
the Guyandotte country against Floyd. The Confederate 
artillery checked Lightburn s advance up the Kanawha 
at Poca on the 23d, and later a stand was made at Tyler 
mountain and Two-mile creek, but perceiving that the 
enemy was advancing in force on both sides of the Ka 
nawha, while a division under Crook was threatening his 
flank by Nicholas Court House, Echols fell back in good 
order by way of Gauley and Fayetteville toward Raleigh, 
General Jenkins protecting the rear, obstructing the 
roads and destroying the river transportation behind him. 
Crook was in the vicinity of Gauley by November ist, and 
the country to the north was in the hands of the Federals 
as far as Beverly. It was feared that Crook would ad 
vance against the Virginia & Tennessee railroad, but 
according to the reports of Cox and Echols alike, the most 
effective protection against such a movement was the 
absolute destitution of the country. Even the inhabitants 


would find it difficult to survive the winter in this devas 
tated region, and few dwelling-houses were left standing 
from the Narrows to the Gauley along the main lines of 
travel. For lack of subsistence, Echols withdrew to the 
Princeton and Lewisburg line, and Jenkins was ordered 
into Greenbrier and Pocahontas counties. This was the 
situation as winter came on in 1862, practically the same 
as in the previous year at that season. 

In the Northeast there had been active operations fol 
lowing the battle of Sharpsburg and Lee s occupation of 
the lower Shenandoah valley. A few days before Stuart 
set out on his famous Chambersburg raid around Mc- 
Clellan s army, Col. J. D. Imboden had made an attempt 
to destroy the Cheat river bridge, but was prevented by 
the daring of a Union woman, who rode 25 miles through 
the woods to warn the enemy. He next made a raid to 
Romney, seized the town and scouted toward the railroad, 
drawing a party of the enemy into ambush. He reported, 
"We unhorsed fifteen of the rascals, wounding several ; 
captured two unhurt," and horses and arms. He had 
now about 900 men, but only 600 armed, and with this 
little force kept Kelley with 2,500 men running up and 
down the railroad. Imboden did much to restore order 
in Hardy county, and reported that the mountains were 
full of willing recruits for the Confederate cause. He 
also gathered cattle and. other supplies under the orders 
of General Lee. 

In November Imboden made an expedition which, in 
connection with reports that Stonewall Jackson with 
40,000 men had returned to the Shenandoah valley, 
created consternation in the North and caused the recall 
of many Federal regiments from the Kanawha valley. 
Imboden with 310 mounted men set out from his Hardy 
county camp on the yth, in a snowstorm, for Cheat river 
bridge. All the next day he marched along a cattle 
path over the Alleghanies, his men being compelled by 
the storm to dismount and lead their horses. At mid- 


night preceding the 8th he learned of the movements 
of Federal troops threatening him, but nevertheless 
proceeded to St. George through the snow and sleet, 
and reaching his destination safely, received the un 
conditional surrender of Captain Hall, with 31 men, 
well armed and occupying the courthouse. It was impos 
sible for him to go further, and on his return trip, which 
he soon began, he had to avoid Kelley s cavalry and the 
forces of Milroy at Beverly. Fearing Kelley most he 
advanced toward Milroy with the intention of attacking 
his baggage train at Camp Bartow. All day the nth 
he marched through an unbroken forest, and on the 
1 2th attempted to find Camp Bartow, but the day being 
rainy and gloomy he was lost in the gloom of the pine 
wilderness. Finally he learned that the Federal forces 
were in great commotion, and parties were moving in all 
directions to cut off his retreat. He managed to gain 
the rear of 1,300 men moving down South Branch in 
search of him, and crossing a high mountain safely, 
reached Augusta Springs on the i4th, evading all the 
enemy s detachments. It was believed that at this very 
time Milroy was en route to make a raid on Staunton, 
which Imboden s raid happened to prevent. Milroy in 
his advance had captured several cavalrymen, twelve or 
fifteen citizens, and burned some houses in Highland 
county. A few days before this there had been a 
skirmish near Petersburg, in which a herd of cattle seized 
by the Confederates had been recaptured by Kelley and 
some prisoners taken, and Milroy had "swept the counties 
of Highland, Pocahontas, Pendleton and parts of Augusta 
and Bath, taking in 45 prisoners and some cattle and 
horses, and immediately after Imboden had left his camp 
on South Fork with his cavalry, Kelley had swooped 
down upon the infantry with a large force of cavalry, 
and captured the camp and supplies and 50 prisoners. 



DURING the early part of 1863, Echols and Jenkins 
were still in Greenbrier county, but Floyd had 
withdrawn from Wyoming, which was penetrated 
by a Federal scouting party in February. In the same 
month a similar expedition did considerable damage in 
Pocahontas county. On the nth a detachment of Col. 
R. W. Baylor s cavalry had an encounter with the enemy 
in Jefferson county, and on the i6th, Captain McNeill 
made his third successful foray against Federal wagon 
trains near Moorefield. 

On December 29th, Gen. W. E. Jones had been assigned 
to command the Valley district, in the absence of Stone 
wall Jackson, and Imboden s command, which included 
McNeill s rangers, came under the direction of Jones. 
Colonel Imboden s force was then designated as the First 
Virginia partisan rangers, and his headquarters in Hardy 
county as Camp Hood. In pursuance of a request from 
General Cooper he set about making a regular enlistment, 
and the formation of the Northwestern Virginia bri 
gade, which in March was composed of the Sixty-second 
Virginia infantry, the Eighteenth Virginia cavalry, and 
a battery of artillery. The cavalry brigade under the 
immediate command of W. E. Jones included the Sixth, 
Seventh and Twelfth regiments, the Seventeenth bat 
talion, Maj. E. V. White s battalion, and Chew s bat 



During the winter of 1862-63, the citizens of Hardy and 
Hampshire counties were severely afflicted. The Fed 
eral forces were in possession of the region, and had con 
structed blockhouses along the railroad, and earthworks 
at various stations, which seemed to insure them against 
attack. There had also been constructed a number of 
ironclad cars, carrying pieces of heavy artillery, to aid in 
the defense of the road. General Milroy levied assess 
ments upon the inhabitants, which caused great suffering, 
and not content with that issued an order banishing those 
who in any manner expressed sympathy with their State 
and the South. Hundreds of families were arrested 
tinder this order and forcibly expelled from their homes, 
without permission to carry with them the necessary 
means for support. Numbers of helpless women and 
children were sent through their lines without protection, 
but found a generous reception among the loyal people 
of the valley, who, on their own part, had not yet realized 
the terrible destruction awaiting them. An even greater 
terror to the citizens were the * Swamp Dragons " and 
" bushwhackers, " deserters and outlaws who harbored 
in the mountains and made predatory raids, in which the 
most fiendish outrages were committed. 

In the hope of relieving the people from their oppres 
sions, General Jones advanced upon Moorefield, while 
Imboden s battalion moved toward the same place 
through Highland and Pendleton counties. Moorefield 
was attacked January 2d, but Jones was repulsed. He 
succeeded in compelling the enemy to burn their stores 
at Petersburg, and then retired to New Market. The 
services of Colonel Dulaney, Captain McNeill, Lieut. 
C. H. Vandiver, and Privates J. W. Kuykendall and 
J. S. Hutton were particularly commended by the gen 
eral commanding. 

As the season for resuming military operations in Vir 
ginia approached, it was apparent that the Federals were 
massing their strength for another advance toward Rich- 
w Va 10 


mond, and General Lee determined to delay and embar 
rass such an operation by striking at the railroad over 
which a great portion of the supplies and reinforcements 
were sent to the army of the Potomac. Imboden, who had 
now organized his brigade and had been commissioned 
brigadier-general, and Gen. W. E. Jones were intrusted 
with the performance of this work. 

Imboden left camp at Shenandoah mountain on April 
2oth with the Twenty-fifth, Thirty-first and Sixty-second 
Virginia infantry, the Eighteenth cavalry, and J. H. 
McClanahan s battery, and was joined by the Twenty-sec 
ond infantry, Col. A. C. Dunn s Thirty-seventh battalion 
of cavalry, dismounted, and the Nineteenth cavalry, 
mostly dismounted, from Samuel Jones command, mak 
ing an aggregate force of 3, 365 men. He again encoun 
tered bad weather, and had to march through snow and 
sleet, reaching Huttonsville on the 23d. Pressing for 
ward the next day he endeavored to surprise the enemy 
in camp at Beverly, but warning was given by the 
"bogus" but heroic sheriff of Randolph county, J. F. 
Phares, who, though shot though the lungs, managed to 
reach Beverly and give the alarm. The enemy was 
strongly posted and made a bold front ; but Imboden, by 
a flank movement, assisted by a gallant cavalry charge, 
dislodged him, and kept up a running fight for several 
hours, but failed to capture the garrison. The enemy 
attempted to burn his stores and destroyed about a third 
of the town, but many valuable supplies fell into the 
hands of the Confederates. 

Imboden proceeded to a point midway between Phil- 
ippi and Buckhannon, and soon occupied the latter place, 
where all the stores had been destroyed and the bridge 
burned. Col. G. W. Imboden advanced to Weston and 
found that place abandoned and the enemy concentrating 
before Clarksburg. 

Meanwhile Gen. W. E. Jones had advanced from Rock- 
ingham county with his available force to Moorefield, but 


was compelled to go back to Petersburg to make a cross 
ing of the South Branch, and even then lost some men in 
crossing the icy stream, swollen by the spring thaw. He 
was compelled to send back from Moorefield his infantry 
and artillery. Greenland Pass was found occupied by the 
enemy, and it was carried by assault, April 25th. The 
garrison, composed of 52 men of the Twenty- third Illinois, 
Irish brigade, under Capt. Martin Wallace, and 34 men 
of Company A, Fourteenth West Virginia, under Cap 
tain Smith, displayed heroism equal to their assailants. 
Throwing themselves into a little church and two other 
log houses, they met the charge led by Col. Thomas 
Marshall, Seventh cavalry, supported by Colonel Dulaney, 
with a destructive fire, wounding Dulaney and a number 
of the attacking party. A second assault being repulsed, 
sharpshooters were posted, and Chapman s mounted rifles 
(Witcher s battalion) secured the stone works close to the 
building. Under a flag of truce, three times sent in, 
demands of surrender were made, but the reply was that 
they were " Mulligan s men and would fight to the last 
cartridge." Finally, after dark, a general assault was 
made; Ridgely Brown s and White s battalions stormed 
the buildings, while Lieutenant Williamson s pioneers 
applied the torch, and amid the flames the garrison sur 
rendered. In the fight the Confederates lost 7 killed and 
22 wounded. 

A detachment was then sent to burn the railroad bridge 
at Oakland, under the command of Col. A. W. Harman, 
consisting of the Twelfth cavalry, Brown s battalion and 
McNeill s rangers, while a detachment of the Eleventh 
cavalry under Capt. E. H. McDonald was sent against 
Altamont, and the remainder of the force moved on 
Rowlesburg, where the trestle bridge had been burned 
some time before by a Confederate party. There they 
found a garrison of 300, against which the Sixth cavalry 
was sent in front, supported by Colonel Marshall, with 
the Seventh, and Col. L. L. Lomax, with the Eleventh 


cavalry, while Capt. O. T. Weems, with 80 sharp 
shooters of the Eleventh cavalry and a part of Witcher s 
battalion, was ordered to fire the railroad bridge. Both 
efforts failed, and Jones moved on to Evansville, while 
Lieutenant Vandiver and 8 men captured Independence 
and a home guard of 20 men. Jones then crossed the 
railroad at that point and was joined by Harman and 
McDonald, who had been successful in their expeditions. 

On the 28th the command crossed the Monongahela at 
Morgantown and marched on Fairmount, which they 
occupied on the morning of the 29th, capturing the gar 
rison of 260 after a brisk fight. Scarcely was this capitu 
lation concluded before reinforcements arrived, who- 
began shelling the Confederates, but the enemy was held 
off, mainly by Harman and Marshall, while under the 
direction of Lieutenant Williamson and Capt. John Hen 
derson the magnificent iron railroad bridge of three 
spans, each 300 feet, erected at a cost of about half a 
million dollars, was completely destroyed. The Confed 
erate loss at Fairmount was but 3 wounded. At dark the 
command started out to join Imboden, and finding 
Clarksburg occupied by the Federals, the Maryland cav 
alry under Brown made an attack on Bridgeport, 5 
miles west of that place, capturing 47 prisoners, burning 
the bridge to the east and the trestle work to the west, 
and running a captured train into the chasm. Next day 
they reached Philippi, and the captured horses and cattle 
were sent to Beverly. The junction was completed with 
Imboden at Weston on the 5th, and on the same day their 
picket was attacked at Janelew. 

Judging his exhausted force not sufficient to meet the 
enemy in pitched battle, after resting two days General 
Imboden retired southward, while Jones cavalry started 
against the Parkersburg branch of the Baltimore & Ohio 
railroad. Colonel Harman, with the Twelfth and 
Eleventh regiments and Witcher s battalion, moved on 
West Union, where he burned two bridges, meanwhile 


skirmishing with the enemy, while Jones, with the remain 
der of the cavalry, destroyed three bridges at Cairo. At 
Oiltown, May pth, all the oil and everything connected 
with the oil works were fired, causing an appalling spec 
tacle. Oil boats burst with a report like artillery, dense 
volumes of smoke arose, and the inflammable fluid, floating 
down stream, made a burning river, as Jones re 
ported, "carrying destruction to our merciless enemy, a 
scene of magnificence that might well carry joy to every 
patriotic heart." Then turning southward, Jones again 
united with Imboden at Summersville, whence Col. G. W. 
Imbodenhad pursued a force of the enemy to Gauley, cap 
turing 23 prisoners and a wagon train, and the forces 
returned to their former positions. Imboden reported 
that he had compelled the enemy to destroy large and 
valuable stores at Beverly, Buckhannon, Weston, Bull- 
town, Suttonville and Big Birch, captured $100,000 worth 
of horses, mules, wagons and arms, burned several 
bridges, and brought out over 3,000 head of cattle, paid 
for in Confederate money. But he was disappointed in 
recruits, only about 400 having been received. He had 
marched 400 miles and lost 16 men. Jones had destroyed 
sixteen railroad bridges and one tunnel, two trains of 
cars and many engines, captured 700 prisoners, and 
brought off 1,000 horses and a greater number of cattle. 
His march had covered 700 miles, and he had lost about 
75 men. He reported that his men had "shown a skill in 
gleaning a precarious existence from a country desolated 
by two years of oppressive tyranny and brutal war that 
would have won the admiration of the most approved 

In the spring of 1863, the following was the organization 
of the army of Western Virginia, Maj.-Gen. Samuel 
Jones commanding: 

First brigade, Brig. -Gen. John Echols: Twenty-second 
regiment, Col. George S. Patton ; Forty-fifth regiment, 
Col. William H. Browne; Twenty-third battalion, Lieut.- 


Col. Clarence Derrick ; Twenty-sixth battalion, Lieut. -Col. 
George M. Edgar; Chapman s battery. 

Second brigade, Brig. -Gen. John S. Williams: Sixty- 
third regiment, Col. J. J. McMahon; Forty-fifth battal 
ion, Lieut. -Col. H. M. Beckley; cavalry regiment, 

Col. James M. French ; Twenty-first cavalry, Col. William 
E. Peters; partisan rangers, Capt. D. B. Baldwin; Low- 
ry s battery. 

Third brigade, Col. G. C. Wharton : Fiftieth regiment, 
Col. A. S. Vandeventer; Fifty-first regiment, Lieut. - 
Col. A. Forsberg; Thirtieth battalion sharpshooters, 
Lieut. -Col. J. Lyle Clark; Stamps battery. 

Fourth brigade, Col. John McCausland: Thirty-sixth 
regiment, Maj. Thomas Smith; Sixtieth regiment, Col. 
B. H. Jones; Bryan s battery. 

Cavalry brigade, Brig. -Gen. A. G. Jenkins: Eighth 
regiment, Col. James M. Corns; Fourteenth regiment, 
Col. James Cochran; Sixteenth regiment, Col. Milton J. 
Ferguson; Seventeenth regiment, Col. William H. 
French; Nineteenth regiment, Col. William L. Jackson; 
Thirty-fourth battalion, Lieut. -Col. V. A. Witcher; 
Thirty-sixth battalion, Maj. James W. Sweeney; Thirty- 
seventh battalion, Lieut. -Col. A. C. Dunn. 

Unattached: Fifty-fourth regiment, Col. R. C. Trigg; 
partisans, Capt. P. J. Thurmond; partisans, Capt. Wil 
liam D. Thurmond; Otey s battery. 

Aggregate present and absent, 9,747. 

On March i8th General Jenkins started out from Jeffer- 
sonville with a part of his brigade on another brilliant 
raid across western Virginia, while McCausland made a 
demonstration against Fayetteville to distract the enemy, 
and Williams sent the Forty-fifth regiment to Raleigh. 
The major part of the Federal troops was now with 
drawn under Cox to the army of Rosecrans. On March 
27th, Jenkins reached Hurricane bridge, Putnam county, 
and summoned the garrison, mainly consisting of West 
Virginia Federals, to surrender. The demand being 
refused, a brisk fight ensued of several hours duration, 
ending in Jenkins withdrawal. On the 29th he reached 
Hall s landing just as the steamer Victress was passing, 
with a Federal paymaster on board. The pilot was sig- 


naled to touch for passengers, but just before it was too 
late he realized the situation and the boat escaped, rid 
dled with bullets from the ambushed Confederates. Jen 
kins reached Point Pleasant on the next day, and surpris 
ing the Federal West Virginia company, Capt. John D. 
Carter commanding, that constituted the garrison, drove 
it into the courthouse, which was besieged for several 
hours. The news being carried across the river, prep 
arations were there made to bombard the town, but this 
calamity was fortunately averted. Jenkins failed to dis 
lodge the garrison, and after several men had been killed 
and wounded on each side, crossed the Kanawha, and 
returned on the south side of the river. 

An expedition was sent in pursuit from Camp Piatt, by 
way of Chapmanville, and a sharp skirmish resulted April 
5th on Mud river. Minor operations of this period deserv 
ing notice were McNeill s brilliant skirmishes with supe 
rior forces at Burlington and Purgitsville and Going s 
Ford, in the vicinity of Moorefield ; the handsome repulse 
of a Federal assault by Col. G. M. Edgar at Lewisburg, 
May 2d; Colonel McCausland s demonstration against 
Fayetteville, May 2oth, and the rout of a Federal scout 
ing party on Loup creek late in June, by Maj. E. A. 
Bailey, who captured 29 prisoners and 45 horses. June 
28, 1863, Gen. Benjamin F. Kelley became the Federal 
commander of the West Virginia department. 

On June 29th, Col. William L. Jackson, Nineteenth 
Virginia cavalry, commanding the camp near Hunters- 
ville, made an expedition against Beverly, which was 
held by about 1,000 Federals, hoping to capture the gar 
rison. Advancing beyond Valley mountain, Maj. John 
B. Lady, with five companies commanded by Capts. D. 
Evans, W. W. Arnett, Joseph Hayhurst, Duncan and 
W. W. Boggs, was sent by way of Rich mountain to the 
rear of the enemy, while Lieut. A. C. Dunn occupied the 
Philippi road. The pickets, meanwhile, had been quietly 
captured by Captain Righter, and the main body of Jack- 


son s command was well upon the enemy before his pres 
ence was suspected. An advance of the Federals on the 
Buckhannon road was checked by Captains Marshall and 
Spriggs, and artillery fire was opened by Lieutenant 
Thrasher, of Chapman s battery. But no attack was 
made that day, and on the next morning the Federals 
being reinforced by Gen. W. W. Averell, now for the 
first time figuring in this region, Jackson withdrew, and 
was presently followed by the enemy for a short distance. 
On July 3d, Maj. D. Boston Stewart s battalion repulsed 
the enemy s cavalry in a gallant little affair at Daniel s 
farm. In the various reports the officers specially com 
mended were Majors Claiborne and Lady, Captains 
Spriggs, Marshall, Righter, Hutton, Evans, Arnett, and 
Lieutenants Thrasher, Gittings, Wamsley and William 
Harris, the latter falling mortally wounded in the charge 
of Stewart s battalion. 

Brig. -Gen. E. Parker Scammon was now in command 
at Charleston, and Col. John T. Toland was in charge of 
the brigade stationed at Camp Piatt. With seven com 
panies of the Second Virginia, U. S. V., the Thirty- 
fourth Ohio mounted, and two companies of First Vir 
ginia, U. S. V., cavalry, Toland marched against 
Wytheville, Va., July isth, through Boone, Wyoming 
and McDowell counties, with instructions to destroy the 
railroad. On the iyth the expedition surprised Camp 
Pendleton in Abb s valley, Tazewell county, capturing 
J. E. Stollings company and some stores, but allowing 
one man to escape, who carried the news to Williams. 
At the same time McCausland was pressed back from the 
vicinity of Raleigh by General Scammon, and retreated 
to Mercer Court House, when, learning that Toland had 
gone down through Tazewell, he sent his cavalry to fol 
low and moved his infantry to Bland Court House. As 
Toland approached Wytheville, Major May, from Wil 
liams command, attacked his rear, inflicting severe pun- 


ishment and recapturing Stollings company. Gen. Sam 
Jones had had time to throw two companies into Wythe- 
ville, under Maj. T. M. Bowyer. A gallant fight was 
made against the Federals as they entered the town by 
Lieutenant Bozang and his company, but he was wounded 
and captured with his men, and the remainder of the Con 
federate force was driven from the town. During the 
street fighting Colonel Toland was killed, and Colonel 
Powell, second in command, wounded. The best houses 
of the town were burned, Colonel Franklin, who suc 
ceeded to command, claiming that soldiers and citizens 
alike fired from the houses. The railroad was torn up 
slightly, and Franklin then retreated, harassed by the 
Confederate cavalry, by way of Abb s valley and Flat 
Top mountain. 

In May, General Jenkins brigade had been ordered into 
the Shenandoah valley, and in June many West Virgin 
ians accompanied him with Ewell s corps into Pennsyl 
vania, fighting at Bunker Hill and Martinsburg in the 
defeat of Milroy, and leading the advance to Chambers- 
burg, whence they proceeded almost to Harrisburg before 
the concentration was made at Gettysburg. There they 
fought gallantly, and on the retreat, under command of 
Colonel Ferguson, Jenkins having been wounded, were 
one of the two brigades under the immediate command 
of Stuart, moving by way of Emmitsburg. Fighting 
their way through the Catoctin mountains, they attacked 
the enemy at Hagerstown, and after defeating him, 
rapidly moved to the relief of the army train at Williams- 
port. In the fight near that place, according to Stuart s 
report, "Jenkins brigade was ordered to dismount and 
deploy over the difficult ground. This was done with 
marked effect and boldness, Lieutenant-Colonel Witcher, 
as usual, distinguishing himself by his courage and con 
duct. The enemy, thus dislodged, was closely pressed 
by the mounted cavalry, but made one effort at a counter 
charge, which was met and gallantly repulsed by Col. 

w va 11 


James B. Gordon. This repulse was soon afterward con 
verted into a rout by Colonel Lomax s regiment, the 
Eleventh Virginia cavalry, which now took the road with 
drawn sabers, and charged down the turnpike under a 
fearful fire of artillery. Without this attack it is certain 
that our trains would have fallen into the hands of the 
enemy." In the fight of the loth, "Lieutenant-Colonel 
Witcher s cavalry, on foot, behind a stone fence on the 
Boonsboro road, performed a very gallant part in the 
repulse of the enemy, standing their ground with un 
flinching tenacity. 

On July 2ist, General Imboden was assigned to com 
mand of the Shenandoah Valley district. Gen. Sam 
Jones was in chief command of the department of West 
ern Virginia and East Tennessee, with headquarters at 
.Dublin, with an army of about 10,000 at the various 
posts. Echols brigade, under Col. George S. Patton, 
occupied Lewisburg, and Col. William L. Jackson was in 
command on the Huntersville line with his regiment, the 
Nineteenth cavalry, under Lieut. -Col. W. P. Thompson, 
and the Twentieth cavalry, under Col. W. W. Arnett. 
On August 2ist, Jackson received information from Col 
onel Arnett that Averell, with a large force, was in Mon 
terey. Averell had crossed to that point from Huttons- 
ville under orders to drive Patton and Jackson from 
Pocahontas and Greenbrier counties, destroy the saltpeter 
works in Pendleton county, and carry the law library of 
the Virginia court of appeals to Beverly. Before reach 
ing Beverly a detachment against Moorefield had been 
severely handled by the partisans there. Colonel Jack 
son, believing Averell s objective was Staunton, called 
for aid from Patton, but was soon convinced of the real pur 
pose of Averell. Arnett fell back skirmishing, and Jack 
son moved to Gatewood. Averell occupied Huntersville 
and Camp Northwest, burning the stores, while Jackson, 
whom Arnett had joined, skillfully extricated himself 
from a dangerous position and retreated beyond Warm 


Springs, Bath county, when it appearing that the Fed 
erals were withdrawing in turn, he followed toward Camp 

Averell, meanwhile, had made a rapid movement 
against Lewisburg, and encountered Patton in line of bat 
tle at White Sulphur Springs. The battle was opened on 
August 26th with an artillery duel, in which Chapman s 
battery did excellent service, followed by repeated 
assaults by the enemy, which were repulsed. Col. A. R. 
Barbee, of the Twenty-second, commanding skirmishers, 
fell wounded while displaying notable gallantry; the 
Forty-fifth held its ground with great steadiness; the 
Twenty-third, under Major Blessing, reinforced the 
Twenty-second under a galling fire; Major Bailey 
handsomely repulsed a charge upon the center; Colonel 
Edgar, Twenty-sixth, whose men had done the first skir 
mishing, repulsed two cavalry charges, and Colonel 
Browne and Major Claiborne held the right without wav 
ering. The last attack was made at sunset against Edgar, 
but was again repulsed. The fight was renewed next 
day, but the enemy had lost spirit under severe punish 
ment, and retreated, Colonel Corns, with the cavalry, 
leading in pursuit. A junction was made with Jackson, 
and Colonel Arnett skirmished with the retreating col 
umns, but his force was inadequate. 

In this raid, Averell had about 3,000 men, but claimed 
that he fought the battle of the 26th with but 1,300. 
Jackson had 1,000 and Patton 1,900. Jackson s loss was 
about 20 killed and wounded, Patton s, including miss 
ing, 162, Averell s 218. The battle of White Sulphur 
Springs deserves to be remembered as one of the most 
gallantly fought in the department of Western Virginia. 

The Confederates continued to occupy their positions, 
and detachments were stationed in the Elk river country 
and up toward Weston, where several minor skirmishes 
occurred. In the northeast during September there 
were several Federal parties sent out from Martinsburg. 


On the 4th there was a severe skirmish at Petersburg 
Gap, and on the i5th one at Smithfield. On the night of 
September 6th, 26 men under Captains Burke and Black- 
ford attacked the camp of two companies of Pennsylvania 
six months men at Bath, killed Captain Hebble and a 
number of his men, and brought away 23 prisoners and 
50 horses. On the nth, Captains Imboden, McNeill and 
Hobson, with about 150 men, attacked 300 Federals under 
Major Stephens at Moorefield, at dawn charging into 
their camp with a yell, effectually surprising the enemy. 
Thirty Federals were killed or seriously wounded, 8 
officers and 138 privates captured, and all the ammunition 
and supplies taken in charge. Two attacks were made 
upon the little band on their retreat, but they escaped 
with the loss of only 8 or 10 men and some of the cap 
tured horses. 

Reconnoissances and skirmishes continued all along the 
line. On the 24th there was an encounter at Greenbrier 
bridge with Averell s command. Bailey, Morrow and 
Gilmor made a demonstration against Charlestown, Octo 
ber yth, and encountered a detachment under Captain 
Summers, who was killed. The West Virginia, U. S. V. , 
garrison at Bulltown was attacked by Colonel Jackson 
October i3th, but after a fight which continued through 
the day, the Federal troops held their fortifications. Be 
ing reinforced the next day they pursued Jackson, but 
were checked at Salt Lick bridge. 

The continual fighting about Charlestown had weak 
ened the Federal force there, but it was thought by the 
Federal authorities that the Ninth Maryland regiment, 
under Colonel Simpson, was sufficient. He made a 
reconnoissance, and found no force in his front except 
the Forty-first Virginia battalion under Maj. Robert 
White, at Berry ville, "not the old White (E. V.), but 
another man," the Federals reported, "whose men say 
they have been in the valley but two or three weeks. " 
But Imboden joined White, and on Sunday morning, 






October i8th, they surprised the Charlestown garrison, 
surrounding the enemy in the courthouse, jail and other 
buildings they had fortified in the heart of the town. 
Simpson was called on to surrender and given five min 
utes for deliberation, upon which he said, "Take us if you 
can." An artillery fire was opened at a distance of 200 
yards, and the garrison speedily left the buildings and 
formed for retreat to Harper s Ferry, when they were 
met by a detachment at the edge of town, and after one 
volley threw down their arms, the mounted officers escap 
ing. Two hours later the Harper s Ferry forces arrived 
on the scene and the Confederates fell back slowly toward 
Berry ville, fighting all the day till 10 o clock at night. 
They carried safely to Shenandoah county 434 prisoners; 
their loss was about 6 killed or mortally wounded, 
20 wounded and a few stragglers. 

Colonel Beckley was about this time organizing cavalry 
near Logan Court House on the Guyandotte, and a recon- 
noissance was sent in his direction under Gen. A. N. 
Duffie, without results. 

Early in November, simultaneous with an advance of 
Federal cavalry in east Tennessee, General Averell set 
out from Beverly and General Duffie from Charlestown, 
against Echols and Jackson, General Scammon s infantry 
brigade to join them at Lewisburg, the united cavalry 
command then to proceed to Dublin Station and destroy 
the New River bridge. The first intimation of this for 
midable movement was received by Jackson, who concen 
trated at Mill Point and informed Echols, who prepared 
to move to his relief from Lewisburg. Jackson made a 
stand at Mill Point, Lurty s battery engaging the enemy, 
but was soon compelled to fall back to Droop mountain, 
about half way between Lewisburg and Huntersville,on 
the west side of the Greenbrier river, where he took a 
strong position. 

Colonel Thompson had gallantly disputed the enemy s 
advance step by step, and, aided by Lurty s shells, reached 


the Droop mountain position in safety, giving Jackson 
about 750 men. Jackson was also reinforced that night 
and on the morning of the 6th by the Fourteenth Vir 
ginia cavalry, the Twenty-second regiment, Derrick s 
battalion, and Jackson s and Chapman s batteries, which 
were under the brigade command of Colonel Patton, 
while General Echols took general command. About 1 1 
a. m. on November 6th the enemy advanced to attack, 
opening with artillery on the right and threatening the 
center, but making the serious attack on the left, where 
Colonel Thompson soon called for help. The Fourteenth 
cavalry and Derrick s battalion were sent there, then 
several companies of the Twenty-second, and finally Col 
onel Patton moved to that point, but was unable to with 
stand the pressure. Arnett and Cochrane at the center 
meanwhile gallantly repulsed several charges, but when 
it became apparent that the left was turned, the whole 
force fell back under a severe shelling and enfilading fire 
of musketry. Major McLaughlin, and Captains Chap 
man, Jackson and Lurty, with their artillery, gallantly 
held the enemy in check. 

The retreat to Lewisburg was rapid, as information 
was at hand that Duffie was already at Little Sewell 
mountain in the rear. The Sixteenth cavalry, Col. M. J. 
Ferguson, from Jenkins brigade, also participated in the 
engagement. General Echols reported that he had but 
1,700 men in the fight. The total strength of Averell s 
brigade was about 5,000, and his force in battle must 
have considerably outnumbered that of Echols. The 
Confederate loss in killed, wounded and missing was 275. 
Among the killed was the gallant Maj. R. A. Bailey of 
the Twenty-second. That regiment went into battle with 
550 men and lost 113 ; the Twenty-third lost 61 out of 350. 
The total Federal loss was reported at 119. 

Echols won the race to Lewisburg, passing through 
there seven hours before Duffie arrived and much longer 
before Averell came up. He had successfully avoided 


the capture of his command that had been planned. Gen 
eral Imboden, at Bridgewater, hearing of Averell s 
advance, moved toward Huntersville, when he was 
informed of the battle and retired to Covington, where 
he checked a detachment which Averell sent out against 
the furnaces in Rockbridge county. Averell then re 
turned to his post on New creek, the great object of his 
raid, the destruction of a part of the Virginia & Tennes 
see railroad, having been defeated by the gallant stand 
made by Echols, Jackson and Patton at Droop mount 
ain. The battle, though a technical defeat, was a tacti 
cal victory. 

On November iyth a Federal cavalry expedition left 
Charlestown with 700 men under Col. W. H.Boyd, encoun 
tered Confederate skirmishers at Edenburg, who contested 
their advance, and at Mount Jackson, in the Shenandoah 
valley, had a sharp fight with Maj. Robert White com 
manding his battalion, a portion of Gilmor s battalion, 
Captain Davis company, and a section of McClanahan s 
battery. Major White then took position on Rude s hill 
and the enemy was handsomely repulsed, after which 
Davis pursued the Federals and compelled them to break 
camp near Woodstock. On the same day, the i6th, Cap 
tain McNeill, with his own indomitable company and a 
detachment from the Sixty-second regiment, in all 100 
men, attacked a train of eighty wagons near Burlington, 
en route to Averell, whipped the escort of 100 infantry, and 
brought away 25 prisoners and 245 horses, though hotly 
pursued by 600 cavalry. This caused a Federal court- 

Early in December another movement against the 
Virginia & Tennessee railroad was ordered by Halleck, 
the Federal commander-in-chief, Sullivan (9,500 strong) 
to advance up the Shenandoah valley to threaten Staun- 
ton; Averell s brigade (5,000) to move by Monterey, to 
destroy the railroad in Botetourt or Roanoke county; 
while Scammon s division was to make a feint toward 


New River bridge. Colonel Moor, also, with two regi 
ments, was to move from Beverly to Droop mountain. 
General Averell reached Petersburg December loth. 

General Echols, at Lewisburg, suspecting a Federal 
advance from Charlestown, sent Capt. Philip J. Thur 
mond on a reconnoissance, and he dispersed some Federal 
pickets on Big Sewell mountain and forwarded the start 
ling intelligence to Echols of the proximity of a large 
body of the enemy. Thurmond skirmished with their 
advance as far as Lewisburg, where Echols made a stand 
before the town until all public property was removed, 
when he moved across the river, driving back the enemy s 
advance with McLaughlin s artillery. Being advised 
then of Moor s approach from the north, he fell back into 
Monroe county, where he was joined by McCausland s 
force, Gen. Sam Jones also arriving and taking com 
mand on the 1 4th. Averell meanwhile, making feints to 
confuse Jackson and Imboden, made his way safely to 
Salem on the i6th, and destroyed the stores at that point, 
destroyed four bridges and injured the track to some 
extent, but was compelled to make a hasty retreat in the 
afternoon of the same day. He found his way beset with 
difficulty, as General Early had reached New Market to 
direct the movement for his capture, and Gen. Fitzhugh 
Lee with two brigades had been ordered into the field. 
Echols was placed near Sweet Springs, and Jackson, 
ordered in every direction in the confusion, finally 
brought up at Clifton Forge near Covington. 

Averell attempted to re-enter western Virginia by the 
Sweet Springs road, but meeting Echols, turned off on 
an obscure road to Covington, reaching there just as a 
detachment from Jackson was firing the Rich Patch 
bridge. He succeeded in getting part of his men across 
when Jackson cut his command in two, Colonel Arnett 
attacking, while Major Lady, with 50 men, three times 
during the night repulsed Averell s attempts to get the 
remainder of his cavalry across the bridge. At daylight 


Averell burned the bridge, apparently leaving the rear 
of his command to their fate ; but the latter were stronger 
than Jackson, and, driving him back, they burned their 
wagon train, and on the morning of the 2oth escaped 
across a ford which had been declared impassable, losing 
several men by drowning, and closely pressed by Colonel 
Arnett. Jackson captured about 150 prisoners and 
inflicted a considerable loss in killed and wounded. 
Fitzhugh Lee and Imboden crossed in pursuit the next 
day, but failed to come up with the raiders. 

W Va 12 



ON the last day of 1863 Maj.-Gen. Fitzhugh Lee 
started from Mount Jackson, in a snow and rain 
storm, and marched to Moorefield across North 
mountain, where he was obliged to abandon his artillery 
and wagon train. He reconnoitered the Federal garrison 
at Petersburg and then moved toward New Creek depot, 
capturing a wagon train, burned the block houses at Bur 
lington, Williamsport, and McLemar s church, and then 
proceeded toward the Baltimore & Ohio railroad intend 
ing to cut it, but was compelled by the sufferings of his 
men and the impassability of the mountains to turn back 
on January 5, 1864, bringing into the Shenandoah valley 
about 600 cattle, 300 horses and mules, and no prisoners. 
Major Gilmor meanwhile drove the enemy out of Spring 
field, burned their winter quarters and brought off sup 
plies, the main item of which was 3,000 pounds of bacon. 
All these captures except the prisoners were very wel 
come in the Confederate army. 

Another raid was made January 28th from the Shenan 
doah valley, under the command of General Early, with 
Rosser s brigade, Thomas brigade, Gilmor s and 
McNeill s rangers, and part of McClanahan s battery. 
Reaching Moorefield, Rosser was sent to intercept a train 
of ninety-five wagons en route from New Creek to Peters- 



burg, where the Federals were strongly fortified. Near 
Moorefield junction he encountered the Twenty-third 
Illinois regiment obstructing the road. This command, 
driven back, joined the detachments of the Second Mary 
land and Fourth West Virginia, and the united force 
attempted to defend the wagons against Rosser, but gave 
way on the second charge and yielded the rich train to 
the yearning Confederates. In the fight Maj. Nathan 
Goff, U. S. V., was wounded and captured. The whole 
command then occupied Petersburg, the garrison fleeing, 
and gathered some commissary stores and 13,000 car 
tridges, after which Gilmor and McNeill were sent out 
after cattle, while Rosser destroyed the railroad and other 
bridges at the mouth of Patterson s creek. The enemy 
then appearing in force, Early withdrew, bringing out 50 
wagons and teams, 1,200 cattle, 500 sheep and 78 prison 
ers, again cheering the hearts of the soldiers in the Shen- 
andoah valley. 

In January, 1864, Colonel Ferguson, Sixteenth Virginia 
cavalry, came into Wayne county, with a large part of 
his regiment and the Eighth cavalry, and during the 
remainder of the year the region between the Guyandotte 
and Big Sandy was practically controlled by the Confed 
erate soldiers. Under this protection, the Big Sandy 
river became a channel of trade with Northern mer 
chants. Judge H. L. Samuels, who had been prevented 
from holding court in Wayne under the West Virginia 
State government, reported that "a vast quantity of use 
ful and indispensable articles find their way to Dixie 
through the medium of these guerrillas. The stolen 
horses are laden with this contraband trade. Sympa 
thizers land large lots of barrels and boxes from steam 
boats. I myself have seen seven rebels taken with their 
arms whose shoes were not worn enough to erase the 
trademarks of neighboring Ohio merchants. During 
this period there were no captures of Northern steam 
boats on the Big Sandy. 


During February occurred two daring exploits at oppo 
site extremities of the State. The first was the capture 
of the United States steamer B. C. Levi, at Red House 
shoals, on the Kanawha, on the night of February 2d, by 
Maj. J. H. Nounnan, with less than 30 men. The Confeder 
ates quietly boarded the boat while lashed to the bank, 
and captured Gen. E. P. Scammon, commander of the 
Federal division at Charleston, his staff and 13 soldiers. 
The steamer was run four miles down the river next 
morning and burned, and the general and his staff were 
mounted and carried to Richmond. 

The other adventure was by Maj. H. W. Gilmor, who 
threw a Baltimore & Ohio train off the track near Duffield 
depot, and secured about $900 from the mailbags. The 
collections made by his soldiers from passengers led Gen 
eral Lee to order an investigation. 

On February 25th Maj. -Gen. John C. Breckinridge 
was assigned to command of the Trans- Alleghany or 
western department of Virginia. The organization of 
the army of Western Virginia* in April was as follows : 

Echols infantry brigade, Brig. -Gen. John Echols: 
Twenty-second, Col. George S. Patton; Twenty-third, 
Lieut. -Col. Clarence Derrick; Twenty-sixth battalion, 
Lieut. -Col. George M. Edgar; partisan rangers, Capt. 
Philip J. Thurmond; partisan rangers, Capt. William D. 
Thurmond ; partisan rangers, Capt. John Amick ; battery, 
Capt. George B. Chapman. 

Jenkins cavalry brigade, Brig. -Gen. Albert G. Jenkins: 
Fourteenth regiment, Col. Charles Cochrane; Sixteenth 
regiment, Maj. James H. Nounnan; Seventeenth, Col. 
William H. French ; Twenty-second regiment, Col. Henry 
S. Bowen. 

Saltville garrison, Col. William H. Browne: Forty-fifth 
infantry regiment, Lieut. -Col. Edwin H. Harman; Ten- 

* The infantry brigades of the army of Western Virginia consti 
tuted G. C. Wharton s division of Early s army of the Valley during 
the fall and winter of 1864-65, and suffered severely in the disaster 
of Waynesboro, March 2, 1865, which practically ended the career 
of the various commands, though a remnant of the division main 
tained its organization after the surrender at Appomattox. 


nessee battery, Capt. William H. Burroughs; Tennessee 
battery, Capt. H. L. W. McClung. 

McCatisland s infantry brigade, Col. John McCausland: 
Thirty-sixth regiment, Lieut. -Col. Thomas Smith; Six 
tieth regiment, Col. Beuhring H. Jones; Forty-fifth bat 
talion, Lieut. -Col. Henry M. Beckley; battery, Capt. 
Thomas. A Bryan. 

Jackson s cavalry brigade, Col. William L. Jackson: 
Nineteenth regiment, Capt. George Downs; Twentieth 
regiment, Col. William W. Arnett ; Forty-sixth battalion, 
Lieut. -Col. Joseph K. Kesler; Forty-seventh battalion, 
Maj. William N. Harman; battery, Capt. Warren S. 

Unattached: Bosang s Company C, Fourth infantry, 
Lieut. James F. Cecil; Hart s engineer company, Capt. 
William T. Hart; Botetourt artillery, Capt. Henry C. 
Douthat; Jackson s horse artillery, Capt. Thomas E. Jack 

In eastern Tennessee were the Forty-fifth and Fifty- 
first Virginia infantry, and Thirtieth Virginia sharpshoot 
ers, of Wharton s brigade; W. E. Jones cavalry brigade 
Eighth regiment, Lieut. -Col. A. F. Cook ; Twenty-first 
regiment, Capt. W. H. Balthis; Twenty-seventh battal 
ion, Capt. John B. Thompson ; Thirty-fourth battalion, 
Lieut. -Col. V. A. Witcher; Thirty-sixth battalion, Capt. 
C. T. Smith; Thirty-seventh battalion, Maj. James R. 
Claiborne and Floyd King s artillery battalion, the 
Davidson, Lowry, Otey and Ringgold batteries. 

February loth Maj. -Gen. Franz Sigel was assigned to 
command of the Union department, and he was succeeded 
May 2ist by Maj. -Gen. David Hunter. The organization 
of his army in May was as follows : 

Brig. -Gen. J. C. Sullivan s division, 6,500 men, head 
quarters at Harper s Ferry: First brigade, five regi 
ments, Col. Augustus Moore ; Second brigade, Col. Joseph 
Thoburn, five regiments, including Weddle s and Curtis 
West Virginian. 

Brig. -Gen. George Crook s division, 9,800 men: First 
brigade, Col. Rutherford B. Hayes, four regiments, in 
cluding Tomlinson s and Brown s West Virginian; 
Second brigade, Col. Carr B. White, four regiments, 


including Duval s and Johnson s West Virginian ; Third 
brigade, Col. H. G. Sickel, four regiments including 
Frost s and Morris West Virginian. 

First cavalry division, Maj.-Gen. Julius Stahel, 7,600 
men: brigades of Tibbits and Wynkoop. Second cav 
alry division, Brig. -Gen. W. W. Averell, 5,000 men: bri 
gades of Duffie", Schoonmaker and Oley. 

These active forces numbered 20,000 present for duty. 
Besides there was the reserve division, over 16,000 men 
present, under command of Brig. -Gen. Max Weber from 
Monocacy to Sleepy creek, and under Brigadier-General 
Kelley west of Sleepy creek. 

The destruction of the saltpeter works of the Confeder 
ate army was a constant aim of the Federal troops, and 
an expedition for this purpose started out from Burling 
ton late in February and destroyed the works at Franklin. 
The detachment guarding the supply train at Petersburg 
was severely handled on March 3d by a Confederate de 
tachment from Moorefield. On the loth a detachment of 
Mosby s men attacked the pickets at Charlestown, and in 
the skirmishing which followed Major Sullivan, command 
ing picket, and several others were killed, and 21 prison 
ers were taken by the partisans. A considerable number 
of the Eighth and Sixteenth cavalry regiments were at 
home on furlough in Wayne and Cabell counties at this 
time, and previously a body of the Sixteenth had had 
a brisk fight with Colonel Gallup, of Ohio, in Wayne 
county. A Federal reconnoissance through the counties 
in March failed to find any of the Confederates. 

Capt. John H. McNeill made an important expedition 
from Moorefield, May 5th, against the Baltimore & Ohio 
railroad at Bloomington and Piedmont. Though taking 
but 60 men he was entirely successful, captured the garri 
son at Piedmont, destroyed seven large buildings filled 
with machinery, engines and cars, burned nine railroad 
engines, seventy-five or eighty freight cars, two trains 
laden with commissary stores, sent six engines with full 
head of steam toward New Creek, captured a mail train, 


releasing prisoners, and burned the railroad bridge. 
Such exploits retained in this region large bodies of 
Federal troops sorely needed by Grant in the Wilderness. 

Early in May important operations began, which in 
volved the West Virginia soldiers, but which were con 
ducted mainly in the Shenandoah valley and southwest 
Virginia. Gen. U. S. Grant, ordering a forward move 
ment in all parts of the South simultaneous with his 
crossing of the Rapidan, directed Sigel to move two divi 
sions of his army down the Shenandoah valley to Cedar 
creek, while Averell should make a dash into southwest 
Virginia, destroy New river bridge, work eastward to 
Lynchburg if possible, and in that case return to Staunton, 
where Sigel would meet him with supplies. The forces 
under Breckinridge by two brilliant battles, one won and 
the other lost, defeated the full carrying out of this plan. 

Crook set out with his division in the last of April, 
marching 6,155 men by way of Fayetteville to Prince 
ton, while Colonel Tomlinson s regiment, with Blazer s 
scouts, was sent by Lewisburg. At the same time 
Averell with 2,000 men was sent by way of Logan Court 
House to Saltville, Va., thence to strike Dublin Depot. 
On May 6th, Princeton was occupied with skirmishing. 
On the yth, having entered Giles county, a Confederate 
force was found posted at the gap of Walker mountain 
but forced to withdraw. On the following day in a skir 
mish on Back creek before Dublin, Captain Harman, the 
famous partisan, was killed. 

General Jenkins, who had only 200 men with him, took 
a position on Cloyd s farm, at the base of Cloyd s mount 
ain, commanding the road to Dublin, and about 5 
miles from that place, where he was joined by McCaus- 
land s brigade, fortunately just arrived at Dublin en route 
to Staunton, and by Browne s Forty-fifth regiment from 
Saltville, Dickinson s battery and the Botetourt artillery. 
The battle began early on the 9th with a Federal attack 
on the right, while a fierce artillery duel was opened at 


the center. The attack upon Browne, on the right, was 
repelled at the cost of weakening other parts of the lines, 
and a gallant charge repelled the Federals from that part 
of the field; but meanwhile the center was fiercely as 
sailed, General Jenkins falling mortally wounded there, 
and the left was turned. The whole line then gave way, 
but was rallied by McCausland, who succeeded Jenkins 
in command, and the fight was renewed. Still another 
line was formed, and finally the fourth line repelled the 
enemy s charge, after which the Confederates moved 
through Dublin, the rear guard constantly fighting, and 
across New river bridge. McCausland subsequently fell 
back to the vicinity of Salem. 

Colonel Browne, of the Forty-fifth, reported that his 
gallant lieutenant-colonel, E. H. Harman, fell mortally 
wounded while placing in line reinforcements from the 
Sixtieth. The Forty-fifth battalion, Lieutenant-Colonel 
Beckley, coming to his aid, made a brilliant charge upon 
the enemy s position on the ridge from which Browne had 
been flanked, but were overpowered and driven back. 
Among the killed of Browne s regiment were Capt. R. R. 
Crockett and Lieuts. J. R. Brown, C. N. Porter and 
H. H. Lockett; of the Sixtieth, Lieut. -Col. G. W. Ham 
mond, Maj. J. N. Taylor and Capt. M. McCHntic. Mor 
gan s dismounted Kentucky cavalry, under Col. D. H. 
Smith, reached the field toward the close of the fight, 
and in a gallant charge Capt. C. S. Cleburne, a brother 
of Maj. -Gen. P. S. Cleburne, was mortally wounded. 

The Federal loss at Cloyd s mountain was 108 killed, 508 
wounded and 72 captured or missing; the Confederate 
loss, 76 killed, 262 wounded and 200 captured or miss 
ing. The casualties were mainly in the Forty-fifth, Six 
tieth and Thirty-sixth infantry regiments, Morgan s 
dismounted men, and the Forty-fifth battalion. 

Jackson, who had been ordered to the Narrows of New 
river, and joined by Colonel French, commanding Jen- 
kins brigade, was called back to meet Crook on his return. 

&^ 1j%$p s 

***&- ^vVW^VT ^r^Sub 


They were pushed back from Newport, and Crook, fol 
lowed by McCausland, started across Salt Pond mountain 
toward Union, skirmishing at Gap mountain with Jack 
son and reaching Meadow Bluff on the ipth. 

Averell, \vith the other Federal column, had captured 
some of the Eighth Virginia in Tazewell county, but 
found Saltville strongly held by Gens. John H. Morgan 
and W. E. Jones, and avoiding that point, his real desti 
nation, marched to Wytheville, fought a battle on the 
loth with Morgan and Jones, and then by a narrow mar 
gin won a race to Dublin, and crossed the river in safety, 
the Confederates being prevented from following by the 
swollen waters and the destruction of the railroad and 
bridges. He then joined General Crook at Union. Thus, 
with some assistance, the Confederate army of Western 
Virginia had defeated the main purposes of this formid 
able raid, saved Lynchburg from attack, and prevented 
the contemplated junction of Crook and Sigel. 

Further down the great valley in the same month of 
May, the West Virginians in other commands participated 
in a still more decided check given the other column of 
invading Federals. Brigadier-General Imboden, in com 
mand of the Valley district since July, 1863, broke camp 
May 2d, at Mount Crawford, and moved to Woodstock to 
observe Sigel, who was coming up the valley with Sulli 
van s and Stahel s divisions and five batteries. Imbo- 
den s whole force then was a little less than 1,500 men, 
included in the Sixty-second infantry, mounted, Col. 
George H. Smith; Twenty-third cavalry, Col. Robert 
White; Eighteenth cavalry, Col. George W. Imboden; 
Gilmor s Maryland battalion; Davis Maryland battalion, 
McNeill s rangers, and McClanahan s battery. As soon 
as he had discovered the strength of the approaching 
enemy he fell back to Mount Jackson. By skillful ma 
neuvers he dealt severe blows to Sigel s reconnoissances 
and held him back, while reinforcements came up from 

w vais 


On the 1 4th, Sigel s advance finally reached Rude s 
hill, near New Market, pressing back Colonel Imboden. 
Colonel Smith, in command of Imboden s force during 
that general s absence to meet Breckinridge, formed his 
little brigade and held the town until night, artillery 
firing continuing during the day. In the morning Breck 
inridge arrived with Echols brigade, Wharton s brigade 
(Forty-fifth and Fifty-first regiments and Thirtieth bat 
talion) , and the Virginia military institute cadets under 
Colonel Shipp. The fight was opened by McLaughlin s 
artillery, and presently the Confederate line advanced, 
while Imboden s cavalry and McClanahan s battery occu 
pied a hill commanding the enemy s left. The fire from 
this position scattered Stahel s cavalry, and Sigel fell 
back half a mile, pressed by the Confederate infantry. 
Men were falling rapidly now under a destructive artillery 
and infantry fire, and the Sixty-second regiment and the 
cadet corps made their famous charge upon a battery at 
the Federal center, capturing it and the gunners, but 
suffering terribly in the movement. McLaughlin de 
feated a cavalry charge and Sigel was soon in retreat. 
Breckinridge occupied Rude s hill that night. In this 
battle the Federals lost 831 out of about 6,000, the Con 
federates 577 out of about 5,000. 

Immediately afterward Wharton s and Echols bri 
gades were called to Lee s army on the Cold Harbor line. 

In the latter part of May, a Federal reconnoissance was 
made through Pocahontas, Webster and Braxton coun 
ties, gathering in a considerable number of partisan ran 
gers, and horses and cattle. 

Sigel was soon replaced by Gen. David Hunter, who 
advanced to Mount Jackson simultaneously with another 
incursion by Crook, who left Meadow Bluff on the last of 
May to attack Staunton. Thus was begun the Lynch- 
burg campaign, in which many West Virginians served 
with great credit. Imboden s men stubbornly contested 
Hunter s advance, and were reinforced by W. E. Jones, 


who took command. The little army was badly defeated 
at Piedmont by Hunter, and Jones killed. McCausland 
and Jackson gallantly opposed the advance of Crook and 
Averell, delaying their junction with Hunter, and mean 
while Lynchburg was reinforced by Early. On the day 
that Early s advance arrived, Imboden, McCausland and 
Jackson went out to meet Hunter s combined army to 
hold it back long enough to insure the safety of the 
city, attacking the enemy gallantly at New London, and 
on Friday, June iyth, 4 miles from Lynchburg, made a 
brilliant fight, losing 100 killed and wounded, after which 
they fell back unmolested to the fortifications of the city. 

After a battle before Lynchburg, Hunter retreated to 
Salem. His rear guard, under Averell, was defeated at 
Liberty, and near Salem two of his batteries were capt 
ured by the Confederate cavalry. Harassed and headed off 
by Early, Hunter turned toward Lewisburg, and reached 
Gauley bridge June 2yth, moving thence to Charleston and 
Parkersburg, whence his army was sent back by rail to the 
lower Shenandoah valley. This retreat across the State 
was the last great military movement in West Virginia. 

The campaign of Early s army through Maryland 
against Washington and the railroad communications 
of Baltimore was shared by the brigades of Echols, 
Wharton, McCausland, Imboden and Jackson, and the 
batteries formerly associated with the army of Western 
Virginia. These commands also participated in the cam 
paign against Sheridan in the Shenandoah valley. 

When General Early was advancing down the valley of 
Virginia on his march toward Washington, the Twenty- 
third Virginia cavalry, under Col. Robert White, with one 
piece of artillery, was detached from the main command 
and sent a distance of some 50 miles northwest to capture 
and destroy the bridge of the Baltimore & Ohio rail 
road at the junction of the North and South branches 
of the Potomac. Upon reaching the hill overlooking the 
bridge a little after midday, July 4th, it was found that 


on the western side of the South Branch and near the 
western end of the bridge there was a blockhouse, occu 
pied by Federal soldiers, as well as an engine with an 
ironclad magazine attached standing there, also occupied 
by soldiers. When the location of this blockhouse and 
magazine was discovered, a shell was fired from the artil 
lery at the magazine. The aim was accurate ; the shell 
entered the magazine and burst inside of it, exploding 
the ammunition contained, destroying the magazine, and, 
as was afterward ascertained, injuring some forty of the 
Federal soldiers. The bridge was then cut, and White 
retired to rejoin Early s command near Martinsburg. 

On June 22d, Gen. John H. Morgan, of Kentucky, was 
assigned to command the department of Western Virgin 
ia and East Tennessee, and soon afterward General 
Crook was given chief command of the Federal forces. 
Morgan s operations were all outside the State, and the 
only Virginia organizations in his army were Col. Robert 
Smith s battalion, Witcher s battalion and the Sixty- 
fourth cavalry. 

Upon the death of Morgan, Breckinridge resumed 
command of the department, and under him in Novem 
ber, Colonel Witcher had a brigade consisting of his bat 
talion, W. H. Payne s company and the two Thurmond 
battalions. The other western Virginia troops were mainly 
with Early in the Shenandoah valley. Maj.-Gen. John 
Echols was in command at Dublin, and participated in 
the defeat of the Federal raid into southwest Virginia 
in October. 

On August 4th, the brigades of Gen. Bradley Johnson 
(W. E. Jones old brigade) and McCausland, returning 
from Chambersburg, Pa. , attacked New Creek, and after 
a severe fight were repulsed with considerable loss. The 
Confederate command then proceeded to Moorefield, near 
where they were attacked in camp about daylight, August 
7th, by Averell s cavalry, surprised and routed, losing 27 
officers and 393 enlisted men as prisoners and 400 horses. 


On August 26th the Federals at Huttonsville, 70 strong, 
were captured by partisans. 

In the latter part of September, a brilliant raid was 
made by Lieut. -Col. V. A. Witcher from Tazewell county 
through West Virginia. On the 25th he captured and 
burned the fortified camp at Bulltown, surprised Weston 
on the evening of the next day, capturing a large amount 
of stores and seizing over $5,000 from the Exchange bank ; 
destroyed stores at Janelew; at Buckhannon on the 28th 
captured the garrison, including Maj. T. F. Lang, and 
burned a very large quantity of quartermaster, commis 
sary and medical stores, and about 1,000 stand of small- 
arms. Returning to Greenbrier county he brought out 
400 horses and 200 cattle. His battalions were under 
the command of Captains McFarlane, P. J. and W. D. 

About the same time Maj. J. H. Nounnan was sent 
from Tazewell to the mouth of the Coal, but being una 
ble to cross the river, he retired after securing a consid 
erable amount of supplies from a store-boat. Near Win- 
field his men and a body of Federals collided in full speed, 
and the Confederates, with Nounnan, were worsted in the 
melee. But his expedition served a good purpose in 
drawing attention from Witcher. 

In the latter part of the same month, Witcher moved 
into the Mud river region, and rode through Teay s val 
ley against a garrison at Winfield, a company of the Sev 
enth West Virginia. He sent his men into the town in 
two detachments, Capt. Philip J. Thurmond leading 
one. In the desperate fight in the streets which followed, 
Thurmond was mortally wounded at the head of his 

With continued audacity Witcher turned his attention 
to the Big Sandy river early in November, on the 
5th captured and burned the United States armed steam 
ers Barnum and Fawn at Buffalo shoals, and on the same 
day captured and destroyed the military stores at Mellons- 


burg and drove the enemy s cavalry under his guns at 
Louisa. At Logan Court House, a few days later, this 
indomitable officer reported that he had collected six 
companies of recruits, and had four or five other com 
panies forming. He had increased his own battalion to 
a regiment, and had collected one for Col. Thomas B. 

One of the most notable affairs in other portions of the 
State in this period was the "greenback raid" under 
Mosby. Hearing that a train had left Washington with 
42 paymasters on board carrying funds for Sheridan s 
army, he determined to share in the emoluments due to 
active and faithful soldiers. With about 70 picked men, 
and Dr. James G. Wiltshire, of Jefferson county, as a 
guide, he made a night ride and prepared to stop the train 
at the same place that Gilmor s men had selected in Feb 
ruary. One side of the track was raised in such a 
manner that the locomotive was overthrown, as the train 
arrived, and Mosby s men went through the cars, captur 
ing Generals Ruggles and Moore, and $168,000 in green 
backs. The train was then burned, and the daring raid 
ers made a successful escape. On reaching Bloomfield, 
Loudoun county, the money was equally divided, without 
respect to rank, and the paymasters were forwarded to 
Richmond. On October 2 pth an unfortunate attack was 
made upon a Federal detachment at Beverly, by Maj. 
Houston Hall. The latter was wounded and captured 
and his command lost 140 men in the two hours battle. 
The opposite result followed an attack upon Green Spring 
by McNeill s rangers November ist, the garrison being 
almost entirely captured, and the horses and arms carried 

On November 25th General Kelley sent out an expedi 
tion to hunt McNeill, which to its great surprise encoun 
tered General Rosser with his own and two regiments of 
Payne s brigade, at Moorefield, Rosser being engaged in 
a little expedition of his own. The Federals escaped 


with considerable loss, and Rosser followed close upon 
their heels to the fortified post of New Creek, which, 
guided by two trusty scouts, Pierce and Williams, he 
succeeded in completely surprising, in daylight, captur 
ing Fort Kelley and garrison without a shot, also taking 
possession of Piedmont. He captured by this brilliant 
and almost bloodless coup 700 prisoners, about 1,500 
horses and as many cattle, and destroyed a vast amount 
of property, including 200 wagons, a very large amount 
of stores, government buildings and engines. 

On January n, 1865, General Rosser made another 
brilliant stroke at Beverly. With 300 mounted men he 
rode into the Federal fortified camp, where no visitors 
were expected on account of the inclement weather, and in 
the fight which ensued 6 of the enemy were killed and 33 
wounded. The remainder of the garrison, 580 men, were 
captured, with all their arms, ammunition and supplies. 

On February 5th, Colonel Whittaker, First Connecticut 
cavalry, succeeded in surprising the famous partisan 
leader, Major Gilmor, in bed, and hastily carried him to 
Winchester; and on February 226. Lieut. Jesse C. Mc- 
Neill, with 25 men, entered the fortified town of Cumber 
land, Md. , and taking Generals Crook and Kelley out of 
bed, brought them safely into Virginia. 

The troops of the department of Western Virginia and 
East Tennessee, commanded by Brig. -Gen. John Echols, 
with headquarters at Wytheville, Va. , comprised the fol 
lowing organizations on February 28, 1865: 

Echols infantry brigade, Col. Robert T. Preston s bri 
gade of reserves, Gen. George B. Cosby s brigade of 
Kentucky cavalry, Gen. Basil Duke s brigade of Ken 
tucky cavalry, Col. Henry Giltner s brigade of Ken 
tucky cavalry, Gen. John C. Vaughn s brigade of 
Tennessee cavalry, Lieut. -Col. Vincent A. Witcher s 
brigade of Virginia cavalry, Maj. R. C. M. Page s 
artillery battalion, and Capt. R. C. McCalla s engineer 


Echols brigade included the Twenty-second regiment, 
Lieut. -Col. John C. McDonald; Twenty-third battalion, 
Maj. William Blessing; Twenty-sixth battalion, Lieut. - 
Col. George M. Edgar. Witcher s brigade was composed 
of the Thirty-fourth battalion, Maj. John A. McFarlane, 
and the battalion of Lieut. -Col. Thomas B. Swann. 
Capt H. C. Douthat s battery was with the artillery. 

The total enrollment of the command was 10,000 men 
and six pieces of artillery. The largest brigades were 
those of Vaughn and Echols. But on account of fur 
loughs and for other reasons the aggregate force present 
was only 4,000. Witcher s brigade was 215 strong and 
Echols 662. 

On April 2d General Echols began a movement to unite 
with the army of Northern Virginia, but on reaching 
Christiansburg, Va., on the loth, he received a dispatch 
announcing the surrender of General Lee at Appomattox 
Court House. General Duke has written, "Strange as 
the declaration may sound now, there was not one of the 
6,000 or 7,000 men then gathered at Christiansburg who 
had entertained the slightest thought that such an event 
could happen. . . . That the army of Northern Virginia, 
with Lee at its head, would ever surrender, had never 
entered our minds. After a night of excitement and dis 
cussion around blazing camp-fires, part of the force pro 
ceeded under General Echols to attempt a junction with 
Johnston s army in North Carolina, while many returned 
to their homes satisfied that the war was over. Those from 
West Virginia who went on and those who returned, as 
well as those who surrendered at Appomattox and with 
the various commands in the Shenandoah valley, in time 
mainly accepted citizenship in the new State born in the 
throes of war, and after enduring the hardships and per 
secution which followed their home-coming, and the 
annoyances of adverse legislation, resumed the stations 
to which their worth entitled them in a free common 
wealth and a reunited nation. 



IN Hampshire county, before the commencement of the 
war, there were two organized and uniformed com 
panies of infantry; one known as the Frontier Rifle 
men, of which Robert White, afterward colonel of the 
Twenty-third Virginia cavalry, was captain, Elias L. 
Irvin first lieutenant, Job N. Cookus second lieutenant, 
and Daniel T. Kellar third lieutenant ; and the other the 
Hampshire Guards, John B. Sherrard captain, D. W. 
Entler first lieutenant, and Felix D. Heiskell second 
lieutenant. The first-named company had about 96 men, 
and the last about 80. In May, 1861, both of these com 
panies were ordered by the governor of Virginia to report 
to Col. T. J. Jackson, then commanding at Harper s 
Ferry. Soon afterward the Thirteenth Virginia regiment 
of infantry was organized, with A. P. Hill as colonel, 
and these companies were mustered into that regiment 
as Companies I and K. The world knows much of the 
heroism of the men of that regiment and of its hard service 
during the war. In the spring of 1862 the army was re 
organized. Captain White was assigned to ordnance duty. 
He was afterward authorized, at his own request, to raise 
a battalion of cavalry, which he did and became major of 
the Forty-first battalion, Virginia cavalry, which was 
afterward merged in the Twenty-third regiment, of which 
he was colonel. Captain Sherrard, of the Guards, served 
during the war and was promoted to the rank of major. 
Another company, known as the Potomac Guards, was 

W Va 11 


raised in that county, and, under the command of Capt. 
Philip L. Grace, became Company A of the Thirty-first 
Virginia, one of the regiments of the old Stonewall bri 
gade. Captain Grace was promoted to the rank of major, 
and afterward resigned. 

A company of riflemen was organized in the western 
end of the county, within what is now the territory of 
Mineral county. It went into the cavalry service under 
the command of the gallant Capt. George Sheetz, who 
lost his life on May 23, 1862, in the valley of Virginia. 
It became Company F of the Seventh cavalry. Capt. 
Isaac Kuykendall afterward commanded this company. 

Capt. C. S. White commanded Company C of the 
Twenty-third cavalry, of which company Alexander 
White became first lieutenant and J. R. Baker, of Hardy 
county, second lieutenant. The men composing this 
company came, for the most part, from the county of 
Hampshire and the adjoining county of Hardy. 

Capt. R. Bruce Muse commanded Company F of the 
Eighteenth cavalry. His command was recruited 
partly from Hampshire county and partly from the 
adjoining county of Frederick, in Virginia. Capt. Mat 
thew Ginevan commanded Company C of the Eighteenth 
cavalry. Company I of this regiment went into the 
service with D. Ed. Bell, who became lieutenant- 
colonel, as its captain. In fact, a large number of the 
rank and file of the Eighteenth were men from Hamp 
shire, such as Maj. Alexander Monroe. 

Capt. E. H. McDonald, who commanded Company D 
of the Eleventh cavalry, and a large number of his men, 
were natives of Hampshire county. Capt. J. Mortimer 
Lovett, a Hampshire man, commanded Company E of 
the Twenty-third cavalry. 

Another company, organized first as militia, under 
Capt. John H. Piles, afterward became Company K of 
the Eighteenth cavalry. Many of the men from this 
company of militia enlisted in various other commands. 


During the war a great many of the very best people 
of this county were driven, or fled for refuge from their 
homes, among them John B. White, the clerk of the 
courts; Charles Blue, who frequently represented the 
county in the legislature ; and John Kern, Jr. , all three 
of whom died for the cause they loved, while at Rich 
mond, during the war. The county was taken, by force 
of the bayonet, into the newly-formed State of West 
Virginia. After the war its people were disfranchised, 
except a few who called themselves loyal, most of whom 
were the newly-made colored citizens. The old and 
respected men were not permitted to enjoy the rights of 
citizenship. They could not vote, could not hold office, 
could not sit on juries, could not teach school, could not 
practice law, and were forbidden even to bring a suit to 
recover an honest debt. In this and the adjoining coun 
ties a great many old Confederate soldiers were harassed 
by suits for damages and sometimes arrested and impris 
oned upon various criminal charges instituted against 
them in the newly-organized and so-called courts of jus 
tice under the new regime. Some were indicted for mur 
der, some for arson, some for larceny, and some for other 
offenses with which they were charged for acts done as 
soldiers in civilized warfare. A great many suits were 
instituted to recover damages, in money, because of acts 
done by the defendants as soldiers in the army. Judg 
ment after judgment was obtained in the courts below 
and sustained by the appellate court of the State; but 
these defendants were generally old Confederates, who 
had faced trials and oft-times death itself in battle, and 
bravely did they seek to maintain their rights as belliger 
ents until the Supreme court of the United States at its 
October term, in the year 1888, decided the case of Free- 
land vs. Williams, involving the question of the belliger 
ent rights of the Confederate soldiers, in their favor. 
The case is reported in the isist United States Reports, 
at page 405. 


There was no organized body of Confederate soldiers 
from Wetzel, Marshall, or Tyler counties. About fifty 
men in all entered the service from Wetzel, but in doing 
so they were compelled to run the blockade, and scattered 
to the four winds. Some of them were afterward found 
in Louisiana and Tennessee regiments. Some did not 
get through at all and were sent to Federal prisons. One 
party of five included Mordecai Yarnell, who became a 
member of Company G, Twenty-seventh Virginia, and 
was promoted to lieutenant; Ephraim Wells, promoted 
to captain of a cavalry company; Friend C. Cox, who 
became a staff officer with Gen. W. H. F. Lee ; and Rob 
ert McEldowney, a member of the Shriver Grays, of 

The Shriver Grays, organized at Wheeling, with about 
So men, was organized in May, 1861, with Daniel Shriver, 
captain; John W. Mitchell, first lieutenant; John B. 
Leadley, second lieutenant; Pryor Boyd, junior second 
lieutenant. The company left Wheeling on the 2ist or 
2 2d of May, 1861, and went to Harper s Ferry, reporting 
to Col. T. J. Jackson. It was mustered in as Company 
G, Twenty-seventh Virginia infantry, of the Stonewall 
brigade. It served faithfully in that regiment until 
about May, 1863, when most of the survivors of the orig 
inal company were transferred to the Thirty- sixth Vir 
ginia cavalry battalion, commanded by Maj. James Swee 
ney, of Wheeling. The battalion participated in the 
East Tennessee campaign as a part of Longstreet s com 
mand, was at the burning of Chambersburg, and in the 
rear guard after Gettysburg. Captain Shriver was suc 
ceeded in command, in the fall of 1862, by Robert McEl 
downey, previously orderly-sergeant. Captain McEldow 
ney was the last remaining commissioned officer with the 
Twenty- seventh, on March 25, 1865, when the assault 
was made on Fort Stedman, and he was there wounded 
and disabled. 

Randolph county contributed the following companies 


to the Confederate service: Company A, Eighteenth 
Virginia cavalry; captains, Raymond Taylor (killed 
below Winchester) and Job W. Parsons; lieutenants, 
J. W. Parsons and Elam Taylor. The company partici 
pated in every important action in the Shenandoah val 
ley and northwest Virginia. Company I, Nineteenth 
Virginia cavalry, Capt. Jacob W. Marshall, Lietits. Jacob 
S. Wamsley, Jacob G. Ward, George Gay (of Pocahontas, 
killed at New Mountain), Jacob Simmons and McLaugh- 
lin (both of Pocahontas, latter killed at Shepherdstown). 
This company took part in all the memorable combats 
in the valley and southwest Virginia after 1863. Com 
pany C, Twentieth Virginia cavalry, Capt. Elihu Hutton, 
Lieut. Eugene Hutton. The service of the company 
was about the same as that of the last-named. Company 
F, Thirty-first Virginia infantry, was an exclusively Ran 
dolph county organization. Its first officers were Capt. 
Jacob Currence, Lieuts. Jacob I. Hill, George W. Sauls- 
bury and J. N. Potts. The company was at Laurel 
Hill and Carrick s Ford, joined Stonewall Jackson at 
McDowell, and was with him till his death and with Lee to 
Appomattox, when about a dozen of the company were 
surrendered. From first to last the company included 
about 125 men, of whom less than 25 returned to their 
homes without wounds. At the reorganization in 1862 
the officers elected were: Capt. J. F. Harding, and Lieuts. 
O. H. P. Lewis, W. H. Wilson and Dudley Long (killed at 
Seven Pines). Harding and Wilson were each five times 
severely wounded. Lewis, wounded and captured at 
Cedar Mountain, was one of the prisoners held under fire 
at Morris island, S. C. Harding was promoted to major 
of cavalry, and Lieutenant Wilson was the only commis 
sioned officer from early in 1864 until in February, 1865, 
when he and many of his company were captured beyond 
Fort Stedman, in the attack upon which they led the 
charge. Wilson was taking a Federal captain to the rear 
when captured. Randolph county was also represented 


in the Twenty-fifth and Sixty-second infantry regiments, 
and McClanahan s battery. One of the officers of the 
latter was Lieut. Parkinson Collett, of Randolph. 

Hardy county, the seat of which is Moorefield, on the 
south branch of the Potomac, 38 miles from New Creek 
(now called Keyser) , on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, 
was a frequent battle ground, and suffered much from 
the incursions of both armies. Fremont on the march to 
McDowell, as well as on his return thence to intercept 
Jackson in the Shenandoah valley, moved his army 
through Hardy county. Hardy furnished the following 
organizations to the Confederate service: The Hardy 
Blues, 60 men, Capt. J. C. B. Mullen; the Hardy Grays, 
60 men, Capt. A. Spangler; the South Branch Riflemen, 
60 men, Capt. John H. Everly. These three companies 
were organized at the beginning of hostilities. The Blues 
and Riflemen were at Rich Mountain in June, 1861, and 
surrendered by General Pegram and paroled by General 
Rosecrans. In time they were exchanged and permitted 
to return to the service, when the Blues were reorgan 
ized with J. J. Chipley as captain, and the Riflemen with 
A. S. Scott as captain, and both were attached to the 
Sixty-second Virginia infantry regiment. The Grays 
were ordered to Harper s Ferry early in 1861, and 
assigned to the Thirty-third regiment of Jackson s bri 
gade, and shared in that heroic service at First Manassas 
which won for the brigade and its commander the title of 
Stonewall. The company served through the war, and 
Captain Spangler became colonel of the regiment. 
Hardy county contributed 55 men to Company B, Eight 
eenth Virginia regiment, Capt. George W. Stump; 37 
men to Capt. George Sheetz company, of Turner Ashby s 
old regiment; and 70 men to Company B, Eleventh Vir 
ginia cavalry, Capt. William H. Harness. John H. 
McNeill, the famous ranger, was a native of this county, 
and organized his company partly of Hardy county men. 

In Kanawha county, the company of Kanawha Rifle- 


men, Capt. George S. Patton, was organized at the time 
of the John Brown raid, and entered the Confederate 
service in April, 1861. It included some twenty lawyers 
of the Charleston bar, among them, serving as privates, 
William A. Quarrier, T. B. Swann, Thomas L. Broun, 
Isaac N. Smith, S. A. Miller, R. Q. Laidley, J. G. New 
man, Nicholas Fitzhugh and Thomas Smith, son of the 
governor and general. Another Kanawha county com 
pany was commanded by Capt. John S. Swann, and an 
artillery company was raised by Dr. John P. Hale. 

Mercer county contributed ten companies to the Con 
federate army. Monroe furnished the Lowry battery, 
the Chapman battery, and other organizations. Wayne, 
Putnam and Greenbrier also made generous contributions. 
A. J. Jenkins, of Cabell, raised a cavalry company, and 
afterward a regiment. Thomas L. Broun organized two 
infantry battalions, of two companies each, in Boone and 
Logan, and Dr. McChesney raised an infantry company 
at Peytona, Boone county, called the Boone Rangers. 

In Pocahontas county, the scene of many conflicts, 
some of which are not recorded in history, two infantry 
companies and one of cavalry were organized in April, 
1 86 1. One of the infantry companies, organized at Hun- 
tersville, included nearly 100 men, commanded at first by 
Capt. D. A. Stoner and later by Capt. J. W. Matthews, 
was ordered to Philippi, where it shared the fate of Col 
onel Porterfield s forces. The company formed part of 
Reger s battalion, which was consolidated with Hans- 
brough s battalion to form the Twenty-fifth regiment, the 
Huntersville company becoming Company I. The other 
infantry company was organized at Green Bank in April, 
1 86 1, with 1 06 men, under Capt. James C. Arbogast, and 
was ordered west on the Parkersburg turnpike, and later 
stationed at Laurel Hill, as Company G of the Thirty-first 
regiment. The cavalry company, about 75 men, Capt. 
Andrew McNeel, went to Laurel Hill, but could not be 
supplied with arms at that time, and disbanded, about a 


third of them going into the Bath cavalry, Captain Dan- 
gerfield, with which they had distinguished service 
throughout the war. In the spring of 1862 Capt. William 
L. McNeel organized a large company of cavalry in 
Pocahontas, which went into the Nineteenth cavalry 
regiment, Col. W. P. Thompson. For the same regi 
ment Capt. J. W. Marshall organized a company at Mingo, 
about half the men being from Pocahontas and half from 
Randolph. Colonel Imboden raised a company, chiefly in 
this county, for the Sixty-second Virginia. Captain 
McNeel and Marshall had many skirmishes in that part 
of the State, and should have credit for gallant and 
devoted service. It is estimated that Pocahontas county 
contributed 60 men to the Sixty-second regiment, 25 to 
the Eighteenth cavalry, 125 to the Nineteenth cavalry, 
10 to the Twentieth cavalry, 20 to the Fourteenth cav 
alry, 125 to the Thirty-first infantry, 100 to the Twenty- 
fifth infantry, and 50 to other commands, including 
Edgar s battalion and Miller s battery. The Twenty- 
fifth regiment Virginia infantry was organized of West 
Virginia companies collected on the Laurel Hill line 
under General Garnett, mainly from Pendleton, Braxter, 
Webster, Upshur and Pocahontas counties. George A. 
Porterfield was the first colonel, succeeded by George H. 
Smith, of Pendleton, and John C. Higginbotham, of 
Upshur. The latter was killed at Spottsylvania Court 
House, May 10, 1864, while gallantly leading a brigade 
in battle. 

The Thirty-first infantry was organized at the same 
time, with the following companies : A, of Marion county, 
Capt. W. W. Arnett, afterward lieutenant-colonel Twen 
tieth cavalry, succeeded by Capt. W. P. Thompson, pro 
moted to colonel Nineteenth cavalry; B, of Highland 
county; C, of Harrison county, Capt. U. M. Turner, 
Lieuts. W. P. Cooper, Norval Lewis; D, of Gilmer 
county, Capt. J. S. K. McCutcheon, afterward lieutenant- 
colonel and wounded at Cedar Mountain, and Lieut. John 


Campbell; E, of Highland county; F, of Randolph 
county, Captain Harding; G, of Pocahontas county ; H, 
of Barbour county, Capt. Thomas Bradford, Lieut. I. V. 
Johnson; I, of Lewis county, Capt. Alfred Jackson, of 
Weston, afterward lieutenant-colonel and wounded at 
Cedar Mountain, Lieut. Nathan Clawson. Col. William L. 
Jackson was the first in command, and early in 1862 was 
succeeded by John S. Hoffman, of Clarksburg. John G. 
Gittings, adjutant of the regiment two and a half years, was 
afterward adjutant-general of Jackson s cavalry brigade. 
These two regiments, the Twenty-fifth and Thirty-first, 
fought together during the war, in West Virginia under 
Garnett and Edward Johnson, and, after the battle of 
McDowell, under Stonewall Jackson. In Stonewall Jack 
son s Shenandoah valley campaign, they, with the Twelfth 
Georgia and Thirteenth Virginia, formed the Fourth bri 
gade of the army, commanded by Gen. Arnold Elzey, 
and after he was wounded, by Col. A. J. Walker, of the 
Thirteenth. The Thirty-first was engaged at Franklin, 
Strasburg and Winchester, and both regiments at Cross 
Keys and Port Republic. At the latter combat the 
Thirty-first lost 116 out of 226 and was saved from 
destruction by the timely charge of Richard Taylor s 
Louisiana brigade. The Pocahontas company in fifteen 
minutes lost half of its men in battle. In the Twenty- 
fifth Capt. W. T. Gammon and Lieuts. E. D. Camden, 
J. J. Dunkle and John H. Johnson were wounded, and 
in the Thirty-first Capt. R. H. Bradshaw and Lieut. A. 
Whitley were killed, and Lieuts. J. W. Arnett, J. M. 
Burns and W. C. Kincaid were wounded. The regi 
ments went through the Seven Days battles before Rich 
mond, and in the Second Manassas campaign were bri 
gaded with the Thirteenth, Forty-fourth, Forty-ninth, 
Fifty-second and Fifty-eighth Virginia, under General 
Early, Swell s division, Jackson s corps. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Jackson, commanding the Thirty-first, and Major 
Higginbotham, commanding the Twenty-fifth, were both 

WVa 15 


wounded at Cedar Mountain. General Early in his report 
of that battle specially mentioned the gallantry of Cap 
tain Lilley, of the Twenty-fifth, and the color-bearer, 
leading a portion of his regiment in the face of the 
enemy, and the color-bearers of the Thirty-first, who 
advanced waving their flags, and rallying part of that 
regiment around them. At Second Manassas Early s 
brigade made a gallant charge, in which Colonel Smith 
and Major Higginbotham of the Thirty-first were severely 
wounded. The regiments were at the capture of Har 
per s Ferry and the battles of Sharpsburg and Fredericks- 
burg. On April nth they were detached to General 
Imboden s command in the Shenandoah valley. Under 
that leader they marched rapidly across the mountains, 
attacking and routing the enemy at Beverly, and thence 
by way of Buckhannon, Weston, Bulltown, to Frankfort, 
Greenbrier county, with several skirmishes. Marching 
to Buffalo gap, they took cars for Fredericksburg and 
returned to the army after an absence of just one month. 
The night following their return they began the march 
for Winchester, under the brigade command of Gen. 
William Smith. After marching to York, Pa., they 
returned to fight at Gettysburg under Ewell, now com 
manding the corps. Subsequently they participated in 
all the battles of the Second corps, Mine Run, the Wil 
derness, Spottsylvania, South Anna, Petersburg, Hatch 
er s Run, Fort Stedman, and finally stacked arms at 
Appomattox Court House. The gallant Col. John S. 
Hoffman led the brigade on the day of the bloody angle 
fight at Spottsylvania, General Pegram having been 
wounded at the Wilderness, and his brigade and Gen. 
C. A. Evans Georgians were chiefly instrumental in 
holding the line and saving the army from a terrible 
defeat. The flag of the Thirty-first, which was presented 
by the hand of Stonewall Jackson, at the request of the 
ladies who made it, is yet preserved at the town of 


Company B, Sixtieth regiment, was organized at Blue 
Sulphur Springs, by its captain, A. M. Buster, who was 
succeeded a year later by J. W. Johnson. The company 
participated in the Seven Days battles before Richmond, 
Cedar Mountain, Fayetteville, Cloyd s Mountain, Pied 
mont, and all the battles under Early in the Shenandoah 

"The Twenty-ninth Virginia infantry, recruited in 
western Virginia, and commanded by Col. James Giles, 
was detached from Colston s brigade and assigned to 
Corse s, at Petersburg, in the spring of 1863. A large 
regiment, composed of sturdy mountaineers, it did good 
service on the Blackwater, and with Corse was distin 
guished at Drewry s Bluff and Five Forks." (Harrison s 
"Pickett and His Men.") 

Stephen A. Morgan, a lawyer of Morgantown, and mem 
ber of the Virginia convention of 1861, was one of six 
brothers in one of the companies with Porterfield, later 
Company A, Thirty-first infantry. His widow writes: 
"The first gun fired against the enemy was by Private T. 
Night, on picket, killing his antagonist, while Night was 
wounded in the ear. The first council of war was held at 
Pruntytown, in the parlor of the house now owned by 
C. Pierpont Hoffman, by Colonel Porterfield, Col. 
Edward J. Armstrong, George W. Hansbrough, Mor 
timer Johnson and Stephen A. Morgan." 

For the data embraced in these scattering notes the 
author is indebted to Capt. J. V. Williams, of Hardy; 
Capt. E. W. Boggs, of Company E, Twenty-fifth regi 
ment ; Henry A. Yeager, commander of camp at Marlin- 
ton ; John G. Gittings, of Clarksburg, former adjutant of 
the Thirty-first regiment ; Capt. Robert McEldowney, of 
New Martinsville ; George W. Printz, of Beverly; Maj. 
Thomas L. Broun, of Charleston. 



was one of the most famous in the Upper Potomac 
region during the war, was born in the vicinity of 
Moorefield, Hardy county, in 1815. The family was 
established in the valley of the South Branch by his 
grandfather, Daniel McNeill, who immigrated from Penn 
sylvania about the close of the Indian border war in 
Virginia. In January, 1837, he married Jemima Harness 
Cunningham, and a year later removed to the vicinity of 
Paris, Ky., where he resided six years, occupying himself 
with stock-raising, and becoming a Knight Templar in 
the Masonic order. He then, on account of his wife s 
health, spent four years in his native State, after which 
he removed to Boone county, Mo., where he was active 
in the organization of agricultural associations, and was 
prominent in their meetings. After six years in Boone, 
he settled in Daviess county, his home at the beginning 
of trouble in 1861. In this county he was a local minister 
of the Methodist church. In politics he was an ardent 
"Union man," opposed to war, but in case there should 
be war, determined to fight for the South. He raised a 
company of cavalry under Governor Jackson s call for 
volunteers to defend the State, and being mustered into 
service with his men June 14, 1861, joined the command 
of General Slack, which, after a skirmish with Lyon at 
Boone ville, made a junction with Jackson and fought the 
battle of Carthage, July 5th. After the defeat of the 
enemy Captain McNeill harassed their rear, taking sev 
eral prisoners and making the first capture of a baggage 
wagon in Missouri. He participated in the fierce battle 



of Wilson s Creek, and, after the repulse of Sigel, aided 
in dispersing a column of the retreating enemy, captur 
ing 50 prisoners and one cannon. In September he took 
part in the famous siege of Lexington, and was severely 
wounded in the right shoulder just as the capitulation 
was announced. Here also he suffered the loss of his 
second son, George McNeill, who had been righting with 
him, and in the first attack upon Lexington had earned 
the plaudits of his comrades by planting the Confederate 
flag in the city, amid a storm of shot and shell. A few 
days afterward the boy was shot dead while on picket 
duty. The period of enlistment of McNeill s company 
expired in December, and he returned to Boone county 
to raise another command, and while there he and his 
son Jesse were captured. After spendng a few days in a 
jail at St. Louis, Jesse escaped and traveled safely 
through the Northern States to Hardy county. On June 
1 5th Captain McNeill also escaped, and not long after 
ward was welcomed by the friends of his boyhood. His 
home country he found ravaged by the Federal scouting 
parties, one of which drove him from his resting place a 
few days after his arrival, and he at once determined to 
raise a body of men to protect this section of Virginia. 
Going to Richmond in June, 1862, he obtained permission, 
after much persuasion, to organize a troop to defend the 
South Branch valley, and on September ist he began to 
collect his men. A fortnight later with 20 men he made 
a reconnoissance toward New Creek, captured several 
pickets, and at Ridgeville seized a member of the West 
Virginia legislature. One of the fruits of the expedition 
was the famous road mare which McNeill rode there 
after. Evading the Federal cavalry which pursued, the 
men reached Petersburg and organized, electing McNeill 
captain. Soon afterward he was ordered to join Colonel 
Imboden at Bloomery, and en route he attempted to 
ambuscade a party of Federal cavalry near Romney. It 
happened that he took position between two bodies of the 


enemy, and one of his men remarked: "We are cut off," 
to which McNeill replied, with the instinct of a true sol 
dier: "So are they." His confidence was rewarded by 
the capture of a considerable number of the enemy. 
Early in October, when Imboden attempted to destroy 
the trestle work of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, 
McNeill was sent toward Romney with about 30 men, with 
which he gallantly defeated a Federal detachment of 60, 
taking prisoner a captain and several others. Imboden s 
next move was against Paw Paw tunnel, and McNeill s 
rangers, in advance, surprised and drove the Federal 
garrison from the fortifications intended to protect this 
important point on the railroad. Subsequently the com 
mand was busied with scouting duty, varied with occa 
sional forays against the " Swamp Dragons," banditti 
who infested the mountain fastnesses and committed 
outrages, which they expiated with instant death when 

In November they played an important part in Imbo- 
den s unsuccessful expedition toward Cheat River bridge, 
-and early in December, hearing that Milroy with 4,500 
men was moving past Moorefield toward Winchester, 
McNeill attacked the wagon train while moving between 
the two divisions of the enemy, and captured 50 horses 
and a number of prisoners, losing but one man who was 
wounded by the discharge of his own gun. 

While with W. E. Jones in an expedition toward Rom 
ney in January, the Rangers again surprised a wagon 
train at the site of their previous adventure, and were 
again successful, burning the wagons and capturing 51 
horses and 23 prisoners. In January, Imboden s force 
was mustered into the regular service, and half of 
McNeill s men were transferred to Captain Scott s com 
pany, Imboden s battalion. The remainder, only 17 in 
number, gladly followed their captain back to the South 
Branch valley. Their number was increased to 27, and 
soon afterward they gave notice of their presence by 


suddenly descending upon a wagon train, which a Fed 
eral party had loaded with hay at the expense of the 
inhabitants and were leisurely hauling into Moorefield. 
The daring troopers dispersed the guard of 150 men, cap 
turing 71 prisoners and 106 horses, and burned the train, 
and then safely conveyed their prizes to the Shenandoah 
valley. This exploit was announced in general orders 
to the army by General Lee as one of "the series of suc 
cesses of the cavalry of Northern Virginia during the 
winter months." Near Harrisonburg the company was 
recruited to 60 men, and John H. McNeill was elected 
captain, Jesse McNeill first lieutenant, J. S. Welton 
second, and B. J. Dolan junior second lieutenant. Early 
in March, with the commendation of General Imboden, 
Captain McNeill applied to the secretary of war for 
authority to take 600 men and destroy the trestle work 
and Cheat River bridge. This was readily granted, Sec 
retary Seddon in his letter to Gen. Sam Jones referring 
to McNeill as "a very brave and enterprising partisan 
officer." Gen. W. E. Jones, however, did not approve 
the plan. But he granted McNeill a few companies for 
another expedition to the northwestern grade. With 
these companies, Harness , Heiss , and Kuykendall s, of 
the Eleventh cavalry, and Captain Stump s of the Eight 
eenth cavalry, McNeill started out and captured another 
wagon train. Kuykendall s company and a detachment 
under Lieutenant McNeill were ambuscaded, but escaped 
with slight losses. 

McNeill and his men rendered valuable services during 
Jones successful expedition against the Baltimore & 
Ohio railroad in April, 1863, and continued in their 
adventurous duties, capturing in June one of Milroy s 
trains between Berryville and Winchester, until General 
Ewell entered the valley, en route to Pennsylvania, when 
the command reported to Ewell. They participated in 
the defeat of Milroy, and pursuing his command captured 
many prisoners and wrought great destruction on the Bal- 


timore & Ohio railroad. In Pennsylvania they collected 
supplies for the army, and assisted in scouting duty. On 
the retreat the Rangers were with Imboden guarding the 
trains, and were distinguished for gallantry in battle on 
the occasion when Imboden s brigade of 1,600 repulsed 
the assault of a division of Federal cavalry. On other 
occasions previous to the withdrawal of Lee across the 
Potomac, McNeill and his men abundantly demonstrated 
their soldierly qualities in frequent cavalry encounters. 

Returning to the South Branch in August, the Rangers 
performed one of their most famous feats in making a 
night attack upon a column of Averell s cavalry, which 
was carrying away a number of citizens, utterly routing 
the enemy, and restoring the prisoners to liberty. They 
were with Imboden during Averell s raid, and subse 
quently the Rangers, with 40 men under Capts. Frank 
Imboden and Hobson, successfully surprised the Federal 
camp of 500 men at Moorefield, on the morning of Sep 
tember zoth, driving the enemy from the town and cap 
turing 150 prisoners, n wagons, 40 horses, 250 guns, and 
the supplies and equippage of the camp. To secure their 
safe retreat Lieutenant Dolan drove away a Federal bat 
tery which had opened from a ridge across the river. 
Then joining Imboden in the valley, the Rangers par 
ticipated in the attack upon Charlestown, October i8th, 
and Captain McNeill, under a flag of truce, entered the 
town and presented the demand for surrender, which was 
complied with. 

Returning to the South Branch valley in November, 
the Rangers, now 80 men, were reinforced by 90 from 
Imboden s brigade. On the i6th they ambushed a 
train at the mountain pass near Burlington, and captured 
30 prisoners and 245 horses, escaping afterward by unfre 
quented mountain paths. They skirmished with the 
rear of a Federal expedition down the valley; then 
assisted Gen. Fitzhugh Lee in his foraging expedition; 
and in January, in addition to other exploits, defeated the 


Ringgold battalion sent out to effect their capture. In 
April they made a raid against the Swamp Dragons and 
succeeded in destroying much of their stores of plunder, 
but on the return were ambuscaded by the desperadoes 
in a deep and narrow gap of Fork mountain. A fierce 
fight followed, in which the Rangers were so fortunate as 
to escape without loss and inflict severe punishment upon 
their enemy. In May, 1864, when Crook and Averell 
were raiding in southwestern Virginia, McNeill advanced 
against Piedmont, on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad. 
While he with 40 men demanded and received the sur 
render of the garrison at that place, two detachments of 
ten each were sent to the east and west to cut off com 
munications. One of these squads, under John T. Peerce, 
stopped a train at Bloomington, and found it full of Fed 
eral soldiers. With supreme assurance Peerce demanded 
their surrender, and fortunately the colonel agreed to 
capitulate, as he did not have a round of ammunition with 
him. By firing the machine shops, engine-houses and 
buildings, and turning loose the locomotives, McNeill 
caused a damage estimated at $1,000,000 to the United 
States government. Having accomplished so much with 
almost incredible daring, he left the town under fire of 
artillery hastily brought up, and escaped with a cunning 
equally wonderful the forces sent out to intercept him, 
reaching Moorefield in safety, after an absence of only 
five days. Not long after this the Rangers suffered from 
the enemy adopting their own tactics, being surprised in 
camp, and two men, John B. Fay and Samuel Daugherty, 
captured. But McNeill s men would not rest under such 
a misfortune, and ten, with the fleetest mounts, under 
Lieutenant Dolan, hurried in pursuit. Coming up with 
the rear guard, they dashed into the Federals, and not 
only rescued their own comrades but made prisoners of 
the men who were guarding them. After the battle of 
New Market, McNeill went to the Shenandoah valley, 
scouted before Hunter previous to the latter s advance, 

W Va 16 


then annoyed his rear guard, and when the flank move 
ment was being made against Jones, cut his way through 
a Federal regiment and apprised the Confederate com 
mander of his danger. While the captain was absent on 
this duty, a detachment under Lieutenants McNeill and 
Dolan remained near Moorefield, severely punished a 
raiding party sent against them in June, and about the 
1 8th attacked their mortal enemies, the Swamp Dragons, 
who were escorting a train of provisions furnished them 
by the Federals. The fight that resulted was a hot one, 
and Lieutenant Dolan was mortally wounded. This 
officer was a native of Ireland and a citizen of Wheeling, 
and a man of remarkable bravery. The "old captain" 
now rejoined his men, and a few weeks later they rode 
into a camp of 300 Federals at Springfield, and captured 
80 prisoners and 145 horses. He had with him 70 men. 
He learned from his prisoners that they were a part of a 
picked body sent out by General Kelley against McNeill, 
with orders to kill, capture or drive him from the valley. 
The horses taken enabled him to remount not only his 
own men but a company of Missourians under Captain 
Woodson, who had been permitted to join him. The 4th 
of July, 1 864, he celebrated by driving the Federal gar 
rison from Patterson Creek station and burning the rail 
road bridge. Immediately after this the Rangers joined 
General Early s expedition through Maryland to Wash 
ington, and were under the orders of the general as 
scouts. In the cavalry fight at Frederick they resisted 
the onset of the enemy until McCausland came up, and 
at Urbana they again checked the pursuit. Subsequently 
they were active in scouting and collecting supplies in 
their region, until after the battle of Winchester between 
Early and Sheridan, when the band went into the valley 
to assist the defeated Confederates. In this service Cap 
tain McNeill came to his death. One foggy morning in 
October, 1864, while leading a charge on a cavalry camp 
on Meems bottom, at a bridge over the Shenandoah, 


near Mount Jackson, far in advance of his troop, he 
was mortally wounded by a shot from the rear. This is 
believed to have been accidental, though it has been 
charged that the shot was from a recent recruit, and in 
revenge for some incident of company life. The famous 
captain died at Harrisonburg a few weeks later. His son, 
Lieut. Jesse C. McNeill, succeeded to the command, but 
on account of his youth General Early hesitated to give 
him full control. Chafing under this lack of confidence, 
young McNeill was anxious for some opportunity to dis 
play his daring, and finally it was presented. The adven 
ture which he proposed in February, 1865, was no less 
than to enter the town of Cumberland, on the Potomac, and 
Baltimore & Ohio railroad, pass unchallenged through 
the garrison of 6,000 or 8,000 soldiers, and make prisoners 
Gens. George Crook and B. F. Kelley. Comrade J. B. 
Fay, of Maryland, had proposed such a scheme to the 
elder McNeill, and he took part in the planning of the 

Fay was a native of Cumberland, and several times 
during the war had entered it, even remaining at one 
time in safety an entire week. On account of his well- 
known courage and discretion, it was agreed that he 
should reconnoiter, ascertain the location of pickets, the 
sleeping apartments of the generals, and gain all other 
information necessary to success. A lad from Missouri, 
C. R. Hallar, a member of the Rangers, whose coolness 
and courage had been often tested, accompanied Fay, and 
without loss of time the north side of the Potomac was 
reached, friends were found and interviewed, the situa 
tion around Cumberland ascertained, and when the night 
of this adventure ended the two bold Confederates were 
safely away near Romney, enjoying breakfast with their 
friend, Vanse Herriot. 

Lieutenant McNeill had been engaged during this time 
in selecting and preparing 25 men, well mounted and 
armed, whom he moved slowly toward the Potomac in 


the direction of Cumberland. The rendezvous was 
reached, where McNeill s men were joined by about 12 
others from Company F, Seventh Virginia, and Company 
D, Eleventh Virginia, Rosser s brigade. When Fay 
and Hallar had reported, a night ride was at once made 
over mountain and valley, on icy roads and through 
snow drifts of such uncertain depth on the mountain top, 
that the men were compelled to dismount and lead their 
horses. The Potomac was crossed before daylight ; but 
notwithstanding their fatiguing haste, it was too late to 
reach Cumberland over the unpicketed national road, as 
had been planned. Dauntless, however, the men refused 
to abandon the enterprise, and resolved to advance on a 
shorter route, guarded by two lines of pickets. McNeill, 
Fay, Vandiver and Kuykendall riding in advance, 
encountered a Federal cavalry picket within two miles 
of Cumberland, whose challenge was first answered by 
"Friends from New Creek," and next by a quick charge, 
a pistol shot and the capture of the party. From these 
captured pickets the countersign "Bull s Gap" was 
extorted, and the prisoners themselves, mounted on their 
own horses, were forced to accompany the Rangers until 
the adventure was ended. 

The second picket post, a mile nearer the city, was 
taken by a ruse. It consisted of five men of the First t 
West Virginia infantry cozily enjoying the early hours 
before day in a shed behind a log fire. At the approach 
of McNeill s party one of the pickets picked up his mus 
ket and advancing a few steps made the usual formal 
challenge, which Kuykendall answered according to army 
regulations. But the Rangers continued to crowd up and 
with a dash closed in around the fire, capturing the 
pickets without firing a gun. 

This success secured for McNeill the entry into the 
slumbering city without alarm being given. With the 
promptitude which the nearness of daylight demanded 
McNeill detailed two squads of ten men each to make 


the captures. Sergt. Joseph W. Kuykendall, Company 
F, Seventh Virginia cavalry, a special scout for General 
Early, who knew Kelley personally, as he had once been 
a prisoner in his hands, was charged with the pleasure of 
reversing the old conditions by the capture of this gen 
eral. Sergt. Joseph L. Vandiver, who had the style of a 
field marshal, and could easily pass for a full general, 
was appointed to take General Crook. Fay, Hallar and 
others were detailed to cut all telegraph lines, while 
specific instructions to guard various points were given 
to the remainder of the troop. 

These dispositions being made, the command moved 
on the pike into Green street, around the Court House 
hill, crossing Chain bridge, and marched up Baltimore 
street, the main thoroughfare, in the dim light of 
approaching morning. Some people were astir, but the 
intrepid Rangers rode on carelessly, whistling well- 
known Federal army tunes and now and then guying a 
sentinel. The first halt was made in front of the Barnum 
house, since then named the Windsor, where Kuyken 
dall s squad proceeded to their work, while the others 
rode on to the Revere house, where General Crook was 
sleeping. Kuykendall s band dismounted without excit 
ing the suspicion of the sentry, who was easily disarmed 
by Sprigg Lynn, the first man in advance. Entering the 
hotel and going to the second floor, Major Melvin, Kel- 
ley s adjutant-general, was caught in his bed, and the 
information gained that the General was in the adjacent 
room. He was at once awakened and told that he was a 
prisoner. "Prisoner!" said the nervous officer ; "to whom 
am I surrendering?" Kuykendall satisfied his anxiety 
on that point by saying: "To Captain McNeill,by order 
of General Rosser. That was so sufficient under the 
circumstances that the general and his adjutant were 
soon dressed and mounted on the horses of two troopers, 
who, yielding their saddle seats to their captives, rode 
behind out of the city. 


The Revere house party penetrated that hotel without 
further trouble than disarming the careless sentry and 
having the door opened by an agitated little negro, who 
exclaimed: "What kind of men is you, anyhow?" Gen 
eral Crook s room was entered after a courteous knock at 
the door, and the curt reply, "Come in," from the general. 
Vandiver, Gassman, Daily, Tucker and others promptly 
accepted the invitation. With the air of a general in 
authority Vandiver addressed the surprised Federal 
officer by saying: "General Crook, you are my prisoner!" 
"By what authority, sir?" said Crook, who had not yet 
risen from his bed. "General Rosser, sir; Fitzhugh 
Lee s division of cavalry," was Vandiver s emphatic 
reply. General Crook rose out of his bed in astonish 
ment, saying: "Is General Rosser here?" "Yes, sir," 
said Vandiver without a moment s hesitation; "I am 
General Rosser. We have surprised and captured the 
town." General Crook could not gainsay the bold declar 
ation and submitted at once. He said, in referring to the 
event at a later day, that Vandiver "looked to him like 
such a man as Rosser might be," and doubtless he did. 

The Rangers now secured headquarter flags, and riding 
quietly down Baltimore street entered the government 
stables, and chose several fine horses, among them Gen 
eral Kelley s favorite charger, Philippi. All being 
now well mounted, the Rangers rode away more rapidly, 
disarming guards as they went and announcing to sen 
tries that they were General Crook s body-guard going 
out to fight some rebels. Excited and jubilant, they 
hastened away over the snow-clad roads, pursued unavail- 
ingly by parties of Federal cavalry, and after fighting 
back their pursuers, or eluding them, reached a point of 
safety from which their distinguished prisoners were sent 
to General Early s headquarters. In the twenty-four 
hours they had ridden ninety miles, much of the time at 
night, while the route traversed included mountains, hill 
and streams, upon which lay the snow and ice of winter. 


This famous exploit, which received special mention in 
a report of Gen. R. E. Lee to Secretary Breckinridge, 
was the last notable service of the Rangers. Lieutenant 
McNeill now received his captain s commission, but the 
war presently ended, and the command was paroled. 
Subsequently he married and removed to Illinois. The 
men returned to civil occupations and became honored 
citizens, in various professions and callings, not only in 
the Virginias and Maryland, but in other States of the 
North and South. 





Brigadier-General William Lowther Jackson was born 
at Clarksburg, Va., February 3, 1825. He was educated 
for the legal profession and was admitted to the bar in 
1847, soon afterward being elected to the office of com 
monwealth attorney for his native county. His career as 
a jurist and public official during the ante-war period was 
prominent and distinguished. He was twice elected to 
the Virginia house of delegates, served twice as second 
auditor of the State, and superintendent of the State 
library fund ; held the office of lieutenant-governor one 
term, and in 1860 was elected judge of the Nineteenth 
judicial circuit of the State. He left the bench early in 
1 86 1 to enlist in the Virginia forces as a private, and was 
rapidly promoted. In May, 1861, Major Boykin, writing 
from Grafton, recommended that General Lee appoint 
Judge Jackson to military command at Parkersburg, as 
"a gentleman of great personal popularity, not only with 
his own party, but with those opposed to him politically, 
and devoted to the interests of Virginia, to the last 
extremity." With the rank of lieutenant-colonel, Vir 
ginia volunteers, he reported for duty to Colonel Por- 
terfield, in Randolph county, in June. Out of the com 
panies collected at Huttonsville, two regiments were 
organized, and one, the Thirty-first, was put under his 
command, with which, after General Garnett s arrival 
June 1 4th, he took possession of the pass at Laurel 
mountain. After the disastrous close of the West Vir 
ginia operations, Colonel Jackson became the volunteer 
aide of his cousin, Gen. Stonewall Jackson, in the Val 
ley campaign, and his services were gratefully mentioned 
in the official report of the battle of Port Republic. He 
continued in this capacity with Jackson through the catn- 



paign before Richmond, the Second Manassas campaign, 
and the Maryland campaign, including the battles of 
Harper s Ferry and Sharpsburg. On February 17, 1863, 
he was authorized by the war department to raise a regi 
ment for the provisional army within the lines of the 
enemy in West Virginia. Early in April he had his 
regiment, the Nineteenth Virginia cavalry, organized, 
and was elected colonel. His command was brigaded 
under Gen. A. G. Jenkins, in the army of Western Vir 
ginia, under Gen. Sam Jones. He joined in the expedi 
tion against the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, in April, 
under General Imboden, and secured 300 or 400 recruits. 
In July he commanded a second expedition to Beverly, 
where and at Huttonsville he was engaged with Aver- 
ell s Federal force. He continued in the department of 
Western Virginia, frequently opposing Federal incur 
sions, his command increasing to the dimensions of a 
small brigade of cavalry, during the remainder of 1863. 
In the spring of 1864 he was stationed at Warm Springs, 
and in the organization under Breckinridge he was given 
command of a brigade of several cavalry regiments. In 
May he was engaged against Crook s expedition; in June 
he took part in the defense of Lynchburg, and in July he 
participated in command of his brigade in the expedition 
through Maryland to the defenses of Washington. On 
the retreat, defending the rear, he repulsed a Federal 
attack at Rockville, Md. He was promoted brigadier- 
general, and in the Valley, after this, he was engaged in 
almost continuous movements and engagements, and 
participated in the battles of Winchester, Cedar Creek, 
Fisher s Hill, Port Republic and other affairs, in com 
mand of a brigade of Lomax s division. The spring of 
1865 found him still in the field, but on April i5th 
he disbanded his brigade. Soon afterward he removed 
to Louisville, Ky., where he resumed the practice 
of law. A few years later he was appointed circuit 
judge, and by subsequent elections was continued in that 


office an til his death, March 24, 1890. His judicial 
career was distinguished by high moral courage, as well 
as professional ability, and he was regarded as one of 
the leading jurists of the State. He was a descendant of 
John Jackson, an Irishman who settled in Maryland 
about 1748, and twenty years later removed to the 
Buckhannon river region, western Virginia. His son 
Edward was the grandfather of Judge William L. Jack 
son, also of Gen. Stonewall Jackson. His elder son, 
George, member of Congress, was the ancestor of John 
G. Jackson, M. C., Gen. John J. Jackson, U. S. A., a 
famous Whig leader, and Jacob J. Jackson, governor of 
West Virginia. The younger son of the original settler 
was Edward, whose son, Col. William L. Jackson, mar 
ried Harriet Wilson, and became the father of Judge 
William L. Jackson. Jonathan, another son of Edward, 
was the father of the immortal Stonewall Jackson. 

Brigadier-General Albert Gallatin Jenkins was born 
in Cabell county, Va., November 10, 1830, and was 
educated at the Virginia military institute and Jefferson 
college, Pa., being graduated at the latter institu 
tion in 1848. He then entered upon the study of law 
at Harvard college, and in 1850 was admitted to the bar, 
but never practiced the profession, returning instead to 
his extensive plantation. But he did not entirely de 
vote himself to agriculture, taking an active and influ 
ential part in public affairs. He was a delegate to the 
National Democratic convention of 1856, and was then 
elected to the United States Congress, serving in the 
Thirty-fifth and Thirty-sixth Congresses, from 1857 to 
1 86 1. Upon the secession of Virginia he heartily sup 
ported his State, and while a soldier was elected as one 
of the representatives of Virginia in the first congress 
of the Confederate States, which met at Richmond, Feb 
ruary, 1862. Here he creditably performed his duties, 
but it was mainly as a daring and chivalrous cavalry 


officer that he is remembered. He organized a company 
of mounted men at the beginning of hostilities, and soon 
gained the general attention by raiding Point Pleasant, 
in the latter part of June, and making prisoners of a 
number of prominent gentlemen who were conspicuous in 
the movement for the separation of the State. In the bat 
tle of Scary Creek, July i8th, he saved the day at a critical 
moment; soon had the command of a colonel, became 
lieutenant-colonel of the Eighth cavalry regiment, and 
was recognized as one of the leaders in the military occu 
pation of the Kanawha valley by the Virginia forces. 
After Wise and Floyd had retired to Greenbrier county 
he remained in the Guyandotte valley, fighting for his 
home and the Old Dominion. He was promoted briga 
dier-general August 5, 1862, and in the latter part of 
August and the first of September made a daring raid 
through western Virginia, and was the first to unfurl the 
flag of the Confederate States in Ohio. In his report of 
this achievement General Loring wrote: "That brilliant 
and enterprising general executed the plan with such suc 
cess that in his march of 500 miles he captured 300 pris 
oners, destroyed many garrisons of home guards and the 
records of the Wheeling and Federal governments in 
many counties, and after arming his command completely 
with captured arms, destroyed at least 5,000 stand of 
small-arms and immense stores. Prosecuting at least 20 
miles of his march in the State of Ohio, he exhibited, as 
he did elsewhere in his march, a policy of such clemency 
as won us many friends, and tended greatly to mitigate 
the ferocity which had characterized the war in this sec 
tion. The conduct of his officers and men has received 
my unqualified approbation, and deserves the notice and 
thanks of the government." In March, 1863, Jenkins 
made another brilliant raid to the Ohio river, and three 
months later he was on the Susquehanna, before the 
capital of Pennsylvania. In May he was ordered into 
the Shenandoah valley, in command of the cavalry, with 


headquarters at Statmton, and in June was ordered north 
ward to report to General Ewell, with whom he co-oper 
ated in the defeat of Milroy at Winchester. He fought 
at Bunker Hill, and at Martinsburg led the advance 
guard of the army to Chambersburg and made a recon- 
noissance to Harrisburg. He was wounded on the second 
day of the Gettysburg battle, but his men, under the 
command of Colonel Ferguson, won approval in the cav 
alry fight of July 3d, and during the retreat to Virginia, 
especially at Williamsport, under the eye of Stuart. In 
the fall General Jenkins returned to the department of 
Western Virginia, and in the spring of 1864 was stationed 
at the narrows of New river. Falling back before Gen. 
George Crook he collected a force at Cloyd s mountain, 
where a gallant fight was made, on May gth. In the heat 
of the conflict General Jenkins fell, seriously wounded, 
and was captured and paroled by the enemy. A Federal 
surgeon amputated his arm at the shoulder, but he was 
unable to withstand the shock and died soon afterward. 

Brigadier-General John McCausland, one of the most 
conspicuous figures in the warfare in the valley of the 
Shenandoah and on the borders of Virginia, held important 
Confederate commands, and gained a national reputation 
as a brilliant leader and persistent fighter. He is the 
son of John McCausland, a native of county Tyrone, 
Ireland, who came to America when about twenty-one 
years of age, and first made his home at Lynchburg, with 
David Kyle, whose daughter Harriet he subsequently 
married. He became a prominent merchant and finally 
resided at St. Louis, where he rendered valuable service 
as commissioner of taxation. His son, John McCausland, 
was born at St. Louis, September 13, 1837, and in 1849 
went with his brother to Point Pleasant, Mason county, 
where he received a preparatory education. He was 
graduated with first honors in the class of 1857 at the 
Virginia military institute, and subsequently acted as 


assistant professor in that institution until 1861. Upon 
the secession of Virginia he organized the famous Rock- 
bridge artillery, of which he was elected commander ; but 
leaving Dr. Pendleton in charge of that company, he 
made his headquarters at Charleston, in the Kanawha 
valley, under commission from Governor Letcher, with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel, for the organization of 
troops in the military department of Western Virginia. 
He gathered about 6,000 men for the commands of Gen 
erals Wise and Floyd, who subsequently operated in that 
region, and formed the Thirty-sixth regiment, Virginia 
infantry, of which he took command, with a commission, 
as colonel. This regiment, made up of the best blood of 
the western Virginia counties, was distinguished under 
his leadership in the campaign of Floyd s brigade in 
West Virginia, and in the latter part of 1861 moved to 
Bowling Green, Ky., to unite with the army of Gen. 
Albert Sidney Johnston. At Fort Donelson, Colonel 
McCausland commanded a brigade of Floyd s division, 
and after bearing a conspicuous part in the gallant and 
really successful battle before the fort, brought away his 
Virginians before the surrender. After reorganizing at 
Nashville, he remained at Chattanooga with his com 
mand until after the battle of Shiloh, when he moved to 
Wytheville, Va. During 1862 and 1863 he was engaged 
in the campaigns in southwestern and western Virginia 
and the Shenandoah valley, under Generals Loring, 
Echols and Sam Jones, taking a conspicuous part in the 
battle at Charleston, September, 1862. Early in May, 
1864, he was ordered by Gen. A. G. Jenkins to move his 
brigade from Dublin to meet the Federal force advanc 
ing under General Crook from the Kanawha valley. He 
took position on Cloyd s farm, where he was reinforced 
by General Jenkins, and attacked by the enemy May 
9th. After several hours fighting, Jenkins was mortally 
wounded and the Confederate line was broken by the 
superior strength of the enemy. Colonel McCausland 


assumed command and made a gallant fight, forming two 
new lines successively, and finally retired in good order, 
repulsing the attacks of the Federal cavalry, and carry 
ing with him 200 prisoners. In this battle the Federals 
outnumbered the Confederates three to one. By his sub 
sequent active movements, General McCausland delayed 
the contemplated juncture of Crook and Hunter and ren 
dered the Federal movement upon Dublin a practical 
failure. He was immediately promoted brigadier-gen 
eral and assigned to the command of Jenkins cavalry bri 
gade. After the battle at Port Republic, June 5th, he 
stubbornly contested the advance of the Federals under 
Hunter and Crook, all the way to Lynchburg, his com 
mand of about i, 800 men being the only organized force 
in the front of the enemy. His tenacious contest saved 
the city, and in recognition of his services the citizens 
presented him an address of congratulation, accompanied 
by a handsome cavalry officer s outfit, horse, sword and 
spurs. Early arrived from Cold Harbor in time to relieve 
McCausland from the pressure of the Federal troops, 
and McCausland and his troopers were soon upon their 
heels, intercepting Himter at Falling Rock, and captur 
ing his artillery and wagon train. Sweeping on down 
the valley, he was a conspicuous figure in the July raid 
through Maryland, levying $25,000 tribute from Hagers- 
town, winning a handsome cavalry fight at Frederick City, 
and made the first attack at the ford of the Monocacy 
across which Gordon moved to strike the Federal flank 
at the defeat of Wallace. Joining in the demonstration 
against Washington, D. C., the daring commander 
actually penetrated into the town of Georgetown, but 
was compelled to retire before the Federal reinforce 
ments. He returned with Early s army to the Shenan- 
doah valley, and soon afterward was ordered to make a 
raid upon Chambersburg, Pa. , and destroy it in retalia 
tion for the destruction which attended the operations 
of the Federals in the valley. This duty he faithfully 

W Val8 


performed. In command of a brigade of Lomax s cav 
alry division he participated in the Valley campaign 
against Sheridan, and subsequently, attached to Rosser s 
division, fought before Petersburg, made a gallant strug 
gle at the decisive battle of Five Forks, during the 
retreat was engaged in continuous fighting, and finally 
cutting his way through the Federal lines at Appomat- 
tox, brought a number of his men to Lynchburg, where 
he once more saved the city from rapine by repressing 
the efforts of the stragglers that infested the suburbs. 
After the close of hostilities he spent a year or two in 
Europe and Mexico, and then returned to Mason county, 
where he has ever since resided in quiet upon his farm at 
Grimm s landing. 


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